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  • Johansson, Åsa Maria
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Lindegren-Österholm, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Handlingsplaner i matematik: Innebörd och Operationalisering av Likvärdighet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish school as well as internationally, the concept of equity has in recent decades gained a prominent position. At the same time, the Swedish school has become municipalized and developed to become goal- and result driven, and one way of governing the results is by the development of various action plans. The purpose of this study, based on the above, has been to investigate equity in different action plans in mathematics focusing meaning and operationalization. With the help of critical discourse analysis (CDA), text from five different plans of action in mathematics has been examined. The result constructed three discourses of equity where equity is described and operationalized; equity as Achievement, equity as Access and equity as Power and Identity. As CDA states, by looking at the discourses in the social practice in which they operate and by realizing how power-relations shapes assumptions and actions around equity in a totality of politics, ideologies, pedagogy and economic and political strategies, changes can be achieved. In this way, the mathematical action plans can thus play a crucial role of influencing the view of equity as concept and meaning. By the writing of action plans, special education is given the opportunity to shape the way of looking at equity, but also how it could be operationalized in practice in order to get benefits in the society in the long run, and to increase the well-being of the individual.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-13 09:15 Newton, Växjö
    Ivanenko, Yevhen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering.
    Optimization and Physical Bounds for Passive and Non-passive Systems2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical bounds in electromagnetic field theory have been of interest for more than a decade. Considering electromagnetic structures from the system theory perspective, as systems satisfying linearity, time-invariance, causality and passivity, it is possible to characterize their transfer functions via Herglotz functions. Herglotz functions are useful in modeling of passive systems with applications in mathematical physics, engineering, and modeling of wave phenomena in materials and scattering. Physical bounds on passive systems can be derived in the form of sum rules, which are based on low- and high-frequency asymptotics of the corresponding Herglotz functions. These bounds provide an insight into factors limiting the performance of a given system, as well as the knowledge about possibilities to improve a desired system from a design point of view. However, the asymptotics of the Herglotz functions do not always exist for a given system, and thus a new method for determination of physical bounds is required. In Papers I–II of this thesis, a rigorous mathematical framework for a convex optimization approach based on general weighted Lp-norms, 1≤p≤∞, is introduced. The developed framework is used to approximate a desired system response, and to determine an optimal performance in realization of a system satisfying the target requirement. The approximation is carried out using Herglotz functions, B-splines, and convex optimization. 

    Papers III–IV of this thesis concern modeling and determination of optimal performance bounds for causal, but not passive systems. To model them, a new class of functions, the quasi-Herglotz functions, is introduced. The new functions are defined as differences of two Herglotz functions and preserve the majority of the properties of Herglotz functions useful for the mathematical framework based on convex optimization. We consider modeling of gain media with desired properties as a causal system, which can be active over certain frequencies or  frequency intervals.  Here, sum rules can also be used under certain assumptions.

    In Papers V–VII of this thesis, the optical theorem for scatterers immersed in lossy media is revisited. Two versions of the optical theorem are derived: one based on internal equivalent currents and the other based on external fields in terms of a T-matrix formalism, respectively. The theorems are exploited to derive fundamental bounds on absorption by using elementary optimization techniques. The theory has a potential impact in applications where the surrounding losses cannot be neglected, e.g., in medicine, plasmonic photothermal therapy, radio frequency absorption of gold nanoparticle suspensions, etc.  In addition to this, a new method for detection of electrophoretic resonances in a material with Drude-type of dispersion, which is placed in a straight waveguide, is proposed.

  • Alzahar, Abeer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Tariq, Sarah
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Adopting CS towards International Hotels' B2B customers in international markets: A Qualitative study in B2B context2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    As mentioned by the hoteliers in our study, the Saudi Arabian markets are not in a full usage or application of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). There have been several reviews formed by the United Nation Development Program show the efforts done by the different sectors of the country to reach the 2030 Agenda which aim for a sustainable development. Sustainability became a requirement for any business to start in the region. CS has changed the way Saudi hotels market are conducting their business a few years ago. Besides that, doing business online has also been an important factor of this change. In many cases, being sustainable might be very costly to apply to many kinds of businesses, and for that reason companies must plan well. So, the companies should take into consideration several factors that might affect their relation with their B2B customers. 

    Problem Discussion:

    There has been a huge pressure from customers and the public on companies to perform their business in an environmentally sustainable way. The increased number of hotels which led to higher competition in the region causing the companies in the hotels industry to carefully manage their B2B relationship. Second is the obligatory laws for companies to apply CS actions. Sustainable behaviors have today grown to become a compulsion to practice; however, these actions are not limited to the B2C sector of a business, CS has become a vital part of marketing strategies for business within B2B markets. In spite CS has proven to be advantageous to be practiced with B2B customers, the research on the subject has been very limited. The research and studies towards CS and CSR have been limited to B2C markets Due to the lack of enough research on the subject of being sustainability and its relationship to B2B customers, this paper will dig deep to fill this gap.

    Purpose: 

    The aim of this research paper is to uncover the hotels CS and CSR strategies that hoteliers’ practice with their B2B customers. While also considering the aspect of CS in markets where these hotels are gradually indulging into it, such as the Saudi Arabian Market. This research paper’s goal is to analyze and study different approaches for hoteliers that could be beneficial for them focused towards their business customer and guide them to gain competitive advantage and turn it into a profitable business decision through building and strengthening their relationships with their B2B customers.

     

     

     

    Research Question: 

     

    1.  What are the current CS strategies practiced by international five-star hotel chains situated in Saudi Arabia?

     

    2.     How can these hotel’s CS strategies be developed and adopted to positively influence and strengthen its relationship with their B2B customers internationally?  

     

    Methodology:

    The authors of this study have been using qualitative method as their research approach which gave them the way in order to deeply understand the application of CS actions and its relation with the pricing strategies chosen by the companies in the hotel industry. The theory was collected from different database, and the empirical data was collected from 9 interviews within 3 hotels. The data collected was from high ranked journals. As for the type of interviews, it was semi-structured interviews. The authors used open questions to give a space to the interviewees to discuss in depth the topic of the question. 

    Conclusion:

    This study shows that within the hotel industry social sustainability dimension of CS and instrumental theories of CSR, these hotels could develop and strengthen their relationships with their B2B customers as well as suppliers. Within the academic literature CS has been categorized into three sections; environment, that actions to sustain the planet, social, that is working for the welfare of the people and lastly economical that is the financial benefits gained from CS activities. In this study, the authors concluded that the international five-star hotel chains residing within Saudi Arabia have not been actively working toward their CS and CSR behaviors. 

  • Malic, Diana
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Apoteket i förändring: en studie om farmaceuters yrkesroll i en konkurrensutsatt marknad2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pharmacy market has been state regulated for many years.

    In early 21st century, the Swedish government made a proposal to deregulate the pharmacy market in order to make a reform that would make privatization of pharmacies a possibility. The reason behind this change of the pharmacy market from state perspective was to create better service for the public. The Swedish government hoped that the change would result in increasing service selection, increased accessibility and a lower cost of non-prescription and prescription medicine. Private operators need approval from the Swedish Health Department before they can pursue their own establishment. When deregulation was finalized, many private operators opened privately owned pharmacies. The purpose of this study is to create insight on how the organizational change has evolved since the deregulation of the pharmacy market. It is also important to find out how the organizational change of the pharmacy market has affected the framework of pharmacists as an occupation. The perception of Pharmacist’ labour and changes on the profession as a whole is also studied. The study has been conducted using qualitative method to collect empirical data. Interviews have been made by conducting structured interviews with six local pharmacists. The empirical data has been analyzed by using the theory of professions. The theories of profession is used to explain pharmacists as a professions. In addition to organizational change, the study reviews pharmacist perspective, interpretation and valuation of their everyday life on the work arena. The pharmacists reveal several changes in their work life. Today they have bigger opportunities to choose employer, where before it was only one, today there are a lot of private pharmacies. That means they also can decide working hours because all the pharmacies have different working hours. Their perspectives are formulated in ways that show new routines and way of work. Due to the free market and competition between pharmacies, focus has shifted towards increased sale perspective. Pharmacist acknowledge that even though they are a profession, they feel that they have a higher workload, often less time with clients and sense of being a sales person.

     

  • Gunnarsson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Miller, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att ge amningsstöd på barnavårdscentralen: En intervjustudie om distriktssköterskans erfarenhet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Even if research show that breastfeeding has positive health effects the breast feeding rates are declining. Many factors influence the mothers’ choice in breastfeeding. The District Nurses role at the child health care center is to support parents in parenthood to promote all around healthy development for the child. 

    Aim: The aim of the study was to illuminate the District Nurses experience of giving breastfeeding support at the child health care center. 

    Method: A qualitative method with an inductive approach was used for the study. The data collection was conducted through semi-structured interviews with ten District Nurses at the child health center. A qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the gathered material. 

    Findings: The key findings for the study was that many aspects had an impact on the mothers’ choice to breastfeed. Breastfeeding support was important to establish breastfeeding because with breastfeeding challenges arose for the mother. There were also challenges for the District Nurse in the shape of lack of time, need of knowledge and the importance in being perceptive of the mothers needs. 

    Conclusion: The conclusion shows that breastfeeding is complicated and the mother doesn’t always have a reality-based image of breastfeeding. The District Nurse has a key role in supporting the mother to breastfeed successfully. Lack of time, inconclusive breastfeeding advice and lack of continuous education created challenges to give breastfeeding support for the District Nurse. 

  • Berglund, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Andersson, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att mötas i livets slut: Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av palliativ vård för unga vuxna inom hemsjukvården - en intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In home health care has the number of patients under 65 years increased significantly in recent years in Sweden. In hospitalization many nurses see difficulties in caring for these young dying patients, but a literature search has revealed that there is a lack of research on how nurses in home health care experience this.

    Aim: The purpose was to illuminate nurses' experiences of caring for young adults at the end of their lives in home health care.

    Method: The study was designed according to a qualitative research method using a semi-structured interview technique. The study participants consisted of legitimate nurses with at least one year of experience working in the home health care and who had cared for patients at palliative stage in the 18-45 age group in home health care.

    Result: The content analysis resulted in three main categories and thirteen subcategories. The main categories were The meaning and attitude of the caregiver relationship, Emotions of varying nature and Facilitating means at the meeting. The nurses could, among other things, relate a great deal to their own lives and felt that caregiving for the patients relatives was a major part in the care for young adults at the end of their lives. Working with care that affects contributed to an increased need for processing the nurses' own feelings during the course of care.

    Conclusion: The study's result showed that the nurses experienced caring for young adults at the end of their lives was affected by being able to relate much of the patient's situation to their own lives. This provided to a deeper understanding of the patient's and the relatives suffering. When caring for young adults, the nurses experienced the patient and their relatives very involved in the care, which was seen as a great asset but also resulted in an increased need for family care. However, the support given to the relatives by the nurses disappears suddenly when the patient dies. This can lead to the positive feeling of caring for their relatives perishing and it is therefore of great importance with continued professional support from home health care to relatives even after the patient has died. It could also be concluded that nurses 'experience was a contributing factor in meeting patients' needs at the end of their lives. The study finally showed the need for reflection in connection with and after the care of younger palliative adults for extended treatment for the nurses at and after the care of this patient group.

  • Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Sjölander, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Blockmodellen: En designstudie om att utveckla undervisningen för elever i matematiksvårigheter2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är ett examensarbete inom speciallärarprogrammet riktat mot matematikutveckling. Utifrån författarnas egna erfarenheter av matematikundervisning, identifierades ett problem i att elever ofta har svårt med matematisk problemlösning i textuppgifter. Detta gäller i synnerhet elever som befinner sig i matematiksvårigheter. En metod som i tidigare forskning har visat ge positiva resultat på matematisk problemlösning i textuppgifter är arbete med Blockmodellen. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats med syfte att skapa förståelse för hur blockmodellen kan användas för att främja elevernas problemlösningsförmåga i textuppgifter, samt genom denna förståelse utveckla undervisningen för elever i matematiksvårigheter.

    Deltagarna i studien var sex elever i årskurs fem, som samtliga befann sig i matematiksvårigheter. För att uppnå resultat som är direkt användbara i undervisningen valdes metoden designresearch där tre lektionstillfällen med Blockmodellen dokumenterades genom videoobservation, ljudupptagning och deltagande observation.

    Till studien valdes ett konceptuellt ramverk som bygger på flera erkända forskares teorier, bl a Vygotsky, Bruner, Skemp och Pòlya. Dessa teorier användes i analysen inför varje lektionstillfälle för att utveckla de designprinciper som är studiens resultat.

  • Karlsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Skalberg, Chatarina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Delaktighet och hälsa: -för integrerade grundsärskoleelever i ämnet idrott och hälsa2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka hur grundskolans idrottslärare tolkar och skapar förutsättningar för delaktighet och hälsa i ämnet idrott och hälsa för integrerade grundsärskoleelever. Våra frågeställningar har varit hur grundskolans idrottslärare definierar begreppen delaktighet och hälsa och om deras förståelse av begreppen påverkar hur de skapar förutsättningar för delaktighet i hälsofrämjande aktiviteter.   Studien bygger på kvalitativa intervjuer med fem olika respondenter som alla har erfarenhet av att undervisa integrerad grundsärskoleelev. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i studien har varit Aaron Antonovskys salutogenetiska perspektiv som innefattar begreppet KASAM - känslan av sammanhang.  Resultatet av studien visar att delaktighet och hälsa är två komplexa begrepp som beroende på vad idrottslärarna tolkar in i begreppen påverkar hur de skapar förutsättningar för delaktighet i de hälsofrämjande aktiviteterna i ämnet idrott och hälsa.   Studien visar att idrottslärarna försöker arbeta främjande med både delaktighet och hälsa men att vissa förutsättningar saknas. Att skolan bör lyfta sitt dubbla uppdrag mer för att synliggöra begreppen delaktighet och hälsa ur ett salutogent perspektiv. Att idrottslärarna har ett salutogent synsätt på begreppen delaktighet och hälsa, men att det patogena synsättet och mediedebattens övergripande hälsofrågor är i fokus när de beskriver begreppen delaktighet och hälsa i sin undervisning.           

  • Petersson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Finns det allmänna och/eller pedagogiska skillnader mellan manliga och kvinnliga lärare?: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ undersökning av gymnasieelever i och utan behov av särskilt stöd2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie hade som mål att undersöka, med hjälp av 111 slumpmässigt utvalda svenska gymnasieelever genom användandet av en enkät och individuella intervjuer, huruvida det kan tänkas existera gemensamma tankegångar angående allmänna och/eller pedagogiska könsskillnader mellan för- och/eller grundskolelärare. Om så är fallet, skulle dessa potentiella könsskillnader kunna påverka elevers studiemotivation och/eller studieresultat negativt? Tidigare forskning hävdar det. Gymnasieelever både i och utan behov av särskilt stöd blev tillfrågade i enkäten men endast elever i behov av särskilt stöd intervjuades. Anledningen till detta var för att se om den höga majoriteten av kvinnliga specialpedagoger och speciallärare i Sverige, vilket är 93% (Göransson, Lindqvist, Klang, Magnusson & Nilholm, 2015), möjligtvis skulle kunna påverka elevernas studiemotivation och/eller studieresultat negativt, och då framförallt pojkar. Enligt socialt konstruerade normer och värderingar gällande kön och genus lär vi oss redan i barndomen att män och kvinnor är annorlunda på olika sätt och vis (Butler, 1990). Denna studie strävade efter att ta reda på huruvida dagens ungdomar och snart arbetsföra vuxna delade några av dessa stereotypiska synsätt på kön och genus genom att låta dem se tillbaka på sina egna, tidigare lärare på för- och/eller grundskolenivå. Resultatet visar att ett fåtal gymnasieelever skulle kunna ha stereotypiska tankar gällande könsskillnader på sina tidigare och nuvarande lärare men den stora majoriteten av gymnasieeleverna menar att de inte dömer en lärare baserat på dess kön utan hävdar istället att de avgörande faktorerna är lärarnas personlighet och pedagogiska lämplighet. 

  • Klingestam, Madelaine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Får du rätt stöd lille vän?: En kvantitativ och kvalitativ studie av insatser, gällande läs- och skrivsvårigheter, i åtgärdsprogram2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans uppdrag ingår att verka utjämnande för att bereda alla elever samma möjligheter att lyckas, med studier och i livet. Studiens syfte var att undersöka hur insatser i åtgärdprogram för elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter är utformade; huruvida dessa insatser är evidensbaserade eller ej. Underlaget till studien består av åtgärdsprogram tillhörande elever från två avgångsår i årskurs 9 under deras senare tid på mellanstadiet och hela högstadietiden. Metoder som använts i studien är både den kvantitativa och den kvalitativa. Resultatet visar att insatser gjorda under tiden som eleven tillhör mellanstadiets organisation tenderar till att vara mer främjande för läs- och skrivutvecklingen. Under högstadietiden handlar insatserna mer om att stödja skolsituationen och handlar inte aktivt om att främja läs- och skrivutvecklingen. Vad gäller evidensbaserade insatser skedde dessa under tiden på mellanstadiet. Endast ett fåtal av åtgärdsprogrammen utvärderades och avslutades. För att höja kvalitén på insatser och upprättade åtgärdsprogram behövs tydligare riktlinjer från Skolverket. Arbetet med checklistor, liknande de som används inom sjukvården, kan vara ett sätt att ytterligare höja kvalitén på arbetet. Likaså att lärare ges tid och möjlighet att följa aktuell forskning för att kunna använda sig av evidensbaserade insatser.

  • Hansen, Jill
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Jakobsen, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    De osynliga flickorna: En kvalitativ studie av hur vetenskaplig kunskap om flickors ADHD implementeras i den pedagogiska praktiken2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande studie har vi, utifrån en kvalitativ ansats där vi använt implementeringsteori som analysinstrument, studerat hur vetenskaplig kunskap implementeras i pedagogisk praktik med utgångspunkt från flickor med ADHD. Vi har studerat skolans styrkedja i en mindre kommun i Sverige. I studien har vi gjort nedslag i såväl den övre nivån; den så kallade formuleringsarenan, som den lägre nivån; den så kallade realiseringsarenan. Flickor med ADHD är en grupp som enligt forskningen generellt sett upptäcks senare än pojkar med ADHD. Anledningen till detta är att flickor uppvisar andra symptom än pojkar. Konsekvensen av detta är att flickor med ADHD till viss del blir en osynlig grupp i skolan, och får hjälp och stöd först senare i livet. Vi har studerat styrkedjan i kommunen för att se hur olika aktörer arbetar med att föra in vetenskaplig kunskap med utgångspunkt från flickors ADHD i skolan. Då det finns forskning och kunskap kring hur ADHD manifesterar sig hos både flickor och pojkar, tror vi att en viktig del i att kunna erbjuda reellt stöd handlar om att implementera den kunskap som redan finns. Vår studie visar att flickor är svåra att upptäcka eftersom uppfattningen om ADHD utgår från en pojknorm. Vi ser också att vetenskaplig kunskap om flickors ADHD har svårt att få genomslag i organisationen, samt att aktörerna i styrkedjan, beroende på om de befinner sig i formulerings- eller realiseringsarenan, uppfattar visionen om ett tillgängligt lärande och möjligheten att implementera den på olika sätt. Vi kan se att det bedrivs ett målinriktat arbete i kommunen utifrån visionen om ett tillgängligt lärande, och att det är av betydelse hur denna vision förmedlas och uppfattas i styrkedjan. Betydelsefullt är att det finns ett inslag av både -down och bottom-up-perspektiv mellan styrkedjans formulerings- och realiseringsarena.

     

  • Svensson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Holmgren, Charlotta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Livsstilsförändring vid prediabetes- vuxna patienters erfarenhet - en intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prediabetes is strongly related to an unhealthy lifestyle and it is a growing public health problem. It is of great importance to start a lifestyle change at an early stage to prevent type 2 diabetes. The primary care nurse ́s mission is to support patients with prediabetes to a lifestyle change.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to describe experiences of lifestyle changes on adult patients with prediabetes.

    Method: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. Adult persons with prediabetes were interviewed. The interviews were analyzed with a qualitative manifest content analysis.

    Results: Four main categories and ten subcategories were identified from the analysis. The main categories were consisted of: The importance in personal health in lifestyle change, which described the impact of the physical and mental health in lifestyle change. The importance of self- motivation, the main motivation to implement lifestyle change was the concern of developing type 2 diabetes. To succeed with the lifestyle change, the patients needed to create new routines and habits. The importance of healthcare relationship, emphasising the need for support from the nurse. The relationship with the nurse and the receiving of the patients was of high significance to succeed with the lifestyle changes. The impact of the surrounding, family and friends were described to have booth a positive and a negative impact on the implementation in lifestyle change.

    Conclusion: The patients with prediabetes had the insight that they needed to make a lifestyle change. Despite reaching the insight, the patients found it difficult to implement and sustain the lifestyle change. The nurses role and supportive functions were of great significance for facilitating a lifestyle change.

  • Höglund, Annica
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Söderström, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Elever med hörselnedsättning: - en kvalitativ studie kring hur elever med hörselnedsättning kan uppleva och påverkas av lärmiljön2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att utifrån ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv belysa hur några elever med hörselnedsättning upplever sin situation och hur lärmiljöer kan påverka inlärning. Vårt intresse inriktar sig mot delaktighet, framgångsfaktorer, arbetsro, trygghet, socialisation och ett salutogent förhållningssätt men också vilken roll det fysiska rummet med den tekniska utrustningen utgör. För att undersöka detta har tre intervjuer genomförts ur ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv. Två intervjuer sett ur elevperspektiv och en intervju med en hörselpedagog. Utifrån ett relationellt perspektiv har intervjuerna analyserats med stöd av Vygotskijs och Antonovskijs tankar med inriktning mot goda lärmiljöer generellt och hur elever med hörselnedsättning kan känna delaktighet ur ett specialpedagogiskt perspektiv. Analysen visar att tre temaområden, fysiska rummet, teknisk utrustning och delaktighet är återkommande som framgångsfaktorer för elever med hörselnedsättning. Vi ser också att respondenternas upplevelser bekräftas av hörselpedagogen som har mångårig erfarenhet av att främja anpassade lärmiljöer för elever med hörselnedsättning. I diskussionen lyfter vi tankar om hur vår studie kan gynna fler elever ur ett salutogent perspektiv. Vi vill framförallt framhålla ljudmiljön som den mest betydelsefulla framgångsfaktorn för att skapa en god lärmiljö för alla elever, men i synnerhet för elever med hörselnedsättning. Studien pekar också på att pedagogens kunskap om en hörselnedsättnings konsekvenser och förhållningssätt är avgörande för elevens möjligheter för lärande och socialt mående. Med stöd av intervjuer, forskning och litteratur vill vi hävda att den fysiska miljön behöver anpassas för att kompensera för elevens behov, vilket även hörselpedagogen och respondenterna menar.

    Eleverna i studien uttrycker att det är viktigt att värna om individens integritet. De vill känna sig delaktiga i vad som informeras kring deras hörselnedsättning, vilket hörselpedagogen betonar blir allt viktigare ju äldre eleven blir. Eleven är själv expert på sin situation och en betydande framgångsfaktor är att ha en dialog med eleven.

  • Jansson, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Sekayise, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Singaporemodellen: -en inkluderande modell?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study departs from the Singapore model's teaching method in a Swedish context in relation to the term “A school for all”, focusing on the inclusion of all students in mathematics education. The purpose of the study was to use video observations to examine the Singapore model's inclusive approach in practice based on the three concepts of inclusion: dynamic inclusion, content inclusion and participatory inclusion.

    The study departed from three research questions: What does the organisation of teaching look like from an inclusion perspective in mathematics lessons based on the Singapore model? How is the mathematical content represented and processed from an inclusion perspective in mathematics lessons based on the Singapore model? What does participation look like from an inclusion perspective in mathematics lessons based on the Singapore model?

    The study begins with an account of the term “A school for all”, followed by a general description of the concept of inclusion. This is followed by a description of various aspects of inclusion in mathematics education and a description of the Singapore model. Furthermore, cultural differences between Singapore and the western world are described and discussed.

    The observations included three school classes in grades 1-3. Based on the observations, the study found that the Singapore model places great importance in verbal teaching with the support of concrete and visual presentations. The study concludes that the Singapore model can be assumed from the inclusion of all students in mathematics education, but that further solutions outside the framework of the Singapore model may be needed in order to meet the needs of all students. Another conclusion is that the teacher's ability to capture students' interest plays a significant role for the Singapore model as an inclusive model.

  • Yngvesson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Sundahl, Patricia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Fallenhet för matematik: Hur identifieras och stimuleras eleverna?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa studiens utgångspunkt är att ta reda på hur pedagoger i dagens skola uppmärksammar och ger stimulans till elever med fallenhet för matematik under de tre första skolåren. Syftet är att redogöra för pedagogers beskrivningar om hur de identifierar och stimulerar dessa elever. Studien genomfördes i form av en webbenkät med öppna frågor och riktade sig till pedagoger som undervisar i matematik i årskurs 1-3. I den tidigare forskningen kring särskild begåvning framkommer det att elever med fallenhet i teoretiska ämnen är svåra att upptäcka och identifiera. Det framkommer även att det finns olika sätt att definiera dessa elever såsom högpresterande, särbegåvade och elever med särskild matematisk förmåga. I resultatet kommer det fram att pedagogernas definitioner av fallenhet nästintill uteslutande kan kopplas till vad som kännetecknar en högpresterande elev. Likaså framkommer det att pedagogerna kan redogöra för hur de utmanar de identifierade eleverna i matematikundervisningen men ändå är det deras största utmaning att genomföra det i önskad utsträckning på grund av deras upplevda tidsbrist. Studiens resultat visar att såväl ändring i skollagen, tidigare forskning och stödmaterial som har gjorts kring elever med fallenhet inte har nått fullt ut till alla pedagoger i dagens skola. Slutsatsen är att myten ”duktiga elever klarar sig själva” till viss del lever kvar i dagens klassrum i Sverige.

  • Bjärterot Lundqvist, Christel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Arbetsrelaterad stress hos sjuksköterskor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject: Stressrelated illness is highlighted as a social problem in public debates. According to reports, it has been found that there is considerably greater risk to becoming ill from stress on female-dominated workplaces such as in healthcare. As this problem continues to increase, this has created an interest to investigate what one experiences creating occupational stress and whether it distinguishes between male or female nurses.

    Aim: The purpose of the study is to create an understanding of how female and male nurses experience stressrelated illness at their workplace.

    Method: This study was conducted through interviews of five male and five female nurses at the same emergency care clinic. The purpose of the choice of a qualitative method is to have the opportunity to deepen the information’s answers.

    Theory: Based on previous research, a model was established in studies of stress at work. This model is called job demands, control and support and was developed by Karasek, Theorell and Johnson. Their theory says that if there is a balance between demands and control negative stress is not experienced as strongly. But if there is no balance between demand and control, social support at work can weigh up some. In order to compare differences between men and women, gender is a social structure and not just gender of male/female. The social structure is multidimensional where for example identity, work, power and personal qualities are included.

    Conclusion: The summary of my conclusions is that, according to these respondents, there are some differences between men and women. If they experience demands, control and support in their work, they usually do not experience a work-related stress regardless of gender. But the difference is that the factors that they perceive as important for feeling a balance are not the same whether it is a woman or a man.

  • Malo, Pilar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    4CHANGE2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    4CHANGE Magazine is a project greatly inspired by the people actively trying to put their skills and knowledge into creating a better future; grounded on the understanding that change is multidisciplinary; acknowledging that change is now more necessary than ever; and passion to delivering a fair portray of the people featured. This written report visualizes the research, theoretical framing and editing path of my independent thesis project. This assignment began as an intended printed editorial about people that work with/for change, it then shortly evolved into trying to create a thorough analysis about systems and design; and concludes as a collection of interviews and illustrations in an online magazine app format about people working with/for change. The following research is not only about the people interviewed but also about editorial typography, layout, and grid.

  • Lindén, Emelie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eklund, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Samarbetet mellan sjuksköterskan och omvårdnadspersonalen i hemsjukvården: En intervjustudie om sjuksköterskors erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nurses and home help personnel works together in the home healthcare. The nurse is the leader of the daily work and delegates tasks and supervises the home help personnel. The collaboration between the nurse and the home help personnel is important in creating patient-safe care. However, there is a lack of research that shows what the collaboration between the nurse and the home help personnel looks like in home health care.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to examine what nurses in home health care have for experiences of cooperate with home help personnel.

    Method: Qualitative method with inductive approach. Ten semi-structured interviews where conducted and analyzed through qulitative content analysis.

    Result: The analysis resulted in four main categories and nine subcategories. The first main category deals with how the organisation and it’s structure affect the collaboration between the nurse and the home help personnel. The second main category is about differences in the home help personnel knowledge and experience and how it affects collaboration and patient-safety. The third main category discribes the nurses experience of their leadership role and how it is seen as unclear and compex. The fourth and last main category discribes the nurses experience of written and verbal information transfer and the shortcomings that exist.

    Conclusions: The information transfer increased between the nurse and the home help personnel when they had daily meetings. Nurses found that their was a lack of patient-safety when the collaboration with the home help personnels did not work. The result was linked to system theory. All parts of the system affected eachother and each part was important for a functioning home health care.

  • Hulthén, Lis-Britt
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Marie, Nilsson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att vårda en närstående med demenssjukdom: Anhörigas upplevelser - en intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dementia is often called the illness of relatives because the whole family is affected and they are forced to take on new roles and adapt to a new life situation. More than half of people with dementia live in ordinary living, many with a relative. 

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to elucidate relatives' experiences of caring for a relative with dementia in the home.

    Method: The study was conducted with a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews. Eight relatives attended, of which one man and seven women who cared for a relative with dementia in the home participated. The material was analyzed based on a qualitative content analysis.

    Outcome: Relatives saw it as a matter of course to take care of their relatives after being affected by dementia. The interviewees described feelings of loyalty, duty, and love and that their relationship was still characterized by closeness and concern for each other. At the same time, the lives of the relatives who were now facing new difficulties and challenges changed. The study's results eventuated in two main categories: relating to a new life situation and support and strategies, with five subcategories: changing roles, loss of one's life partner, deteriorating health and quality of life, support from the surroundings and own resources.

    Conclusion: The experience of caring for a close relative with dementia had both positive and negative aspects. They were cared for in love and loyalty. At the same time, many relatives experienced a loss and a feeling of being alone even though the loved one remained alive. In order to cope with their everyday lives, different support and strategies were important.

  • Joel, Gräsman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Effekten av gödsling på björkars (Betula pendula) specifika bladarea (SLA) och tillväxt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number one highest growth-limiting factor in Swedish forests is nitrogen, because of that fertilization often gives a significant growth increase, wherever you are in Sweden. Specific leaf area (SLA) can be used as a standard measurement of how much resources a tre has to use to build up light absorbing leaf area of needles/leaves. Since there is a strong linear relationship between tree growth and leaf area, there should also be a clear correlation between each leaf area of single trees and its diameter, basal area and volume growth (Xiao, 2005).The datamaterial for the study was collected at the forest estate, Toftaholm, near Ljungby in Kronoberg County (57 ° 0´N; 14 ° 3`E). Data were collected from birches growing in both in fertilized and unfertilized young stands of Birch during the growing season of 2018. The biomass sampling occured in May, July and August. At each occasion, samples were taken from 40 birches (a total of 120 samples were collected).The average value of SLA for all samples on the fertilized treatment was 17.33 m² / kg and 16.41 m² / kg for the non-fertilized treatment (Figure 4). The significance analysis obtained a p-value of 0.019 (Table 2), which confirms that there is a significant difference between the fertilized and the unfertilized treatment.In the significance analysis, it could be concluded that with a 95% probability, there is a significant difference between the comparison of all samples from the fertilized (G) and non-fertilized (OG) treatment.

  • Wallner, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Thörnblad, Ann-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Universal design for learning: En studie av lärares implementering och erfarenheter av UDL i klassrummet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på hur lärare upplever att arbeta enligt modellen Universal Design for Learning och hur det blir synligt i deras klassrum. Vi vill utforska vilka förtjänster och fallgropar lärarna kan se med UDL som modell för en tillgängliggörande lärmiljö som gynnar elever med olika förutsättningar, däribland elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter. I studien nämns också hur arbetet med UDL påverkar tankesättet för lärare och på vilket sätt deras arbete förändrats i och med UDL.

    Studien är en kvalitativ undersökning. Den utgår ifrån sex intervjuer med erfarna lärare som associeras och arbetar med metoden UDL för tillgängliggörande av lärmiljö i sitt arbete.

    Resultatet visar att alla de lärare som deltagit i undersökningen över lag anser att UDL är en fungerande väg till tillgänglig lärmiljö. Lärarna menar att ramverket i UDL uppmanar till engagemang, tydliga målbilder, strukturer, olika representationsformer och ett elevanpassat uttrycksätt och att detta gynnar elever med olika förutsättningar och bakgrund. Studien kan påvisa att lärarna upplever många förtjänster med modellen men också mer utmanande punkter som man behöver vara medveten om och arbeta kring. En av dessa utmanande punkter är formen för lästräning med elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter.

    Studiens resultat analyseras och diskuteras med basen i ett relationellt perspektiv samt med utgångspunkt i tidigare forskning om inkluderande lärmiljöer och UDL.

  • Lindvall, Pernilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Extra anpassningar i förskolan: en studie om förskollärares uppfattning av innebörd och utförande2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur förskollärare uppfattar extra anpassningars innebörd och utförande i förskolan. Syftet är att undersöka i vilken mån, och på vilket sätt, extra anpassningar genomförs i förskolan samt hur arbetet sammankopplas med det vardagliga specialpedagogiska arbetet där. I studien betraktas extra anpassningar utifrån ett inkluderingsperspektiv och tanken om alla barns rätt till en likvärdig och tillgänglig förskola. Undersökningen söker svar på vilken betydelse extra anpassningar har för det särskilda stödets utformning samt om det påverkar verksamhetens kvalitet och likvärdighet. För att få en inblick i hur extra anpassningar uppfattas, har en kvalitativ metod använts i form av intervjuer. Urvalsgruppen består av verksamma förskollärare. Resultatet visar att förskollärarna anser att extra anpassningar har en betydande roll både för det vardagliga och för det specialpedagogiska arbetet i förskolan. Genom noggrann dokumentation och utvärdering av extra anpassningar blir förskollärarna mer medvetna om hur verksamheten kan förändras och anpassas utefter barnens behov. Det blir då lättare att sätta in tidiga åtgärder och underlätta när barn är i behov av särskilt stöd. I informanternas beskrivningar går att utläsa att innebörden av extra anpassningar i förskolan framför allt handlar om hur lokaler och metoder är utformade och hur förskollärarna organiserar sitt arbete. Studien visar att väl utformade extra anpassningar, med en tydlig grundstruktur, skapar större förutsättningar för förskollärarna att utföra ett bra arbete. Informanterna poängterar att relationsarbetet är extra viktigt. Det anses vara en förutsättning för att förskollärarna ska kunna förstå varje enskilt barns behov och hitta sätt att anpassa omgivningen för det på ett bra sätt. Informanterna anser att arbetslagets samarbetsförmåga och det kollektiva lärandet, i form av utbyte av erfarenheter, också har stor betydelse för hur väl verksamheten fungerar. Resultatet visar att inkluderingsperspektivet präglar förskollärarnas syn på extra anpassningar i den mening att extra anpassningar i förskolan till stor del utförs för att möjliggöra varje barns känsla av samhörighet och inkludering med gruppen.

  • Freij, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Professionellt kapital och digital kompetens2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en del i utvärderingen av ett förbättringsarbete på en f-6 skola inom området digital kompetens. Den teoretiska bakgrunden till studien är teorin om professionellt kapital av Andy Hargreaves och Michael Fullan. Professionellt kapital utgörs av den gemensamma produkten av humankapital, socialt kapital och beslutskapital Hargreaves &Fullan (2012). Utifrån teorin ställdes hypotesen att lärarna skulle utveckla det professionella kapitalet i aspekten att utveckla elevers digitala kompetens om de deltog i förbättringsarbetet. Syftet var att undersöka hur lärarna uppfattar att det professionella kapitalet i aspekten elevers möjlighet att utveckla digital kompetens, utvecklats på skolan till följd av förbättringsarbetet. Studien är en kvalitativ deduktiv studie där semistrukturerade intervjuer använts för att undersöka åtta lärares uppfattningar. Resultatet visar på att de intervjuade lärarna upplever att de har utvecklats olika mycket och inom olika områden som utgör teorin om professionellt kapital och att studiens hypotes därmed inte kan bekräftas. Det svårt att säga om utvecklingen beror enbart på förbättringsarbetet eller om denna utveckling också har andra orsaker. Att organisera förbättringsarbete genom ett distribuerat ledarskap och avsätta tid och resurser på det sätt som gjorts får anses vara framgångsrikt. Framgångsrikt har också varit att lärarna genomfört detta tillsammans och att det innehållit praktiska elevnära moment.

  • Lantz Dreshaj, Ewa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Söderberg, Susanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Flerspråkighet-möjligheter och hinder i förskolan: En intervjustudie i hur förskollärare förhåller sig till barns flerspråkighet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globalisering som pågår idag leder bland annat till att allt fler språk blir vanligare i alla världens länder. I Sverige idag har ca 25 % av invånarna utländsk bakgrund och ses som flerspråkiga. Förskolan är en viktigt del i barns lärande. 2017 var 84% av alla landets barn mellan ett till fem år inskrivna i förskolan

    1. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att utforska förskollärares förhållningssätt till flerspråkighet i förskolan. Förhållningssätt kan påverka den lärmiljö förskolan erbjuder för flerspråkiga barn och förhållningssätt kan göra att flerspråkigheten ses som möjligheter eller hinder för språkutvecklingen.. Semistrukturerade kvalitativa gruppintervjuer har genomförts med åtta förskollärare på två förskolor i multietniska områden för att kunna besvara studiens frågeställningar. Informanternas beskrivningar av huruvida deras förhållningssätt till flerspråkighet ses som en tillgång eller hinder för språkutvecklingen sammanställdes utifrån premisserna i kvalitativ metod. Resultatet tolkades sedan utifrån de analytiska utgångspunkterna förskollärares förhållningssätt, möjligheter och hinder samt arbetssätt vilka främjar flerspråkighet. Resultatet i vår studie visar att det råder olika uppfattningar om vilka förhållningssätt till flerspråkighet förskolans utbildning ska bygga på. Den flerspråkiga normen ses som en möjlighet och tillgång och den enspråkiga normen ses som ett hinder bland de förskollärare vi intervjuat.

  • AL-AZZAWI, DUAA
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Marketing.
    Barriers when Selecting a Contract Manufacturer in China: A Study of SMEs in the toy industry2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production outsourcing to a manufacturer has become a very common thing for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as a manufacturing choice. Offshore manufacturers provide cheap and skillful labor which is what companies need to make a decent profit and make the products affordable to the end consumer. These manufacturers are called Contract Manufacturers (CM), which is what this thesis is about. However, searching and choosing the right manufacturer can be a challenging process, which can be followed by difficulties and obstacles. This paper explores the process of how these SMEs in the toy industry select and find their contract manufacturer, identify the type of barriers they encountered, the process to overcome and solve those difficulties, and what recommendations SMEs offer to prevent those obstacles for those who want to take the path of dealing with an offshore contract manufacturer. Moreover, personal interviews with SMEs in the toy industries were conducted to investigate the purpose of this thesis. These companies shared their experiences with dealing with contract manufacturers and offered valuable recommendations to overcome those troubles that arise during the selection process of a contract manufacturer. One of the major findings was the communication barrier, which arose when the companies had to outsource their production to manufacturers in China. However, some used a middleman to help with solving this issue and others had a representative that can speak the language.

  • Nordås, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway.
    Østby, Gudrun
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway.
    Amisi, Christine
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Biaba, Rosalie
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Quattrocchi, John
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Alldén, Susanne
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Cikara, Aline
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Social Inclusion of Survivors of Sexual Violence: How Do Support Programs Work?2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New survey-based evidence indicates that Brief Points survivors of sexual violence in eastern DRC feel less included across various social settings compared to non-survivors. Support programs for survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are found to have a significant positive effect on perceived improvements in economic wellbeing. They also make women feel more socially included. However, the latter effect appears to be weaker for survivors than for non-survivors. Hence, increased focus and resources are needed to work actively with the local population in order to encourage social inclusion of SGBV survivors.

  • Nordås, Ragnhild
    et al.
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway.
    Østby, Gudrun
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway.
    Biaba, Rosalie
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Amisi, Christine
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Quattrochi, John
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Alldén, Susanne
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Namegabe, Esther
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Cikara, Aline
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    From Pain to Empowerment?: Impact of an empowerment program for survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) on attitudes towards female leadership2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    City of Joy Brief Points is an intensive six-month support program for survivors of sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) that aims to transform vulnerable women into community leaders. What transformations do we see in participants from the time of starting the program to the end of the program? Systematic survey results indicate that the women display significant changes in their attitudes and knowledge about women’s empowerment and leadership, indicating that the program has a strong immediate effect on changing the participants’ views on female leadership. However, further research is needed on the degree to which – and for whom – these positive changes endure after the women re-enter their home communities.

  • Quattrochi, John
    et al.
    Simmons University, USA;International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Biaba, Rosalie
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Nordås, Ragnhild
    Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway;University of Michigan, USA.
    Østby, Gudrun
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Alldén, Susanne
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Cikara, Aline
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Namegabe, Esther
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Amisi, Christina
    International Center for Advanced Research and Training (ICART), Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Effects of an empowerment program for survivors of sexual violence on attitudes and beliefs: evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo2019In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women’s empowerment may require women to change their beliefs and views about their rights and capabilities. Empowerment programs often target women who have survived sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), with the justification that these women may develop disempowered beliefs as a coping mechanism, or face greater barriers to, or derive greater benefits from, the adoption of empowered beliefs and preferences. We investigated an intensive, six-month residential empowerment program (“City of Joy”) for SGBV survivors in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), where more than one in five women have experienced SGBV. Methods: We asked 175 participants about their beliefs and preferences pertaining to political, financial, and domestic empowerment. Interviews took place immediately before and after participation in the program, and we tested for differences in views of empowerment between entry and exit using paired t-tests and McNemar’s test. We also conducted 50 semi-structured interviews about empowerment with an additional 30 women who had completed the program up to 5 years earlier and then returned to their home community. Results: Prior to enrolling in the program, participants had fairly empowered views regarding politics, less empowered views regarding finances, and still less empowered views regarding the domestic sphere. After completing the program, participants had significantly more empowered views in all three domains, particularly regarding domestic violence, how families should treat men and women, and women’s economic rights. Participants in their home communities reported taking a more active role in community affairs and speaking out against the mistreatment of women. Conclusion: This study adds to the evidence that women’s empowerment programs can change participants’ beliefs and thus increase the confidence with which they participate in their communities and support one another.

  • Rastoder, Sabina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Berggren, Annelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Elever med särskild begåvning i matematik: En didaktisk utmaning ur ett inkluderingsperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa fallstudien belyser två fall av hur lärare, organisatoriskt och pedagogiskt, anpassar matematikundervisningen för elever med särskild begåvning i matematik där det ena fallet även belyser en dubbelriktad begåvningsproblematik. Syftet med studien är att synliggöra arbetssätt och arbetsmetoder som lärare använder för att inkludera dessa elever ur olika aspekter samt vilka framgångsfaktorer och utmaningar de kan identifiera i sin matematikundervisning. Resultatet visade att det finns flera olika organisatoriska och pedagogiska verktyg som kan användas för att göra de särskilt begåvade eleverna mer inkluderade i matematikundervisningen. Viktigt att poängtera är att man som lärare bör utgå från varje enskild elev för att hitta lämpliga arbetssätt och arbetsmetoder som gynnar elevens fortsatta utveckling. Samtidigt ställer komplexiteten i en sådan undervisning höga krav på lärarens förmåga att, utifrån de förutsättningar och resurser som oftast upplevs som otillräckliga, organisera och individualisera undervisningen på sådant sätt att de särskilt begåvade eleverna får en positiv utveckling utifrån deras unika förutsättningar och behov.

  • Staugaard, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Perspektiv på matematisk språkutveckling: En systematisk litteraturstudie gällande språkliga förutsättningar samt didaktiska aspekter för andraspråkselevers matematiska språkutveckling2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 60 credits / 90 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish schools there is today approximately 20% second language learners, by that meaning they have a different native language than Swedish. Since the student’s acquisition is dependent on the ability to interact with teachers and classmates, the communicative ability plays a central role in the learning process, and places thereby specific demands on the teachers design of educational activity. This is also an important aspect for mathematics teaching, since the curriculum emphasizes that students develop linguistic skills such as communication-, reasoning- and conceptual ability. From a special pedagogical perspective, this also constitutes an important incentive, as the school's compensatory assignment entails that education must be made equal for all students through individual needs being considered in the teaching process. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to create an understanding of how, and with which educational theoretical perspectives on learning, scientific studies sheds light on mathematics teaching with a focus on language development for second language learners. The study's results are based on international articles and dissertations. The results show that successful aspects for mathematical language development of second language learners are based on factors such as access to study guidance in native language, adapted communicative structures in the teaching, as well as adequate support and expectations from both the school and the surrounding community.

  • Arvidsson, Anette
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Lundberg, Pia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Är det rimligt?: SUM-elevers reflektion och resonemang om rimlighetsbedömning och lämplig lösningsstrategi2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den kvalitativa metoden design-research har vi i vår studie, likt en bro kombinerat teori och praktik genom att genomföra tre lektioner, i en cyklisk process med en årskurs 3. Vårt syfte var att skapa förståelse för hur en lektionssekvens kan främja SUM-elevers inlärning av rimlighetsbedömning samt lämpligt val av  subtraktionsstrategi, genom inkludering i den ordinarie undervisningen. Lektionssekvensen har bestått av utvalda matematiska centrala moment, vilka skapat design-principer som varit lektionernas utgångspunkt. Dessa principer har prövats, efter analys förändrats och anpassats under studien gång. Vårt resultat visar att begreppsförståelse måste läras in på en konkret nivå, där uppgifter är anpassade efter elevens verklighet i ett känt sammanhang. Korta och tydliga genomgångar, samt modellering hjälper till med begreppsutveckling av uppskattning och rimlighetsbedömning. Studiens slutsats är att SUM-elever utvecklas bäst genom reflektion och resonemang, i par, där kamraten har något högre kunskapsnivå. Reflektion och resonemang ger djupare kunskap och begrepp kan då förstås i ett sammanhang. Läraren har en viktig roll genom att vara SUM-elevers tankestöd samt ställa kontrollfrågor av typen; ”Är det rimligt?” för att uppmana elever att tänka efter om exempelvis strategin eller svaret kan vara möjligt. Representationsformen tallinje har vi sett som ett viktigt redskap för att SUM-elever ska synliggöra sambandet mellan talen som ska subtraheras på ett konkret sätt, för att se om talen är nära och då förstå att strategin ”räkna uppåt” är mest lämplig att använda. De steg som skiljer dessa tal blir då enklare att räkna och eleverna har förutsättning att göra en rimlighetsbedömning.

  • Biglari, Bahram
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Haidari, Nael
    Road to Sustainable Integration: Supported by Strategic Management Accounting and Control Process 2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose; this thesis is purposed to investigate Strategic Management Accounting and Control process in supporting Sustainable Integration between Strategic Supplier Relationship Management processes and Strategic Customer Relationship Management processes.

    Methodology; based on the purpose, the study has conducted a literature review of presenting theories to define Sustainable Integration, Strategic Management Accounting and Control process, Strategic Supplier Relationship Management process, and Strategic Customer Relationship Management process. Furthermore, the study defined how Sustainable Integration can be accomplished, which tools, techniques, and procedures are suited for supporting Sustainable Integration, and how controlling process supports the Sustainable phenomenon between business processes. The reasonable methods of conducting qualitative and exploratory studies have been employed to handle empirical gathering data by interviews with strategic business process managers in industrial Swedish Manufacturing cases. Then the data has been analyzed in a Within-case analysis and Cross-case synthesis following by interpretation and implications. Using the regressive method and advanced method, the study sent the manuscript to interviewees and went back from results to theory to add observed and found out knowledge to the theory.

    Findings; the study found out that Sustainable Integration is accomplished by supporting and controlling processes of harmonized and continuous flows of information, product, technology, and financial resources through strategic close inter-organizational relationship which are conducted by Strategic Management Accounting and Control process. Sustainable and competitive tools, techniques and procedures are employed to support the Sustainable Integration phenomenon between strategic sub-business processes in case of SSRM and SCRM processes. Various levels of Sustainable Integration regards the extent of harmonization and close long-term relationship are occurred based on openness, innovativeness, trust, commitment and transparency between industrial manufacturing Swedish companies. Developed and reconfigured Strategic Management Accounting and Control process supports Sustainable Integration by the aim of achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantages and Sustainable Sourcing.

  • Glaadh Zetterqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kennemar, Ulrika
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sårvårdsdokumentation inom primärvården: utifrån distriktssköterskans ansvar och kompetens2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:‌ Om dokumentationen av sår och sårvård sker på olika ställen i journalen kan detta påverka hur och vad patienten får för behandling. Patientsäkerheten riskeras och patienten riskerar bli felbehandlad vid bristfällig eller felaktig dokumentation. 

    Syfte:‌ Att belysa sårvårdsdokumentationens utförande i primärvården Region Kronoberg, utifrån distriktssköterskans ansvar och kompetens. 

    Metod:‌ ‌‌Studien‌ ‌är‌ ‌en‌ ‌kvalitativ‌ ‌intervjustudie‌ ‌med‌ ‌semistrukturerade‌ ‌intervjuer‌.‌ ‌‌Datainsamlingen ‌analyserades‌ utifrån‌ ‌en‌ deduktiv ‌innehållsanalys‌ enligt Elo & Kyngäs (2007). ‌En matris utformades efter de utvalda kategorierna från den teoretiska referensramen.  ‌ 

    Resultat:‌ ‌‌Analysen‌ ‌resulterade‌ ‌i‌ ‌tre‌ ‌stycken‌ ‌huvudkategorier‌ ‌utefter‌ ‌den‌ ‌valda‌ ‌teoretiska‌ ‌referensramen;‌ ‌‌Evidensbaserat‌ ‌förhållningssätt,‌ ‌Informatik‌ ‌‌och‌ ‌‌Förbättringskunskap‌ &‌ ‌Kvalitetsutveckling‌. Studien visar att det finns skillnader i hur sårvård dokumenteras i Region Kronoberg. Det som framkommer i resultatet är att de distriktssköterskor som inte arbetar med sårvårdsplanerna idag är intresserade av att börja med dem i framtiden med en förhoppning om att vissa delar i sårvårsplanen går att ändra. Det var också tydligt att de distriktssköterskor som dokumenterade i sjuksköterskemallen i löpande text upplevde att det inte fanns någon direkt struktur, utan det dokumenterades efter vad var och en tyckte var viktigt. 

    Slutsats:‌ ‌‌Den‌ ‌här‌ ‌studien‌ ‌bidrar‌ ‌med‌ ‌ökad‌ ‌kunskap‌ ‌kring‌ ‌distriktssköterskors‌ ‌erfarenhet‌ ‌av‌ ‌att‌ ‌dokumentera‌ ‌sårvård‌ ‌i‌ ‌primärvården.‌ ‌Alla‌ ‌var‌ ‌positiva‌ ‌till‌   ‌att‌ ‌arbeta‌ ‌enligt‌ ‌riktlinjer‌na ‌men ‌det‌ ‌behövdes‌ ‌förbättring‌ ‌av‌ ‌nuvarande‌ ‌sårvårdsplan‌ ‌för‌ ‌att‌ ‌det‌ ‌skulle‌ ‌kunna‌ ‌fungera‌ ‌som‌ ‌ett‌ ‌bra‌ ‌arbetsredskap.‌ ‌ ‌ 

  • Alriksson, Claes-Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Texturvariationer i skogsmark - effekter på tillväxt och gödslingsrespons?: Studie i ett försök med behovsanpassad gödsling i Ebbegärde2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En mängd olika ståndortsfaktorer påverkar trädens tillväxt. Några av dessa kan påverkas genom olika skogsskötselmetoder, t ex näringstillförsel. I ett flertal försök de senaste decennierna har skogsgödsling visat sig kunna öka tillväxten markant. Faktorer som inte är påverkbara, som t ex markens textur och markens jorddjup kan då bli begränsande för tillväxten eftersom en finkornig textur oftast är gynnsam ur tillväxtsynpunkt. Föreliggande undersökning syftar till att se om det finns en texturvariation inom en begränsad yta och dess effekter på tillväxten. Texturen undersöktes genom torrsiktning. Resultaten visar att det förelåg en stor variation av texturen på beståndsnivå och att det kan påverka tillväxten i kombination med andra begränsande faktorer såsom vattentillgång.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-12 09:15 Azur, Kalmar
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Development and evaluation of immunoassays for complement diagnostics2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory analyses of human body fluids play an important role in clinical diagnosis. This thesis comprises projects in which various immune assays have been developed and evaluated as complement diagnostics in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Various methods have been used, such as ELISA, Western blot, flow cytometry, and xMAP technology.

    In paper 1, we monitored complement parameters in EDTA-plasma and CSF from patients with suspected neuroborreliosis (NB) by using in-house sandwich ELISAs.  We found significantly elevated levels of C1q, C4, C3, and C3a in CSF, but not in plasma, suggesting that complement plays a role in the intrathecal immune response in NB.

    Complement is a main player in early inflammation, and in paper 2, we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78 and Borrelia garinii LU59. Our results show that complement activation plays an important role in the initial process of phagocytosis, but not in the subsequent cytokine release that occurs in response to live Borrelia spirochetes. C1q, a valuable biomarker of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), can be quantitated using a number of different immunochemical techniques.

    In paper 3, we developed and validated a magnetic bead-based immunoassay for quantifying C1q in EDTA-plasma and CSF. In contrast to soluble immunoprecipitation assays such as nephelometry and turbidimetry, this new assay was not hampered by the interaction between C1q and detecting antibodies. The novel assay was shown to give a clear correlation between nephritis and SLEDAI score in SLE.

    Warfarin is a commonly used but complicated treatment in patients with thrombosis. It reduces the function of vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteins, including protein S, which is a ligand for C4b-binding protein (C4BP). In paper 4, we demonstrated a decrease in various isoforms of C4BP that resulted in a strong complement activation in patients treated with warfarin, but not in patients treated with other anticoagulants.

    Taken together, the results from the papers included in this thesis stress the importance of validated assays with high sensitivity and specificity in enabling accurate diagnosis in patients with various inflammatory diseases.

  • Public defence: 2019-12-06 09:30 Fullriggaren (Ma135), Kalmar
    Fridolfsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Thiamin (vitamin B1) in the aquatic food web2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thiamin (vitamin B1) is required for several life-sustaining processes in most organisms and cells, e.g. in the conversion of food to energy. It also serves as an antioxidant and is important for proper nerve signaling. Thiamin is produced predominantly by bacteria and phytoplankton in the aquatic food web. Not all bacteria and phytoplankton, nor any organisms in higher trophic levels can produce thiamin; instead, they rely on a continuous external supply and uptake of this essential compound. Thiamin deficiencies occur episodically in a wide range of taxa, especially in higher trophic levels. In the Baltic Sea, thiamin deficiencies has been most pronounced in salmon (Salmo salar) and recently deficiencies are also reported for other fish species and birds.

    This thesis focuses on thiamin dynamics in lower trophic levels, covering primary producers as well as primary consumers, as this topic has not received much attention previously. Thiamin content of common phytoplankton and zooplankton species and the transfer between them was investigated in experiments and field studies. The relationship between thiamin deficiency and underlying environmental factors was also investigated using monitoring data.

    Thiamin content differed among phytoplankton classes, species and even strains. Filamentous Cyanophyceae had considerably higher thiamin content than other classes. However, thiamin transfer to copepods was lower, probably associated with difficulties ingesting the filaments. Moreover, thiamin content in seston varied seasonally, being highest during summer when both Prymnesiophyceae and filamentous Cyanophyceae were more abundant. Thiamin content in the two size fractions correlated strongly and was always higher in the smaller size fraction, illustrating the importance of picoplankton and bacteria in the food web. Also, seston thiamin content was higher in the Baltic Proper than in the Skagerrak. Copepods differed in thiamin content among genera, as well as between locations. Acartia sp. had the highest thiamin content and copepods from the Skagerrak had higher levels than congeners from the Baltic Sea. Thiamin deficiency syndromes in salmon was associated with changes in all trophic levels, as well as changes in several abiotic variables.

    In all, this thesis provides new insights on thiamin content and seasonal dynamics in various phytoplankton and zooplankton species, the transfer of this vitamin between trophic levels as well as the overall importance of thiamin in the aquatic food web.

  • Bengtsson, Irene
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Lindqvist, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Inkluderande lärmiljö för elever i matematiksvårigheter: En intervjustudie av matematiklärares resonemang och uttryck2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur matematiklärare på lågstadiet resonerar kring och ger uttryck för inkluderande lärmiljö för elever i matematiksvårigheter. Fokus i studien ligger på att undersöka hur lärare resonerar kring matematiksvårigheter, vad inkluderande lärmiljö innebär för matematikläraren samt hur matematikläraren skapar inkluderande lärmiljöer.

     

    Relationellt perspektiv och individperspektiv används som teoretisk analysram. Relationellt perspektiv innebär att svårigheten uppstår i mötet mellan elev och omgivning. Det innebär att arbetet blir att anpassa omgivningen för att förbättra elevens förutsättningar. Ett relationellt perspektiv innebär vidare att lösningarna är långsiktiga. Eleven beskrivs vara i en svårighet. Ett individperspektiv utgår från att eleven är bärare av en svårighet på grund av exempelvis en diagnos eller svåra hemförhållanden. Arbetet här innebär att påverka elevens situation genom till exempel medicinering eller särskild undervisningsgrupp. Lösningarna i detta perspektiv tar inte hänsyn till lärmiljön. Eleven beskrivs vara med en svårighet. I studien används dessa perspektiv för att tolka det lärarna uttrycker för att se om deras resonemang kan upplevas vara relationella eller ha ett individperspektiv.

     

    Studien har en kvalitativ ansats. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom intervjuer med matematiklärare på lågstadiet. Intervjutypen som användes var den semistrukturerade. Utifrån denna typ skapades en intervjuguide där frågor grupperades efter studiens frågeställningar. Intervjuerna föregicks av ett missivbrev som lämnades ut till rektorer vid fyra skolor. I dessa missivbrev framkom det hur studien har tagit hänsyn till de fyra forskningsetiska principerna. 

     

    Studiens resultat visar att lärare kan uppfattas vara kategoriska i sina åtgärder. Lärarna kan uppfattas relationella i hur de uttrycker sig kring inkluderande lärmiljö. Lärarna tycks ha en vilja att vara relationella men att det inte alltid syns i deras utförande. Resultatet visar vidare att lärare har svårt att veta vad matematiksvårigheter är eller hur det identifieras. Däremot har de hade generellt god kunskap om lärmiljöer. Den gemensamma definitionen på inkluderande lärmiljö var för lärare att alla elever ska kunna delta. När lärare resonerar kring arbetet för att alla elever ska kunna delta skiljer sig svaren åt. I resultatet presenteras att lärare kan behöva fortbildning i metoder för att arbeta inkluderande och hur de kan reflektera över sin undervisning. Gemensamt för samtliga lärare visade sig vara att de reflekterade över den pedagogiska lärmiljön medan den sociala och den pedagogiska lärmiljön inte nämndes i lika stor utsträckning. Detta kan för speciallärare och specialpedagoger tyda på ett viktigt arbetsområde att arbeta med på skolor, att stötta lärare i att se till hela lärmiljön för att arbeta främjande och förebyggande kring matematiksvårigheter. 

  • Palmgren, Ellinor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Magnusson, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mathematics.
    Matematikångest - Utifrån livsberättelser: Math anxiety based on lifestories2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien utgår från livsberättelser baserad på såväl narrativ teori som metod där fyra vuxna personer som säger sig ha upplevt matematikångest har blivit intervjuade. Syftet med studien är att identifiera specifika episoder i matematiksammanhang som kan kopplas till matematikångest men även känslor som är knutna till dessa episoder samt om det förekommer likheter mellan de olika intervjupersonernas upplevelser. Resultatet visar att det finns en rad gemensamma drag i livsberättelserna som till exempel liknande känslor men även situationer. Möjliga orsaker som beskrivs i litteraturbakgrunden återfinns även i intervjupersonernas livsberättelser. Det som främst framkommit är att läraren och arbetssättet har en betydande roll för hur eleven påverkas av matematiken i skolan men även hur detta har påverkat framtida livsval. Livsberättelser är en intressant metod eftersom man i rollen som intervjuare kommer intervjupersonen nära och berättelsen upplevs därmed som genuin och ärlig. Utifrån analysen av resultatet är det viktigt att läraren är medveten om att dennes arbetssätt och bemötande kan påverka elevens upplevelse av matematik såväl negativt som positivt. Blir upplevelsen för negativ kan den i värsta fall leda till att eleven utvecklar matematikångest.

  • Björkendal, Nicklas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Using Machine Learning to Categorize Documents in a Construction Project2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of document handling in the construction industries could save large amounts of time, effort and money and classifying a document is an important step in that automation. In the field of machine learning, lots of research have been done on perfecting the algorithms and techniques, but there are many areas where those techniques could be used that has not yet been studied. In this study I looked at how effectively the machine learning algorithm multinomial Naïve-Bayes would be able to classify 1427 documents split up into 19 different categories from a construction project. The experiment achieved an accuracy of 92.7% and the paper discusses some of the ways that accuracy can be improved. However, data extraction proved to be a bottleneck and only 66% of the original documents could be used for testing the classifier.

  • Karlsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strandberg, Åsa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Att möta familjer med prematurfödda barn i barnhälsovården: en kvalitativ studie av barnhälsovårdssjuksköterskors erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Primary child health care offer health support and promotion to all families. Studies have shown that the birth of a premature child has long-term effects on the family. Stress reactions such as worrying and anxiety were common with the parents. Improved survival rates in premature children therefore create new demands on primary child health care nurses and the support families need from the primary child health care. 

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe primary health care nurses’ experiences of meeting families with premature children in a primary child health care context.

    Method: Qualitative research design with inductive approach. Semistructured interviews with eight primary child health care nurses. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The result implies that the nurses value professional experience and knowledge. Regardless of work life experience, all nurses requested further training. Meeting families with traumatic experiences, made the nurses insecure since they lacked formal training in dealing with such situations. The nurses applied family-centered care to all meetings with the families, adapting the child health care program to the needs of the child and its family. Health rather than conditions related to the prematurity was the center of attention. The nurses agreed that meeting the families at an early stage was imperative to building their forthcoming relationship.

    Conclusion: The nurses need further professional knowledge and as well as training in how to respond to a family crisis. By applying family-centered care to all families, the nurses give families support in day-to-day life and promote child health. Early connection between nurses and families boosts their relationship. Research into primary child health care nurses’ experiences is limited which motivates this study’s relevance.

  • Nilsson, John
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Berg, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Nya krav på livbåtskrokar: En studie om hur MSC.320(89) har påverkat säkerheten vid hantering av livbåtar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have occured many accidents as a result of the mandatory implementation of on-load release mechanisms on all lifeboats. In order to combat the problem amendments to the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea and the International Life-Saving Appliances Code were put forth during the Maritime Safety Committee, 89th session, 2011. The focus of this study lies on a product of this meeting: resolution MSC.320(89). The resolution presents new requirements for the design and function of on-load release systems. The purpose of this study is to understand how MSC.320(89) has influenced safety concerning the handling of lifeboats. A qualitative literature study with a complementary interview was used to conduct this study. By comparing causal factors of accidents involving on-load release systems with the new requirements stated in MSC.320(89) speculations could be made pertaining to improved safety conditions. The implementation process for the new requirements included a design review and performance test of existing and new on-load release and recovery systems. Moreover all systems onboard merchant vessels were either inspected, modified or replaced in order to be made compliant with the amended Life-Saving Appliance code. A decline in the number of accident reports concerning on-load release systems following implementation was observed during the data collection phase of this study. This decline may imply a reduction in the number of accidents caused by on-load release systems however the use of fall-prevention devices may have stopped failing on-load release systems from ending in catastrophe. The overriding conclusion of this study infers that resolution MSC.320(89) has effected safety concerning the handling of lifeboats in a positive manner.

  • Gränsmark, Ylva
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Foleby, Agnetha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hälsosamma kostvanor vid depression: Distriktssköterskors och sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att stödja och motivera patienten - en kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Depression is a common disease worldwide and the most common cause of mental illness. Studies have shown an association between unhealthy diets and depression. The purpose of the study was to explore district nurses and nurses' experience of supporting patients and motivating those with depression to healthy dietary habits in primary care. In order to answer the purpose of the study, an interview study was conducted in which the data material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis with inductive approach. Eleven district nurses and nurses working at a lifestyle clinic were recruited from ten health centres in the South of Sweden. In the study's results, three categories emerged; The Individual Meeting with the Patient, Motivational Tools and Obstacles. The individual meeting was about putting the patient first, confirming and establishing a good relationship and entrusting safekeeping. Motivational tools were about the nurses' description of the use of various tools such as motivational conversations, diet diaries, knowledge etc. to support and motivate patients to change their dietary habits. The nurses experienced that patients with depression had difficulties with motivation and that some did not have the power to change. The nurses could be in need of collaboration with other professionals and colleagues to get support and advice in their caring conversation with the patient. In order to improve the quality of care for the patient with depression, it may be important for further research in this area from both a patient and nurse perspective at lifestyle clinics in primary care.

  • Adam, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Högstadiets fysiklektioner och ”en dator per elev”: Vilken potential ser lärare och hur upplever de den?2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska grundskolan närmar sig en tid när alla elever har egna datorer. Vissa lärare har arbetat med detta i många år och andra bara några. Frågan som undersöks i denna uppsats är vilken potential fysiklärare ser i denna utveckling och hur de upplever potentialen. Sju naturvetenskapslärare från Sydsverige intervjuades på ett semistrukturerat sätt och data analyserades med en fenomenografisk ansats. Resultatet visar att den potential som lärare beskriver kan kategoriseras som skapande, innehåll och interaktion men att det finns störningar som påverkar alla kategorier. Analys av hur lärare upplever potentialen belyses med följande kategorier; noggrannhet, effektivitet, flexibilitet och illustrativ. Uppsatsen försöker att undersöka både de negativa och positiva aspekterna inom dessa kategorier. Vidare forskning som undersöker hur elever upplever dessa kategorier av potential skulle kunna bidra till en bättre helhetsbild.

  • Tham, Mathilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Ståhl, ÅsaLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.Hyltén-Cavallius, SaraLinnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Oikology - Home Ecologics: a book about building and home making for permaculture and for making our home together on Earth2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we, together, make our home on Earth in a time of mass extinction, climate change and social segregation? In this book two interplaying housing crises converge. The first concerns affordable and suitable housing for groups unprioritised by the housing market: older persons, students and migrants. The second concerns our home on Earth: science gives us but a decade to avert catastrophic climate change. This book aims at both reporting on research in the project BOOST metadesign and providing hands-on advice akin to that offered in home economics classes. The book starts performing Oikology – Home ecologics, a field of knowledge and practice in times of complexity, messiness and never finished labour of making homes together within Earth’s limits. The exploration of housing development for older persons, students and migrants in a context of sustainability has been carried out during 2016–19 through processes of co-creation in urban and rural parts of Småland, southern Sweden. Metadesign has opened up for a holistic and systemic take on home making that integrates different dimensions of sustainability and moves from the small and local to the all-encompassing. This book is for people who make homes in their personal or professional lives. It imagines an overarching paradigm of home making which starts from relationships. This is exemplified through speculative scenarios, a set of cruxes to be bounced into the planning process, methods for transdisciplinary co-creation and 29 recipes for home making.

  • Jasarevic, Adisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av språkbarriärer vid mötet med patienter i hemsjukvården2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden the number of residents with a foreign background has increased, and as a result it is becoming more common in the health care to care for patients who cannot speak the Swedish language. The exchange of information between the patient and the nurse is an fundamental part of the care. The work within home care can be challenging as more patients are cared for at home and nurses must be able to live up to the requirements that are set, for all patients to receive good care on equal terms. Linguistic barriers can be a challenge for nurses when meeting patients. When the communication does not work due to language barriers, the patient's care risks being affected negatively.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe nurses' experiences of language barriers when meeting patients in home care.

    Method: The study was conducted with a qualitative inductive approach with eight semi-structured interviews. Three district nurses, one specialist nurse in the care of the elderly and four nurses participated. The data collection was analyzed based on a qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in three main categories and ten subcategories. The nurses often used different strategies for communication, through the body language, and relatives and nursing staff as interpreters. Furthermore, the nurses experienced challenges in the health care by language barriers, where increased time was spent for the patients. Prerequisites to establish a good care relationship and nursing assessment were more difficult due to language barriers. The nurses also experienced differences in health care meeting when a common language is missing, where the knowledge of cultural differences was felt to be lacking. Language barriers also affected the nurses' workload and patients' expectations of home care.

    Conclusion: A well-functioning communication is required to create a good care relationship. Using an authorized interpreter is not optimal within the home care, as more planning is required. Instead relatives and colleagues are used as interpreters. It was perceived to take more time to care for patients who do not speak Swedish, therefor there was a wish that more nurses should be hired. Lack of knowledge in cultures was experienced, more education in cultural differences was desirable to improve the care relationship. The expectations of home care were high from patients who dont speak Swedish, through easily accessible information about home care in different languages can the right information reached to the patients.

  • Lindström, Susanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Liljeqvist, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Tillgängliga lärmiljöer och tydliggörande pedagogik för ökad inkludering och delaktighet: - ur ett pedagog- och elevperspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att undersöka hur pedagoger och elever i grundskolan upplever specialpedagogiskt stöd och stimulans, genom användandet av specialpedagogiskt material och gemensamma stödstrukturer, kan bidra till delaktighet, tillgängliga lärmiljöer och därmed inkludering. Vilka möjligheter och vinster liksom hinder och svårigheter upplevs? Semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med pedagoger och elever, vilka deltagit i ett skolutvecklingsarbete, samt en kompletterande enkät till pedagoger. Respondenternas svar sammanställdes utifrån riktlinjer i kvalitativ metod och resultatet analyserades utifrån de teoretiska utgångspunkterna inkludering, samhälls-och strukturperspektiv och relationellt perspektiv.

    Respondenternas beskrivningar visar att specialpedagogiskt material (Stöd- och strukturlådor, SoS-lådor med taktilt och visuellt material) och tydliggörande pedagogik i form av gemensamma stödstrukturer (färgkoder och strukturer över vecka, dag och lektion) bidrar till en gemensamhetsorienterad inkludering. Genom att öka elevers delaktighet och göra lärmiljön mer tillgänglig, proaktivt likt UDL (Universal Design för Lärande), gynnas alla elever, i synnerhet de med NPF-problematik. Hinder som nämns är svårigheten att få samtliga pedagoger att anamma arbetssättet, liksom att pedagogerna initialt upplever det tidskrävande. Vinsterna beskrivs överväga och både pedagoger och elever är eniga om att de nu inte skulle vilja vara utan materialet och strukturerna.

  • Erlandsson, Maja
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Det ambivalenta uppdraget: Förskollärares och specialpedagogers syn på roller och uppdrag gällande dokumentation och bedömningspraktik2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka förskollärares och specialpedagogers roller och uppdrag gällande förskolans bedömningspraktik och dokumentation samt vilka konsekvenser de olika yrkesrollernas uppfattning och agerande får för barn i behov av särskilt stöd. Mot bakgrund av ett antal indikatorer som pekar på ett ökat bedömningsfokus i allt lägre åldrar undersöks vilka eventuella skillnader i synen på observation, dokumentation och bedömning som framkommer beroende på profession. En kvalitativ ansats genom semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförs med sju specialpedagoger och sju förskollärare och den ontologiska ståndpunkten utgörs av socialkonstruktionism. Diskursanalys används som metod och utifrån resultatet framträder tre diskurser; ”bedömning och motstånd”, ”individ och dokumentations-osäkerhet” samt ”diskurs och professionalisering”. En slutsats när det kommer till dokumentation är att förskollärarnas undvikande av att dokumentera barn på individnivå riskerar osynliggöra de behov varje enskilt barn har då det enbart blir gruppens utveckling och lärande som speglas. En följd av bedömningsmotståndet är att begreppet riskerar bli så pass värdeladdat att det avstås att ens talas om i förskolan. Vilka konsekvenser får det för barn och elever i behov av särskilt stöd och rätten till en likvärdig utbildning?

  • Gunnarsson, Mattias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Mobilisera, passivisera eller vinna: har skandinaviska partiers tävlan om röster förändrats?2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna licentiatuppsats lägger grunden för att undersöka om skandinaviska partiers tävlan om röster har förändrats så som den uttrycks i partiernas valmanifest. Därigenom testas dels om det finns en förändrad partitävlan i Skandinavien, dels om en eventuell förändring i partitävlan drivs av en existerande tävlansstruktur ärvd från 1970-talet, om partiernas tävlan om röster helt eller delvis försvunnit eller om partiernas tävlan snarast handlar om konkurrens om väljarnas röster

    Inom partiforskningen har den så kallade kartellpartitesen haft ett mycket stort genomslag. I korthet innebär denna att partier snarast försöker passivisera väljare genom att inte erbjuda alternativ vare sig i policy eller ideologi till skillnad från tidigare då partier i första hand försökt mobilisera sina kärnväljare och erbjudit tydliga skillnader i såväl policy som ideologi. Mot dessa två beskrivningar kan även ställas en tredje baserad på ett antagande om skärpt partikonkurrens där det gäller att vinna alltmer rörliga väljare. För att testa dessa tre hypoteser studeras valmanifest från 1970 till 2010 från agrara, konservativa och socialdemokratiska partier i Danmark, Norge och Sverige.

    Resultatet visar snarast på stark konkurrens inom samtliga partisystem oavsett vilken partifamilj som studeras. Valmanifesten blir tydligare och tendera att mer och mer betona policytävlan, men det finns även en konstant närvaro av värderingar i valmanifesten. Detta talar framförallt mot att tävlans bortdöende, men för att slutgiltigt utvärdera resultaten krävs närmare studier av vilka policys och vilka värderingar som presenteras och om dessa förskjuts eller förändras över tid.

  • La Torre Perregrini, Esperanza Luján
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Muerte súbita,  el poder de narrar obras pictóricas2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The novel Sudden death /Muerte súbita written by Álvaro Enrigue is analysed in this study, using the theoretical contributions of Werner Wolf and Irina Rajewsky, the typology of intermediality, and the model of modalities and modes of media elaborated by Lars Elleström.   

         The aim of this study lies, first on the blending of different media within the novel, the question of pictorial narrative, and argues that images narratives can generate the diegesis in Álvaro Enrigue's book. Second, to analyze how the mentioned intermedial relations to the paintings can create a meaning in the novel.   

       The novel by Enrigue relates some paintings of the Italian painter Caravaggio such as The calling of St. Matthew, Marta and Magdalena, Judith beheading Holofernes and Basket of fruits that have become important in creating the understandings the History of Mexico and the History of Spain. This intermedial study of the work of Enrigue "Sudden death" has shown that words have the power to represent images as well as give us the possibility of expanding the visuality of the media that are present in a literary text.

  • Randák, Richard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    N-Grams as a Measure of Naturalness and Complexity2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a time where software is used everywhere. It is used even for creating other software by helping developers with writing or generating new code. To do this properly, metrics to measure software quality are being used to evaluate the final code. However, they are sometimes too costly to compute, or simply don't have the expected effect. Therefore, new and better ways of software evaluation are needed. In this research, we are investigating the usage of the statistical approaches used commonly in the natural language processing (NLP) area. In order to introduce and evaluate new metrics, a Java N-gram language model is created from a large Java language code corpus. Naturalness, a method-level metric, is introduced and calculated for chosen projects. The correlation with well-known software complexity metrics are calculated and discussed. The results, however, show that the metric, in the form that we have defined it, is not suitable for software complexity evaluation since it is highly correlated with a well-known metric (token count), which is much easier to compute. Different definition of the metric is suggested, which could be a target of future study and research.