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  • Hansson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rederiers strategier efter införandet av Polarkoden: En undersökning av drivkrafter och hinder bakom sjöfartsverksamhet i polarområdena2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Zhao, Jichen
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The Effects of the Internet Firewall on the Development of Chinese Democracy2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a special censorship system, China’s Internet firewall plays an important role in Chinese society.The Internet firewall is a controversial social action in China’s democratic development.The Internet firewall efficiently protects China’s economic environment. Similarly,Because of its rigorous censorship and guidance of information, it makes controversy about its role in the development of democracy in China. The Internet firewalls in China largely limit Chinese media freedom, information freedom and public opinion freedom, that through a regulatory and directional approach. At the same time, with the continuous emergence of new media, to some extent, new media also impacts the review of Internet firewalls.This study has studied the function of Internet firewalls that through the analysis of literatures, and hopes to draw the conclusion that the effects of the Internet firewall on the development of Chinese democracy. This study first analyzes the literature through discourse analysis and structured focused comparison analysis, and then analyzes the function of Internet firewall through function analysis theory. The results show that China's Internet firewall is closely related to China's special political and economic structure.It may lead China to a deliberative democracy, but under a special political and economic structure, it is accompanied by great uncertainty.According to this study, a means of deliberative democracy is being established by the Internet firewall, but because of its continued existence, the special political environment in China may persist for a long period.

  • Bredgaard, Linus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Samerna & Herr Erik: En postkolonial studie om kolonisationen av Sápmi genom en prästs ögon2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine the colonisation of Sápmi though the works of a local priest, by the name of Eric Grape. To do so, this study uses postcolonial theory when analysing the content of the works by Grape. Eric Grape was a priest active in the Lappmarks of northern Sweden in the early nineteenth century and who wrote articles for the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences. The focus of the study is the othering of the Saami people and their culture, and the colonial production of knowledge that Grape produced about the Saami. Othering is a term by Edward Said and it is about the constructed difference between “we” the European culture and people regarded as the “other”. This term, the study argues, can also be applied when studying the colonial encounters between the Saami and Swedish colonial actors such as Grape. The main result of this study is that Grape portrays the Saami as different and more primitive than the Swedish settlers that occupy the northen part of Sweden, he describes the Saami as childish.

  • Drajem, Veronica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Apotekskunders uppfattning om trygghet med sina läkemedel och behandling. Hur de erhållit information om dessa samt deras kunskap om EES.: - En enkätundersökning om det förekommer skillnader mellan olika åldersgrupper på apoteket2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Pharmacists have for many years been an important part of health care. They have rescued many people from diseases and poisoning. It´s important that they ensure the right drug, dosage and administration in right time for each customer. Elderly people usually have more prescribes than younger which increases the risk of interactions.

    Poor compliance may result in increased morbidity or premature death. There are several reasons why treatment is not followed. Lack of information about the treatment of disease or information about the medications for both indication and side effects are some of them

    At all pharmacies in Sweden, EES, Electronic Expert Support, is available. The introduction of e-prescription in the 21st century has enabled an additional safety check for the pharmacist, using Electronic Expert Support (EES) for dispatching prescriptions. The current recipe is compared with other prescriptions where there are withdrawals and the prescriptions where there should be pharmaceuticals left to consume. If there is a risk of incorrect dose, double prescription, age warning, interactions, gender specific or if drug affecting disease, a signal is given at EES control showing strength and action that may, should be done.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate customers perception of advice at the pharmacy and if the use and knowledge of the EES (Elektroniskt Expertstöd) differed between different age groups. The survey was conducted using data collection from seven pharmacies located in five locations spread across Sweden. The collection was conducted for about 100 hours and generated in 277 participants. All participation was voluntary and anonymous. The participants were divided into three age groups: 40 years or younger, 41-60 and over 60 years. The collected data was analyzed by using IBM SPSS and a chi2 test was performed to see if there were any significant differences between the age-groups. The result was compiled and demonstrated in excel diagrams.

    There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of safety and information they received about their drugs. Most people received information about their medicines by the doctor, pharmacist or by reading the package leaflet. However, there was some difference regarding the use of the Internet in a search for information retrieval among those over 60 years. This may be due to lack of internet knowledge or physical impairment. There was also a significant difference when it came to the question of calling 1177 for information on medicines, where people 40 years or younger, called more often than other groups. This may be because they usually have younger children and may need advice regarding illness or injuries.

    There was a significant difference between the age-groups in consent to use EES were elderly people had consented more often. Elderly people usually have more drug prescribes than younger and therefore is it more useful for people over 60 years. The risk of interactions increases with the number of drugs.

  • Ellis, Rebecca
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Larsson, Sanya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Uppdrag: Ansvar: En kvalitativ studie om samverkan mellan socialtjänst och psykiatri i arbetet med personer med samsjuklighet.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att undersöka och analysera beskrivningar av yrkesverksamma inom socialtjänst och psykiatri, deras syn på samverkan, samverkansuppdrag och det praktiska genomförandet av detta uppdrag. Vidare är avsikten att undersöka vilka faktorer som de yrkesverksamma uttrycker påverkar samverkan både positivt och negativt. Studiens metodologiska utgångspunkter är ett hermeneutiskt perspektiv med kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer som insamlingsmetod. Totalt genomfördes sex intervjuer med totalt tre socialsekreterare och tre personer som var verksamma inom psykiatrin, två psykiatrisjuksköterskor och en kurator.

    Utifrån interaktionistisk teori och relationellt perspektiv har sedan resultatet av studien analyserats. Studien visar på att samverkansuppdragen mellan socialtjänst och psykiatri ofta är otydliga på en organisatorisk nivå. Dessutom visar studien på att personlig kontakt mellan parterna som ska samverka kan vara avgörande för en god samverkan och att det krävs fler gemensamma arenor där parterna kan träffas för att utveckla en god samverkan. En slutsats vi drar av studien är att samverkan behöver lyftas från att vara personbunden till att bli organisationsbunden. En annan slutsats vi drar är att SIP är ett bra verktyg för samverkan mellan kommun och psykiatri men att för att detta verktyg ska kunna användas krävs det att personer med rätt mandat är delaktiga och kan fatta beslut.

  • Noori, Nora
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Ngabirano, Elvira
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Våga anmäla: en kvalitativ studie utifrån socialarbetares perspektiv om barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblematik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här kvalitativa studien belyser hur socialarbetare beskriver barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblematik, hinder och utmaningar i arbetet med dessa barn och samverkan mellan de olika yrkesgrupperna i arbetet med barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblematik. Ytterligare belyser studien de stöd och insatser som de olika verksamheterna erbjuder för dessa barn. Undersökningen utfördes i två olika kommuner i södra Sverige. Utifrån den valda kvalitativa metoden nåddes ett resultat från informanternas berättelser. Resultatet påvisar att det finns en mängd olika orsaker till varför det finns svårigheter i att upptäcka barn till föräldrar med missbruksproblematik. En återkommande orsak i resultatet är föräldrarnas förnekelse om sitt missbruksproblematik. I resultatet framkommer det att alla barn påverkas av föräldrarnas missbruksproblematik, dock är påverkas barnen individuellt. Det påvisas att ett samarbete sker mellan de olika yrkesgrupper dock kan samverkan förbättras. Slutsatsen är att samhället behöver mer kunskap om barn i missbruksfamiljer och att fler skall våga anmäla.

  • Grozdanic, Anel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Svensson, Sam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Förebyggande arbete inom skolan: En kvalitativ studie om skolpersonalens upplevelser av förebyggande arbete mot psykisk ohälsa och skolmisslyckande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare och annan skolpersonal möter dagligen elever med psykisk ohälsa eller svårigheter i skolan och det landar ofta på skolan att hantera det. Detta är ett viktigt ämne att få mer kunskap om för att kunna utveckla det förebyggande arbetet i skolan. Syftet är att införskaffa en fördjupad förståelse för  skolpersonalens upplevelser och erfarenheter av det  förebyggande arbetet med psykisk ohälsa och skolmisslyckande hos elever. I denna studie användes Richard Jessor’s problem behaviour theory för att få en  djupare förståelse av sambandet mellan risker och  problematiska beteenden. Studien präglas av en kvalitativ ansats och hermeneutisk samt interpretivistisk utgångspunkt. Sex intervjuer gjordes med tre lärare och tre rektorer. Resultatet visade att skolan använder sig av en rad olika förebyggande insatser såsom värdegrundsarbete samt att de har aktiva insatser såsom extra anpassningar  och särskilt stöd   som de kan använda sig av om elever visar psykisk ohälsa eller riskerar att missa kunskapsmålen. Risken att inte klara kunskapsmålen kan bero på frånvaro eller andra  svårigheter i skolan vilket också sågs som varningstecken. Skolpersonalen upplever ofta att samverkan mellan skolan och andra aktörer blir bristfälligt och detta upplever personalen också som svårt. Mobbning har enligt respondenterna förändrats från fysisk form till psykisk mobbning och utanförskap, vilket motstrider tidigare forskning. Svårigheten enligt respondenterna är att upptäcka mobbning.

  • Karlsson, Martina
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Johansson, Linn
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    "Det är vår skyldighet": En kvalitativ studie om hur mentorer i skolor får ta del av och handskas med elever som har föräldrar med missbruksproblematik2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att undersöka hur mentorer i skolan får kännedom om att elever har en eller flera föräldrar som missbrukar, hur arbetet med dessa elever ser ut samt hur samverkan med andra instanser fungerar. Datainsamling skedde i form av semistruktuerade intervjuer med fem stycken mentorer på olika skolor. Resultatet visar att mentorer får kännedom om att en elev har en eller flera missbrukande föräldrar på olika sätt, som att den berörda föräldern kommer påverkad till skolan, att den andra föräldern berättar för mentorn om familjeproblemet eller att mentorn uppmärksammar vissa tecken hos eleven. När mentorn får reda på eller misstänker att en elev riskerar att fara illa görs en orosanmälan till socialtjänsten. Vidare samverkan med socialtjänsten upplevs som bristfällig eller obefintlig av mentorerna. Den mest hindrande faktorn för samverkan beskrivs som den stränga sekretess som råder för socialtjänsten.

  • Svensson, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Pavlovic, Dejan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Behandlares arbete med unga cannabisbrukare: En kvalitativ studie om möjligheter och hinder i behandlingsarbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att belysa behandlarens roll och syn när det kommer till ungdomar med cannabisproblematik samt deras upplevelse av ungdomars inställning till samma ämne.

    Den metod som valdes för detta arbete var av en kvalitativ ansats och den empiriska data som samlades in var med hjälp av intervjuer genom strukturering av låg grad, vilket innebär att respondenterna hade stort utrymme att svara med egna ord.

    Det som har framkommit under studiens gång är hur ungdomar kommer i kontakt med den hjälpen som de behöver och varför de behöver hjälp med att sluta bruka cannabis. Det framgår även hur mycket alliansskapandet betyder när det kommer till behandlingsarbetet. Andra viktiga saker att poängtera är hur behandlare ska förhålla sig gentemot ungdomarna för att uppnå så goda behandlingsresultat som möjligt. Det som framgått i resultatet är hur behandlare förhåller sig till den svåra balansgången i mötet med ungdom samt hur behandlare upplever unga cannabisbrukare.  

  • Lennartsson, Agust
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Thor, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Träning under graviditet: En enkätundersökning om träningsrekommendationer till gravida kvinnor, samt barnmorskors kunskap och uppfattningar om träning under graviditet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är barnmorskans uppgift att upplysa den blivande mamman om hur hon utifrån ett hälsoperspektiv bör äta och motionera. Således är barnmorskans kunskap och uppfattningar om träning under graviditet oerhört viktig eftersom dessa faktorer i vissa situationer kan vara avgörande för gravida kvinnors hälsa. Syftet med studien är således att undersöka barnmorskors träningsrekommendationer som de ger den gravida kvinnan, samt deras uppfattningar och kunskap om träning under graviditet.

    För att besvara studiens syfte skickades enkäter ut till barnmorskor i södra och mellersta Sverige. 48 enkäter besvarades och analyserades för att identifiera hur faktorer som primär arbetsuppgift, högsta examen, ålder och arbetslängd påverkar skillnader i uppfattningar och kunskap om träning under graviditet. Resultatet visar att de barnmorskor som skattar sin kunskap högst är grupper som utgörs av barnmorskor som arbetar på en mödravårdscentral, de äldre barnmorskorna, de med en kandidatexamen, och de som har arbetat en längre tid inom sitt yrke. Trots att ett flertal respondenter i studien skattat sin kunskap som hög visar resultatet att kunskapen om fysisk aktivitet under graviditet, utifrån FYSS rekommendationer, är bristfällig hos samtliga barnmorskor. Därav dras slutsatsen att det finns ett behov av mer kunskap hos barnmorskorna inom området.

  • Cronwall, Louise
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Wedmark Strand, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Fysisk aktivitet under graviditet: En intervjustudie om gravida kvinnors upplevda fysiska aktivitetsnivå samt rådgivning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Gravida rekommenderas att vara fysiskt aktiva 150 minuter per vecka, måttlig intensitet.

    Under graviditet är fysisk aktivitet en viktig källa för god hälsa. Tidigare studier har

    visat att rådgivning som hjälpmedel har varit effektfullt för att främja en hälsosam

    livsstil under graviditet. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur gravida eller

    nyförlösta kvinnor upplevde informationen och rekommendationerna om fysisk aktivitet

    under graviditet. Metoden som användes var semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Ett

    målinriktat urval som inkluderade sju personer. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för

    att analysera det insamlade datamaterialet. Resultatet redovisades i form av fyra

    kategorier och dessa var kunskap, rekommendationer, fysisk aktivitet samt motivation.

    Alla kvinnor som deltog i studien hade upplevt samma bristande information gällande

    fysisk aktivitet. Alla var även medvetna om att fysisk aktivitet kunde gynna dem för att

    må bra. Kvinnorna upplevde en större motivation till att komma igång igen efter

    graviditeten. Slutsatsen av studien visade att kunskapen om fysisk aktivitet under

    graviditet inte var stor. Om gravida hade kunskap om fördelarna med att vara fysiskt

    aktiv hade det kunnat öka motivationen som i sin tur resulterat i att gravida kvinnors

    aktivitetsnivå ökat.

  • Berlemo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Gustavsson, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Hemlöshetens olika ansikten: En kvalitativ studie om professionellas upplevelser av hemlöshet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet syftar till att belysa hur personal beskriver olika gruppers problematik i hemlöshet samt hur problematiken påverkar de professionellas förmåga att hjälpa dem ur hemlösheten. Den metodologiska utgångspunkten som har använts är en hermeneutisk och kvalitativ ansats med semistrukturerade intervjuer. Fem verksamheter som arbetar med hemlösa personer på olika sätt i två olika städer i Sverige har besökts, där sju respondenter har medverkat. Resultatet har analyserats med stöd av analysmetoden meningskoncentrering. Teorin som har använts i detta arbete är social exkludering då hemlösa personer ofta har blivit exkluderade från viktiga områden i samhället, vilka är grundläggande för att kunna ha en skälig levnadsstandard. I resultatet framkommer det att de professionella möter flera olika grupper av hemlösa i sina arbeten, där grupperna har olika former av problematik vilka ses som olika svåra att bemöta. Det beskrivs även att det är svårt för de som lever i hemlöshet att komma tillbaka till den ordinarie bostadsmarknaden, då det finns en brist på lägenheter med rimliga hyror i dagens Sverige.

  • Andersson, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Eine Untersuchung über Schreibprozesse und Schreibkonferenzen in Deutsch als Fremdsprache2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines if and how the use of writing process and peer review can be beneficial to the text quality when writing a short essay in a foreign language. The study focuses on a group of Swedish high school students, 17 and 18 years of age, studying their second foreign language, German, with no prior experience of working with peer review in any subject. To investigate the efficiency of the use of writing process and peer review, four research questions were formulated:

     

    1   To what extent does peer review lead to an improvement of the text quality?

         a)  What comments to the texts do the students give during the group discussion?

         b)  What do the students change in their own text after the group discussion?

         c)  What are the students’ attitudes toward the work with peer review?

     

    In order to understand how the students worked with the comments and how it affected the text quality, the conversations were compared with the actual changes made between the two text versions. The comments were mostly very polite. Even when the students criticized, they tried to give feedback very gently. All texts were improved after the peer review, although most of the errors from the first draft were still present in the second version. After the writing of the second draft, the students took a survey, where they were able to express their views on various aspects of the project. The students were mostly positive to this way of working with texts, although some of them found that they did not know enough German yet. Nevertheless, most of them wanted to try it again, to see their own progress.

  • Björk, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Lundberg, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Det ospecifika immunsystemets svar på måttlig fysisk aktivitet: En randomiserad tvärsnittsstudie med avsikt att undersöka ”open window”-fenomenet hos friska seniorer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Immunsystemet är en av flera fysiologiska aspekter som försämras vid ökad ålder. Aktuell forskning tyder på att fysisk aktivitet stimulerar ett akut svar från immunsystemet i form av mobilisering av vita blodkroppar (WBC) i blodbanan. I efterförloppet av den fysiska aktiviteten sker en immunosuppression som fortlöper olika länge (3-72 h) beroende på aktivitetens intensitet och duration. Detta fenomen benämns ”open window” och det är idag omstritt huruvida det gör individen mer infektionskänslig efter träning.

    Syfte: Syftet med den aktuella studien var att finna en träningsvolym som tillåter seniorer utföra måttlig aerob fysisk aktivitet utan att riskera en period av immunosuppression. Ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv skulle detta kunna öka livskvalitén hos seniorer utifrån rådanade rekommendationer kring fysisk aktivet utan att riskera infektioner.

    Metod: 29 testpersoner (12 män, 17 kvinnor; medelålder (SD) 70,7 ± 3,8 år) utförde cykelergometertester i intensitetszon 1 under antingen 5, 10 eller 20 minuter. Under provtillfället togs 4 blodprover (Baseline, direkt efter test, efter 15 minuters vila och efter 30 minuters vila) där WBC och dess undergrupper analyserades med hjälp av ett bildanalyssystem (HemoCue WBC Diff System).

    Resultat: Resultaten indikerar att all måttlig fysisk aktivitet på cykelergometer akut förhöjer koncentrationen WBC i blodbanan med 23, 32 och 30 % i respektive grupp (5, 10, 20 min). Efter 15 minuters vila minskade antalet WBC endast signifikant hos de testpersoner som cyklade i 5 minuter med totalt 15 %. Efter 30 minuters vila fanns det inte längre någon skillnad i WBC mellan baselinevärdena och de sist uppmätta värdena vilket tyder på att ingen grupp befann sig i ”open window”.

    Konklusion: Resultaten tyder på att friska seniorer kan utföra fysisk träning som motsvarar de rådande allmänna rekommendationerna för aerob fysisk aktivitet utan att riskera immunosuppression och ”open window”.

  • Svensson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Ldl-sänkande läkemedelsbehandling för hjärtinfarktpatienter - är nuvarande behandlingsriktlinjer rimliga?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Summary

    Background Despite substantial reductions in the incidence of myocardial infarction, the incidence remains high. Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque within the coronary arteries is the most important direct causal factor. Atherosclerosis typically develops slowly and silently and can be described as a build-up of cholesterol-containing plaques within the artery wall. Theories of the causal mechanisms behind atherosclerosis point to a high degree of complexity. Most theories focus on an interaction between inflammatory processes, cholesterol-containing lipoproteins and dysfunction of the endothelial cells within the artery wall. Much focus has been put on the role of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein (LDL). This lipoprotein seems to have a direct causal role in the process. Such a standpoint is based on animal experiments, observational studies, randomized clinical trials with LDL-lowering drugs and Mendelian randomization studies. Treatment guidelines for patients with myocardial infarction therefore recommend LDL-lowering therapy. These guidelines recommend treatment with a high dose statin and some include recommendations to lower LDL to levels below 1.8 mmol/l (69 mg/dl).

    Objective The aim of this thesis was to look at the treatment effects of lowering LDL to low levels for secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and whether the current recommendations of 1.8 mmol/l or less are reasonable. A second objective was to elucidate the question of whether statins have other, pleiotropic effects beside their LDL-lowering capacity. Searches were conducted in pubmed for randomized clinical statin-trials where low average LDL-levels were obtained. Further, a trial with PCSK9-inhibitor evolocumab and a trial with NPC1L1-inhibitor ezetimibe were included in order that the effects of these drugs could be compared with the effects of statins. Thereby, the question of statin-pleiotropy could be analyzed.

    Results Treating patients with a high dose statin to obtain lower levels of LDL reduced the risk of major coronary/cardiovascular events when compared with a low dose statin. The absolute risk reduction was however low. The effect was driven mainly by a reduction in the number of myocardial infarctions and coronary revascularization procedures whereas the effects on mortality seem absent or at best rather modest. The same pattern was seen in the FOURIER-trial where PSCK9-inhibitor evolocumab was compared with standard statin treatment. The active treatment group obtained an average LDL-level of 0.78 mmol/l (30 mg/dl). This pattern was also seen in the IMPROVE-IT-trial, where NPC1L1-inhibitor ezetimibe was compared with standard statin treatment.

    Conclusion Treatment to obtain low levels of LDL have an effect - even at levels below 1.8 mmol/l. LDL-lowering in and of itself seems to have an effect given the results from studies where patients were treated with evolocumab and ezetimibe. The number of patients that need to be treated to prevent one event is however high and a substantial number of patients remain at risk even at very low levels of LDL. This implies the need for other forms of therapy or initiation of LDL-lowering therapies at earlier stages for selected groups of patients before they experience a myocardial infarction

  • Roos, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Stålmarck, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kommunikationens betydelse vid haverier till sjöss: En analys baserad på haverirapporter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of marine accidents caused by the human error does not decrease. A part of the human error is in the communication between different agents within the maritime cluster, at sea and also in the landbased sector. This study is a literature study whose purpose is to investigate how the verbal communication has been practiced and what significance it has had in collisions and groundings. The study is based on reports from the Swedish Accident Investigation Authority with a tool specifically developed for this particular study. The result shows a communication gap in a decisive majority of the analyzed accidents. There is often a lack of communication between VTS and vessels as well as between pilots and commanders. Common prevalence is also language problem where not all parties understand the language used in the communication. With the help of a more widespread practice of already known communication technologies, the number of accidents could be reduced.

  • Schieber, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Piratbekämpning vid Afrikas horn2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att ta reda på hur handelssjöfarten drabbats ekonomiskt och humanitärt av piratverksamheten utanför Afrikas Horn, vilka insatser och åtgärder som vidtagits i bekämpandet av piraterna och hur utfallet av dessa åtgärder varit samt även ge en inblick i bakgrunden till varför piratverksamheten uppstått just i detta område.

     

    Genom litteraturstudier och genom att jämföra och sammanställa data från olika rapporter från tidsintervallet 2010-2016 visas utvecklingen för de ekonomiska och humanitära konsekvenserna av piratattackerna.

     

    Bilden som framkommer är att antalet piratattacker i området minskat mycket kraftigt sedan 2010 och att de olika åtgärder som vidtagits således gett god effekt. Det framkommer dock att de flesta insatserna och åtgärderna främst varit av repressiv typ och mindre av förebyggande typ och att det krävs mer av den senare typen för att förhindra att piratattackerna tar fart igen.

  • Juhlin, Madeleine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Elektroniskt expertstöd ur kundens perspektiv: En enkätstudie om kundens kännedom och inställning till EES2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Medicines are substances used to prevent, alleviate or cure diseases which is an important part of health care. The role of the pharmacist in the healthcare chain is important because they are the patients last contact with healthcare professionals. After this contact they must assume responsibility over their own treatment. The pharmacist's responsibility is to make sure that the patient has received essential information about their drugs and to check that the prescribed dose is correct.

    The increased digitalization of society brings an opportunity for the patients to increase participation and understanding of their drug treatment.

    Decision support systems are different methods used to obtain a basis for decision making. Pharmacists use these systems to check if prescriptions are correct, for example by ensuring that the right medication, in the correct dose, has been prescribed to the right patient at the right time.

    In Sweden there is a decision support system called elektroniskt expertstöd (EES). This system offers pharmacy customers further drug control in addition to other controls that are available through the pharmacy's other systems. The benefit of this system is that the pharmacist has better support in detecting incorrect doses, interactions, duplicate medications and if the drug is inappropriate for the patient's gender or age. When the system alerts, the pharmacist makes an assessment which may be discussed with the patient or the physician if needed.

    Purpose

    The purpose of this survey study was to investigate what the pharmacy customers knows about EES and the pharmacists use of the system.

    Method

    Before the study started, approval from the southeast ethic committee was obtained which said that there were no ethical barriers for the performance of the study. The surveys were handed out to anyone who would receive prescriptions at different pharmacies in Luleå, Grängesberg, Värnamo, Kalmar and Torsås. The common goal was to spend 20 hours of handing out surveys per student. The results were put together and analyzed in IBM SPSS Statistics with descriptive statistics. 

    Results and discussion

    The results show that most of the respondents did not know about EES and did not know if the pharmacists are using this support system. The results also show that most of the respondents had not given their consent to EES and did not know if EES could support the pharmacists work. More than half of the survey population answered “do not know” on a question asking if they wanted the pharmacist to use EES when dispensing drugs. Almost a quarter of the total population wanted the pharmacist to use EES and close to three quarters of the total population had no knowledge of the system. This could mean that the customers who have knowledge wants the system to be used. A reason for wanting the system to be used without having knowledge of it could be that customers trust it is beneficial for themselves and for the pharmacists. Building trust and showing care in each customer meeting is important to make the customer susceptible to information. Sufficient information can lead to better compliance in drug treatments. Before the pharmacist can use EES for the first time the customer must consent. Although it was a few years since the introduction of EES into pharmacies, some pharmacists find it difficult to connect customers to the system. It is a relatively new way of working with drug analysis at the pharmacies in Sweden. More practice in the system could provide increased use of it and help the pharmacists decision making.  

    Conclusion

    Only a small proportion of the pharmacy customers have knowledge of EES. But even so, one fourth of them wanted the system to be used to analyze their medication which is considered positive.

  • Carlsson, Carina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    En enkätstudie om apotekskunders syn på och kännedom om farmaceuters användning av elektroniskt expertstöd, EES2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Drugs are an essential part of health care today. They improve and extend the lives of many people. If drugs are wrongfully combined or given in inaccurate dose, it may lead to poorer quality of life, hospital admissions and even deaths. Drug-related problems cost society a large amount of money each year.

    To minimize these problems, there are now electronic decision supports that doctors and pharmacists can use. At all pharmacies in Sweden, the electronic expert support system available. The EES analyzes electronic prescriptions and doses prescribed and indicates if it detects any potential drug-related problems. Such risks may be that the customer has several drugs with the same effect, drug interactions or that the drug is inappropriate due to age. For children, there are special warnings that may be that the doctor on the prescription has prescribed a higher dose of the drug against what is commonly given to a child.

    The purpose of the study was to investigate pharmacy customers view of and knowledge about pharmacist use of EES. Data were collected via surveys for 100 hours at several different pharmacies in Sweden.

    The vast majority of pharmacy customers did not know of EES, only one fifth of the survey respondents knew what EES meant. Consent from the customer is required for the pharmacist to use EES when dispensing drugs and one third of the customers did not know if they agreed to this or not. Half of the customers did not know if the pharmacist used EES when the drugs were dispensed. Most of the customers also did not know whether their drug dispensing would be safer, if they would get better advice if the EES was used or if they wanted the pharmacist to use EES as a tool in the prescription expedition.

    The study shows that pharmacy customers' views and knowledge about the use of  EES by pharmacists are limited. The reason for this may be that it takes extra time for pharmacists to inform customers about what EES means and ask them for consent that the expert support should be used in the prescription expedition. Many times the pharmacist is experiencing a shortage of time to do this. The reason why EES is not used may be because the pharmacist does not feel adequately educated in how the decision support works and therefore chooses not to use it. It may also be due to communication difficulties such as language problems, hearing impairment or the customer's reduced cognitive ability.

    There is a need for communicative improvements between the customer and the pharmacist so that the pharmacists will increase the use of EES when dispensing drugs. There is also a need for pharmacists to get education in how EES works and how to use the decision support. If this is done, it will provide the customer with a better drug use with reduced risk of side effects and drug-related problems.

  • Averin, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    ”Duktig tjej” vs. ”dålig tjej”: Tjejer i relation till sex i ungdomslitteratur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze how sex effects young girls sense of identity as well as to see which norms there is about sex in relation to girls, which power it has over how they are able to act and still be accepted by their peers and the society. The material that was used consisted of four books that are marketed as ”for young adults” and in which sex was a major component of the stories. The method that was used for studying the books was a qualitative text analysis and the theoretic framework consisted of queer theory, with a main focus on the unstability of gender/sex and sexuality, performativity, the heterosexual matrix and heteronormativity.

    The analysis showed that all books compared the girls to traditional norms about how girls are ”supposed” to act. All while they contradict themselves by showing sides of female sexuality which go against the former understanding of girls and girls sexuality. The female sexuality plays a big part in how girls are understood, how their identity is created. At the same time as sex allows them to create their identity it also creates them and controls them. Beacuse as soon as they don’t conform to the norms they are understood as ”odd” and ”wrong”.

  • Petersson, Fatima
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Suljevic, Adi
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Integrationsarbete med ensamkommande flyktingbarn: En kvalitativ studie om integrationsprocessen baserad på skol- och boendepersonalens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka och analysera hur yrkesprofessionella på skolor och HVB-hem arbetar för att främja en god integration för ensamkommande flyktingbarn. Vi har även undersökt hur samverkan mellan dessa två verksamheter fungerar eftersom de ensamkommande barnen spenderar en stor del av sin tid i dessa verksamheter. Vi har använt oss av semistrukturerade intervjuer där våra intervjufrågor var öppna, vilka tillät oss att ställa följdfrågor till respondenterna. Vi har genomfört totalt sju intervjuer, fyra på olika skolor och tre på olika HVB-hem. Resultatet analyserades med hjälp av en tematisk analys där vi delade upp resultatdelen i huvudteman och underteman. Vårt resultat visade att respektive verksamhet arbetar utifrån olika arbetssätt för att främja flyktingbarnens integration. Skolpersonalen är mer inriktad på att lära ut språket och att få eleverna i samspel med andra elever, medan personalen på HVB-hemmen arbetar för en ökad självkänsla och trygghet hos barnen samt att skapa en meningsfull vardag. I studien framkom det även att det fanns skillnader mellan skolorna i graden av samverkan med HVB-hemmen och att det finns brister i samverkan mellan skol- och boendepersonalen.

  • Gerrevall, Per
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Fonseca, Lars
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Lämplighetsbedömning inför antagning till lärarutbildningen: Linnéuniversitetets försöksverksamhet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linnéuniversitetet är ett av två lärosäten som deltar i den försöksverksamhet med lämplighetsbedömning i samband med antagning till lärar- och förskollärarutbildningen, som initierats av utbildningsdepartementet och som Universitets- och högskolerådet (UHR) ytterst ansvarar för. Jönköping University är det andra lärosätet. Beslutet om vilka lärosäten som skulle få delta i försöksverksamheten fattades efter ansökan och extern granskning av UHR 2014-05-22.  Försöksverksamheten genomförs under 2015–2018, medan lärosätenas uppdrag sträcker sig fram till och med juni 2017, och UHR ska senast den 3 maj 2018 redovisa utfallet av uppdraget till regeringen. I det följande beskrivs försöksverksamheten vid Linnéuniversitetet, dvs. hur denna förberetts, organiserats och genomförts, vilket utfall försöksverksamhetens skarpa prövning resulterat i samt hur lämplighetsbedömningen upplevts av involverade sökande och bedömare.

  • Linnell, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Vägen till Florence Stephens omyndigförklaring: En kvalitativ studie om hur småländsk media skildrar Florence Stephens omyndighetsförklaring2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative study of how Småland local media depict Florence Stephen's declaration of invalidity This is a study that deals with the way in which Florence Stephen's declaration of affairs is viewed from the perspective of the local press. Previous research done in the field shows that Stephen was declared invalid on February 23, 1957, and the proposal for this was already taken on October 27, 1956. To complete the study, a qualitative text analysis has been conducted. This has been done with help from the newspapers Smålandsposten, Kronobergaren and Växjöbladet. Lukes and Focault's power perspective has been used as theoretical tools to analyze the results of the study. The result of the study shows that the papers depict the course starting from the first hearing on January 17, 1957 until Stephens asks himself unauthorized. Until her declaration of confidentiality, the newspapers write partly why the decision on her declaration of invalidity was taken and partly who made the decision. In newspapers, it is also possible to read that Stephen opposed the decision and fought for his authority. In addition, historical perspectives are presented regarding the negative development that occurred during her time as a user owner.

  • Ståleberg, Emmie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gustafsson, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Ni kan aldrig förstå hur jag känner mig": En textanalys om hur det är att växa upp med minst en förälder med missbruksproblematik och psykisk ohälsa.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study aims was to gain a better understanding of how dandelion children (maskrosbarn) in grown age describe their experiences of growing up with at least one parent with substance abuse and mental illness. The study was conducted through a qualitative study on five autobiographies and biographies. The books were analyzed through a text analysis and we used Borges resiliens theory with risk and protective factors to help us see how different factors in the children's lives affect them. Our study shows how the children describes their childhood being effected by their parents substance abuses and mental illnesses. The children describe that their childhood was subject to lack of care and that it was caused both by their parents substance abuses and mental illnesses and the social services lack of help or insufficient help. They grew up with their single mothers in areas with low socio-economic background and felt different from other children. Their most important protective factors were to have someone important in their life, the will to want another life than their parents and to develop a good self esteem. The authors felt unheard and unseen as children even if social services put them in foster care. Through this study it is possible to increase knowledge of how dandelion children in grown age describe their childhood and how it affected them. It also show which help they did or didn´t receive from social services growing up. We propose further research concerning dandelion children closer to our time related to todays laws and regulations.

  • Einarsson, Thorhallur
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Carlstedt, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Barlastvattenkonventionen: Hur svenska tankrederier har hanterat konventionens krav2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic invasive species have spread around the world in ships’ ballast water tanks with dire consequences. To regulate this spreading, the International Maritime Organization implemented the Ballast Water Management Convention which forces ships to, within a certain time frame, install approved ballast water treatment systems. The implimentation of the Convention has been complex and shipping companies have had to face challenges of choosing suitable treatment systems for their ships and trading areas. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives from Swedish tanker shipping companies to examine how the Convention has affected them. On what grounds different treatment techniques were chosen was also examined, as well as if installed treatment systems have met expectations. Results from the study show that companies have suffered economical impacts, have had difficulties handling the implementation of the Convention as well as difficulties finding reliable treatment systems. Furthermore, one respondent referred to a report submitted by Saudi Arabia where extensive ballast water sampling had been conducted on ships calling their ports. The report showed that a considerable amount of ships with approved ballast water treatment systems did not meet the required levels of organisms in the treated ballast water. The interviews confirm the report’s description of the treatment systems’ fundamental flaws.

  • Holmquist, Adam
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Emanuelsson, Oscar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Feasibilitetsstudie fartygsframdrift med ångjetstråle: En förstudie om de fysikaliska och tekniska möjligheterna att framdriva fartyg med ångjetstråle2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A future alternative propulsion method of ships could be a steam jet that is expanded via an ejector. The purpose of the study was to conduct an experiment on two different types of outlet nozzles on the diffuser of the ejector. This was carried out to find which design that is suitable for this propulsion method and what propulsion force that was possible to achieve. The result of the study was then thought to be used as a basis for further studies of steam jet propulsion through an ejector, to possibly increase the energy efficiency in comparison with today's propulsion methods. The result shows that a circular jet provides maximum propulsion force despite a lower inlet pressure and a water temperature at 70 °C in comparison with a flat jet at higher inlet pressures and equal temperature. The experiment gave no measurable propulsion force when expanding wet steam at a pressure of 3 MPa and a temperature at 150 °C.

  • Abbas, Nadeem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Designing Self-Adaptive Software Systems with Reuse2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are increasingly more connected, pervasive, and dynamic, as such, they are subject to more runtime variations than legacy systems. Runtime variations affect system properties, such as performance and availability. The variations are difficult to anticipate and thus mitigate in the system design.

    Self-adaptive software systems were proposed as a solution to monitor and adapt systems in response to runtime variations. Research has established a vast body of knowledge on engineering self-adaptive systems. However, there is a lack of systematic process support that leverages such engineering knowledge and provides for systematic reuse for self-adaptive systems development. 

    This thesis proposes the Autonomic Software Product Lines (ASPL), which is a strategy for developing self-adaptive software systems with systematic reuse. The strategy exploits the separation of a managed and a managing subsystem and describes three steps that transform and integrate a domain-independent managing system platform into a domain-specific software product line for self-adaptive software systems.

    Applying the ASPL strategy is however not straightforward as it involves challenges related to variability and uncertainty. We analyzed variability and uncertainty to understand their causes and effects. Based on the results, we developed the Autonomic Software Product Lines engineering (ASPLe) methodology, which provides process support for the ASPL strategy. The ASPLe has three processes, 1) ASPL Domain Engineering, 2) Specialization and 3) Integration. Each process maps to one of the steps in the ASPL strategy and defines roles, work-products, activities, and workflows for requirements, design, implementation, and testing. The focus of this thesis is on requirements and design.

    We validate the ASPLe through demonstration and evaluation. We developed three demonstrator product lines using the ASPLe. We also conducted an extensive case study to evaluate key design activities in the ASPLe with experiments, questionnaires, and interviews. The results show a statistically significant increase in quality and reuse levels for self-adaptive software systems designed using the ASPLe compared to current engineering practices.

  • Hoffstedt, Gustaf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Vinnare och förlorare: En narratologisk analys av berättelser om spel i svensk litteratur2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Persson, Matts
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Edin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    PLC-styrning till Slambehandlingsenhet: Implementering av ett inloggnings- och registreringssystem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was assigned by the company Lackeby Products AB, which manufactures sludge treatment units. The assignment consisted of developing and supplementing their existing sludge treatment units with a login and registration system using PLC and RFID reader. The purpose was to produce a prototype of the control cabinet with functions according to the assignment description. The work consisted of researching which components that were needed and then create a program for the process and build a prototype cabinet for evaluation. The work was done with basis from manufacturers and the company as well as own experiences. The result became a control cabinet for thesludge treatment units according to previous features, supplemented with a login and registration system with functions as described in the assignment.

  • Svensson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Bengtsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Kostnadsbesparing med avseende på energieffektiviserande åtgärder med avgränsning till fönsterbyte och tilläggsisolering2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Linnaeus University

    Kalmar Maritime AcademyEducation programs:                                          Operation and MaintenanceScope of work:                                                    Independent work of 15 HPTitle:                                                                          Cost savings with regard to energy efficiency                                          measures with delimitation of window change and additional insulationAuthor:                                                                Fredrik Svensson and Johan Bengtsson Supervisor:                                                          Henrik Wärnberg Abstract The 2017 average electricity price ended at around 30 Swedish “öre” per kWh. It is eight percent higher than in 2016 and 32 percent higher than in 2015, when the price for the electricity was much lower. The 2017 electricity price is the highest since 2013. Continuingly, Bixia's low electricity prices predict the next few years, which is due to the expansion of renewable energy and that the Olkilouto 3 nuclear power plant are put into use in Finland.

     

    Bixia expects the Nordic electricity market to have a strengthened energy balance until 2019. After 2019, energy balance will weaken due to the closure of Ringhals 1 and 2 and increased exports of electricity from the Nordic countries, says Martina Rosenberg from Bixia. A weakened energy balance means a higher price level.

     

    The project intention is to mapping the extent of energy losses, in a private household, due to transmission and subsequently assessing energy saving measures, in the form of additional insulation and exchange of windows, would be a profitable investment. Through reduced energy consumption, these investments provide a positive boost to the energy balance and can also contribute to a better indoor environment.

     

    The project follows a method where qualitative experiments have been carried out through measurements on the climate screen. This measurement has been done by using a thermographic camera where images have detected thermal unevennesses in the climate screen that is called cold bridges. Energy losses due to transmission have then been calculated by hand calculation methods and performed for a variety of quantities, such as heat conductivity resistors and thermal coefficients. In addition, the specific climate screen has been divided into several sections and layers, so that structured calculations could be performed according to the calculation process followed by this project.

     

    The survey shows that the measures contribute to is about 4 times less energy losses on energy windows and 2 times less for the wall than the pre-measure values. However, the repayment time is significantly longer for the energy windows, as this is a significantly more costly investment. For PVC windows, the repayment period is approximately 27 years. For aluminum clad wood windows, the repayment period in this case is over 40 years to about 20 years for the additional insulation.

  • Lind, Adam
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Music and Art.
    En musikproducents roll: En undersökning av en musikproducents roll i en musikproduktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet musikproducent finns inte i den svenska akademins ordbok, vilket tyder på att en musikproducents roll inte heller finns fastställt någonstans i akademin. Detta är grunden till ämnet i detta examensarbete, just om att definiera en musikproducents roll, att dokumentera en sådan roll som är vitt spridd åt många olika håll inom en musikproduktion.

    Syftet med arbetet var att finna tydliga roller inom rollen som musikproducent och att också få en förståelse om vilka bakgrunder som kan leda till att bli en sådan. De metoder som använts för att fullfölja detta arbete var dels två intervjuer med två erfarna musikproducenter i närområdet av Gävle, som tydligt gav en bild av deras uppfattning om musikproducenters roll, tack vare deras år av erfarenhet inom ämnet. Det användes också litteratur från Richard James Burgess, Andrew Blake med flera, inom ämnet musikproduktion. Detta resulterade i att en slutsats drogs om att musikproducentens roll inte är fast vid en konstant arbetsuppgift utan att den rollen är flexibel och är aldrig den andre musikproduktionen lik.

    ”The Role of The Music Producer: A Study About The Role of The Music Producer in a Music Production” 

  • Wallentén, Oliver
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Music and Art.
    Elektronisk dansmusik: Historia och Genreutveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elektronisk dansmusik, även förkortat EDM, är en väldigt bred genre med många förgreningar trots att den är relativt ung. På bara drygt hundra år har både teknik och musik gått ifrån att vara två helt separata ting till att tillsammans utgöra en hel genre, och tillsammans med teknikens utveckling har EDM blivit en av de största genrerna som existerar idag. Arbetet har som syfte att undersöka utvecklingen av olika subgenrer i den breda genren EDM för att få en förståelse för händelseförloppet och viktiga faktorer för musikens utveckling. De två frågeställningarna som har format arbetet är “Hur har utvecklingen för EDM sett ut under 1900-talet” och “Vilka tidiga förgreningar finns och vilka element skiljer dem åt”. För att undersöka gjordes det först en sammanfattning av teknikens och den EDMs historia. I den här delen redovisas viktiga uppfinningar, betydelsefulla karaktärer för utvecklingen av elektronisk musik samt utvecklingen av tidiga fördelningar ifrån huvudgenren. Utöver det här gjordes även en musikanalys av åtta stycken musikaliska verk tillhörande olika subgenrer. Sammanställningen av historia och resultaten ifrån analysen visade att förgreningar av subgenrer är starkt knuten till den teknologiska utvecklingen. Resultaten visade också att ju mer fördelningar som förekommer desto mer extrem och avancerad blir musiken. 

  • Haglund, Therese
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Eskilsson, Fanny
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tillit till ambulanssjuksköterskan: En litteraturstudie ur ett patientperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prehospital care is performed outside the safe environment of the hospital when a patient needs emergency care. The patient can feel powerless and experience the prehospital care as frightening. In the meeting with the patient the prehospital emergency nurse should be able to perform care that is systematic, supportive and deliberate. To be able to accomplish this care it is important to create trust. Previous research has shown that trust is an essential factor in the meeting with the nurse.

    Aim:The aim is to illustrate how the patient experiences trust in the prehospital setting with the prehospital emergency nurse.

    Method: Three systematic article researches have been conducted. Twelve qualitative articles were rated based on quality and included in the literature review. The articles were analysed based on a step-by-step guide. The guide is made for qualitative systematic reviews. Sentences that applied to the aim of the study were selected and open coding was conducted. Themes and subthemes constituted the result.

    Result: Trust was created by verbal and nonverbal communication. It was also important that the prehospital nurse provided relevant information, was calm and present in order for the patient to feel trust. The result was presented as follows: dialogue with subthemes: verbal and nonverbal communication created trust and information created trust. Professionalism with subthemes: competence and clinical skills created trust, calm created trust, a lifeworld perspective created trust, ability to create participation created trust and presence created trust.

    Conclusion: Trust was a vital factor for the patient to be able to trust the knowledge and competence the prehospital emergency nurse possesses. The literature review gave immersed knowledge regarding how to create trust and which parts that create a trustful relationship in the short prehospital care relationship.

  • Axelsson Pira, Helen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallin, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Följsamhet av WHO:s checklista för säker kirurgi: Anestesisjuksköterskors perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year millions of surgical procedures are performed worldwide. Surgery related injuries is a public health problem. Due to this problem, in 2008 the World Health Organization, WHO, published a checklist to ensure safer surgeries. The objective was to reduce the number of deaths associated with surgeries worldwide, by addressing important safety issues. Earlier studies have highlighted lack of compliance of the checklist. A Swedish study suggest the need for additional studies to confirm the results of earlier studies.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate anesthesiology nurses’ opinions regarding the compliance of WHO’s checklist for safe surgeries.

    Method: The study was based on the results of a qualitative survey where 34 surveys were collected from three middle sized hospitals. Data analysis was performed according to Lundman and Hällgren-Graneheim’s qualitative content analysis procedure.

    Results: The study shows distinct lack of compliance of the checklist for safe surgery. The compliance of the checklist and the extent to which it is applied, is heavily dependent on the specific individuals included in the surgery team. Unclear responsibilities, local differences within surgery teams, and personal interpretations of the checklist, all affect the compliance of the checklist. Clear responsibilities and continuous education of the checklist both fall short.

    Conclusion: The results confirm earlier studies and emphasizes their clinical significance. The study concludes that even though there’s often lack of compliance, the actual implementation of the checklist, is often perceived as satisfying. The checklist is currently being reviewed and an updated edition with clear directives on areas of responsibilities, will be published during the summer of 2018.

    Keyword

    WHO’s checklist, registered nurse anesthetist's (RNA), compliance, qualitative survey

  • Westerlund Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Lövgren, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Ett motiverande hjälpmedel för studenter: Visuella primingövningar inför läsning samt studenters upplevelse av motivation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is based on the fact that university studies and reading course literature can be difficult for students. The purpose is to investigate what factors are important in designing a mobile application that is designed to facilitate students when reading course literature. In this study, the facts of previous research have been combined to create a prototype. The prototype was tested by potential users. The test was supplemented with questionnaires, estimates and interviews.

    Delimitations in this study was that in the prototype only parts of memory techniques and priming is being tested. The exercises used in the test were put together without any involvement from the users to see if priming of words can help students with learning.

    Previous research addresses the problem of absorbing knowledge from a large amount of course literature. Inspiration has been taken from different types of memory techniques, so-called mnemonics, with the hope that these will facilitate the reading of new literature, thus increasing or maintaining motivation. Other aspects that are addressed include images and memorizing, priming for understanding a text easier, mini-exercises in smartphones tailored for today's pressed schedules as well as motivation. In theory, we have looked at motivation, primarily intrinsic motivation, supported by Keller's ARCS Model based on attention, relevance, confidence and satisfaction. The additional theory part takes up learning, feedback and study strategies.

    This is a qualitative study where facts have been gathered from literature to create a prototype with priming exercises. The prototype and exercises were intended to prepare a student for reading a text. The empirical data was collected from five potential users. The result shows how the potential users perceived the use of the prototype as well as briefly about their general opinions about their own studies. The user's experience of the prototype does not clearly show the benefit of such a type of device. Some users did not fully find the utility of the app, some found it moderately helpful, and one person showed more clearly the prototype also contributed to motivation for further studies. In addition to this, the interviews showed that motivation to study was to increase the possibility of getting a job in the future. It also turned out that course literature was not always used but the students found the necessary information in another way. Most participants indicated that preparation for an examination often occurred the days before the deadline, however, it is unclear how the participants interpreted the meaning of "prepare yourself".

    A reflection of the study is to improve clarity regarding the mobile exercises and connection to the text that belonged to the exercises. If this was very unclear to users, it may affect the result.

  • Hällqvist, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mohlin, Max
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Slopad praktiklön: En studie om hur svenska sjökaptensstudenter upplever de nya villkoren2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I juni 2017 upphörde den skyldighet för redare som under en del tidigare år funnits, att anställa sjöbefälsstudenter på svenskflaggade fartyg under den fartygsförlagda utbildningen. Detta kan nu kan leda till att de inte får någon månadsersättning för tiden ombord under sina praktikperioder. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka hur sjökaptensstudenter upplever att de nya villkoren har förändrat den fartygsförlagda utbildningen och hur villkoren, såväl som andra faktorer, har påverkat sjökaptensstudenters motivation under den fartygsförlagda utbildningen. En kvalitativ metod i form av semistrukturerade intervjuer har använts. Resultatet visar att den fartygsförlagda utbildningen har förändrats både positivt och negativt av de nya villkoren, dock verkar de negativa aspekterna väga något tyngre. Studien åskådliggör även att motivationen hos samtliga respondenter påverkades negativt någon vecka innan påmönstring och att den sedan successivt ökade igen efter några veckor ombord tack vare faktorer som bra besättningar, duktiga handledare, lärorika uppgifter och ansvar. Däremot visar resultatet även att motivationen återigen sänktes då okvalificerade arbeten utfördes under obetalda praktikperioder.

  • Larrson, Martin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Åkerlund, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Säkerhetsövningar ombord: En statistisk undersökning om studenters upplevelser av säkerhetsövningar ombord2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The life onboard a vessel is isolated, therefore it’s important that the crew is trained to handle emergencies. The purpose of this report is to survey the experience of safety drills according to students at Kalmar Maritime Academy. By using a quantitative survey method, the quality of the safety drills could be compared between different ship types, crew sizes and crew languages. How to improve safety drills were also surveyed. The results show that the quality of safety drills is good but could be improved. According to the results quality doesn’t differ depending on ship types. However, the majority of the respondents preferred smaller crews and Swedish instructors leading the safety drills in order to achieve better commitment among the crew. More time for planning and implementation, more realistic and various scenarios together with better commitment within the entire crew were suggestions as to how to improve safety drills.

  • Rudberg, Josef
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    „Sprecht Deutsch, bitte!“: Die Fremdsprachenverwendung unter schwedischen SchülerInnen in Bezug auf ihre Fremdsprachenverwendungsangst und Fremdsprachenverwendungsfertigkeiten2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies that have utilized the Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale (FLSAS) have performed their studies with the assumption that Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety is negatively correlated with oral skills, i.e. as anxiety increases, speaking skills decrease. In order to confirm this assumption, this study included a survey, the purpose of which is to measure three factors, in order to verify the possibility of other factors playing possibly bigger roles, among upper secondary school students in Sweden: the frequency of language use, their anxiety levels, and foreign language speaking skills. In order to be able to discuss the data thoroughly, this study includes theories regarding motivation, Self-Determination Theory, and Willingness to Communicate (WTC). The data showed that as the anxiety of the students increased, their language speaking skills decreased, i.e. a negative correlation was discovered. However, their frequency of foreign language use remained virtually the same, regardless of their anxiety levels, i.e. no strong correlation was discovered here. Lastly, the language skills of the students showed a weak positive correlation with their language use, i.e. the more they spoke, the higher their oral skills were. Therefore, the results of this study confirm previous studies claiming that foreign language speaking competence has a strong negative correlation with foreign language speaking anxiety.

  • Berg, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Motortekniker och småbarnsförälder: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om att kombinera arbete och familjeliv2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fransén, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Green-Dahl, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattningar om omvårdnadsåtgärder som förebygger postoperativ smärta hos patienten: En fenomenografisk intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Postoperativ smärta är en oundviklig följd av ett kirurgiskt ingrepp och samtidigt orsaken till lidande hos patienter. Anestesisjuksköterskan ansvarar för den perioperativa omvårdnaden kring patienten där smärtlindring och förebyggande av postoperativ smärta har en central roll. Författarna till denna studie har observerat en variation i tillämpningen av de perioperativa omvårdnadsåtgärderna som lindrar den postoperativa smärtan hos patienten.  

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa anestesisjuksköterskans uppfattningar om perioperativa omvårdnadsåtgärder för att förebygga smärta efter ett kirurgiskt ingrepp.

    Metod: I studien användes fenomenografisk metod. Individuella intervjuer med anestesisjuksköterskor genomfördes och analyserades med induktiv ansats.

    Resultat: Genom analys av datamaterialet från enskilda intervjuer kartlagges det fyra beskrivningskategorier om anestesisjuksköterskornas uppfattningar gällande omvårdnadsåtgärder som lindrar den postoperativa smärtan. Beskrivningskategorierna som bildades var att ge tydlig information och upprätthålla en bra kommunikation, att lindra oro och stress, omvårdnadsåtgärder som bidrar till fysiskt välbefinnande och planera och genomföra medicinering i rätt tid. Det har framkommit att ge tydlig information och upprätthålla en bra kommunikation har en övergripande position gentemot övriga kategorier och präglar den perioperativa omvårdnaden som syftar på att lindra den postoperativa smärtan hos patienten.

    Slutsats: Postoperativ smärta är ett vanligt förekommande problem till följd av ett kirurgiskt ingrepp. För att förebygga problemet och minska lidande bör anestesisjuksköterskan tillämpa både farmakologiska och icke farmakologiska omvårdnadsåtgärder. Individanpassning av smärtlindrande omvårdnadsåtgärder under det perioperativa förloppet är av stor vikt.

  • Barkow, Fanny
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Johansson, Joel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    ALLMÄNSJUKSKÖTERSKANS UPPLEVELSER AV ATT VÅRDA PATIENTER MED PSYKISK OHÄLSA INOM SOMATIKEN: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Psykisk ohälsa är ett omfattande begrepp och kännetecknas av att personen har nedsatt förmåga att hantera sina känslor och upprätthålla samspel med andra människor. Den psykiska ohälsan räknas idag som ett av de stora folkhälsoproblemen och har ökat både i Sverige och internationellt. Ökningen av dessa sjukdomar i samhället har lett till en ökning av patienter med psykisk ohälsa som söker somatisk vård. Synen och attityden hos vårdaren gentemot patienten påverkar utformningen av vården. Tidigare forskning visar att både sjuksköterskor och patienter upplever svårigheter då patientgruppen vårdas inom somatiska vårdenheter. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att belysa allmänsjuksköterskans upplevelser att vårda patienter med psykisk ohälsa i den somatiska vården. Metod: Metoden var en intervjustudie av kvalitativ ansats vilket gav möjlighet att beskriva och få en fördjupad förståelse för upplevelser. Sammanlagt intervjuades åtta allmänsjuksköterskor. Resultat: Sjuksköterskorna berättade om varierande upplevelser vid vårdandet av patienter med psykisk ohälsa som sammanställdes i följande kategorier; Kunskap, arbetsbelastning och sjukdomstillstånd. Slutsats: Resultatet av studien visar på ett behov av förbättringar i sjuksköterskors arbetsförhållanden samt ökad kunskap inom området för att kunna bedriva en så god vård som möjligt. För att lyckas med detta krävs mer utbildning och bättre förutsättningar för sjuksköterskan, både miljömässigt och resursmässigt.

  • Public defence: 2018-06-01 10:00 Kalmar
    Davidsson, Marita
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Värdeladdade utvärderingar: en diskursanalys av förskolors systematiska kvalitetsarbete2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching interest of this licentiate thesis is directed towards values as they are discursively constructed in systematic quality work in preschool. The aim of the study is to contribute with knowledge about the values discursively expressed in systematic quality work in preschool and how these can, in turn, be understood in relation to current quality work contexts. Values, as understood in the study, are assumptions about something good, desirable and worth aiming at and are seen as socially constructed in a specific societal, cultural and historical context. Discourse can be interpreted as a certain way of talking about and understanding values where language represents a specific meaning context.

    Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis has been applied to critically examine and make visible what values and discourses are expressed in the systematic quality work in preschool, as well as their mutual relations. In addition, Ball’s performativity concept has been used. The empirical material consists of 17 preschools’ documented systematic quality work in the form of evaluations conducted during the 2014-2015 school year.

    The value practice emerging from the analysis of the evaluations carries a complexity in that values appear to overlap and may thus be hard to separate. Values are both explicitly and implicitly expressed. What is highlighted as desirable can be categorized within five areas: competence, democracy, ethics, disciplination and efficiency.

    The result shows that a goal rational, a market-oriented, a relational, a morally oriented and a development psychology discourse are included in the order of discourse that exercises power over the values that are expressible and over the way this is done. The analysis clearly demonstrates the predominance of the goal rational discourse, while the influence of the development psychology discourse seems to be limited with regard to what is considered desirable in the organization. It also emerges that there is a power structure where the goal rational and the market-oriented discourses seem to include and articulate the other discourses within the order of discourse.

    In a long-time perspective, preschool activities appear to have passed from development psychology rationality to goal rationality. For preschool children this transformation may have entailed that currently the strongly emphasized welfare aspect of the organization tends towards a strong emphasis on competence. These values stand out in the evaluations as two opposite poles, which may indicate a swing of the pendulum from one side to the other.

  • Ida, Rönningen
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bäckman, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Vad är en värdig död?: Palliativ vård ur sjuksköterskans perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den palliativa vården handlar vårdandet om att stödja patienten oavsett vilken sjukdom det gäller. Sjuksköterskans uppgift är att förebygga och lindra lidande, men framför allt att förbättra livskvaliteten för patienten. Det finns en vårdmodell som sjuksköterskan kan använda sig av inom palliativ vård som heter “de 6 S:n” som syftar till att gynna patientens delaktighet under livets slutskede med fokus påpatientens perspektiv.

  • Jonsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Gustafsson, Emil
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Fördelar och nackdelar med HVO inom sjöfarten: En undersökning om hur HVO ur drift- och miljösynpunktstår sig mot traditionell diesel och tjockolja.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is based on a literature study from previous work regarding the biofuel HVO and its function in the operation of several different types of diesel engines. The authors of this work have looked at the pros and cons of operating at HVO and made comparisons with diesel and HFO which dominate in shipping today. The work has been done with a focus on technical operations and environmental aspects in use and we have not taken availability, production and distribution into consideration. We have also raised future emission requirements in shipping and discussed what may be needed to cope with these. Differences in carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and particulate emissions are treated together with operational aspects such as performance, fuel consumption and storage stability. In summary, the results have proven to be in favor for HVO in comparison to diesel and HFO, especially from an environmental perspective. The biggest dilemma at present is whether to meet the enormous needs of fuel, as raw materials are limited and the production methods costly.

  • Johansson, Linnea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Vilka potentiella behandlingsalternativ finns det mot bakteriella infektionssjukdomar som ligger i fas 2-3 studier eller som man bedriver forskning på?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance against antibiotics has become a global world problem. The effect of antibiotics is affected by the resistant bacteria and they cause infections that are difficult to treat. This is a major burden on the healthcare and leads to increased mortality. Globally, about 700,000 people die each year because of antibiotic resistance. By the year 2050 death rates are estimated to have increased to 10 million deaths per year due to the lack of effective treatment methods against multiresistant bacteria. Pharmaceutical companies’ research to develop new antibiotics is steadily decreasing, while multiresistant bacteria increase in number and spread. Bacteria evolve fast and highly resistant bacteria seem to evolve almost at the same pace as new drugs are discovered. As more antibiotics are used, more resistance is developed, so the pharmacy industry keep having to find new antimicrobial agents that the bacteria haven´t figured out how to protect themselves against yet. 

    The aim of this study was to investigate different treatment options available for infectious diseases that are currently in phase 2 or 3 clinical trials studies or research is being conducted on?

    This study is a literature study, five articles were selected from PubMed and analyzed. One study evaluates the effect of using new compounds to target a new potential pocket on DNA-gyrase. One study evaluates if silver can disturb the structure of the bacteria and thus increase the flow of antibiotics into the cell. Three studies evaluate the effect of nanoparticles containing metals such as silver or copper-zink-iron and the bacteriocin nisin. The current study shows that new compounds as well as new approaches to treating bacterial infections are expected to help stop this crisis. New strategies in the field of antibiotics include new drug targets, new drug delivery methods and new drug combinations.

    The compounds produced and directed against the new pocket on DNA-gyrase were stopped due to toxicity but opens a new path for further research. Cells treated with silver had different membrane permeability, destabilized the structure of the peptidoglycan layer and increased production of hydroxyl radicals. Nanoparticles seem to be a potential antibacterial agent, the advantage of nanoparticles is that substances can be combined within nanoparticles and provide synergistic effects. With the help of nanotechnology, drug delivery systems can be improved as well as drug administration. More studies are needed though to investigate the safety of taking nanoparticles and to verify the results of this literature review. 

  • Mazetti Birath, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Wallfors, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av informellt tvång.: En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In literature, there is not a singular definition of what an informal coercive action is. One of the definitions mentioned however is as follows: “ A informal coercive action is an coercive measure that patients may receive, one that is not regulated by law.” Earlier research also suggests that it can mean under the threat of reprisals should the patients not commit to the predetermined measures, which according to some participants is a good way to make the patients mediate to their care. The literary review done, shows that there are only a handful of studies concluded on the subject of informal coercion.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine nurses experience of informal coercion.

    Method: The study was accomplished through interviews with qualitative effort. The gathered material was then analysed with Graneheim´s and Lundman´s content analysis.

    Results: The outcome was then presented based on five categories with associated subcategories. Informal coercion as exercised power, Informal coercion based on a will to help, Nurses experiences of informal coercion, Documentation of informal coercion events and its importance and Experiencing informal coercion raises awareness.

    Conclusion: In practice, there are no evident differences between informal coercion. Patients in emergency psychiatric care are exposed to threats of coercion and put to ultimatums regarding their care. Neither are there any clear definitions of what informal coercion is, this needs to be clarified to achive a better understanding of what informal coercion is.

     

  • Madeleine, Svensson
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hanna, Drott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters erfarenheter av att vara vakna under ett kirurgiskt ingrepp -En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the current situation there is a lack of empirical knowledge of patients' experiences of being operated in regional anesthesia. The operating theatre nurse is responsible for patient care and well-being during the intraoperative period. Therefore the operating theatre nurse needs knowledge about patients' experience of being awake during surgery, to provide person-centered and evidence based nursing.

    Aim: To investigate patients' experiences of being awake during a surgical procedure.

    Methods: A systematic literature study containing 11 articles with a qualitative approach. The analysis has been performed with metasynthesis.

    Results: The result emerged two main themes with subthemes about patients' experiences. 1) Experiences of regional anesthesia, with subthemes: experiences of participation, experience of handling the situation, experiences created by the senses, experiences from the environment and experiences of pain. 2) Importance of the carers, with subthemes: The importance of presence by the carers, the importance of a good communication and the importance of receive information. The findings show that being operated in regional anesthesia gives patients a sense of participation and control, while at the same time it appears that patients experience anxiety and pain during their surgical procedures. Patients experience the environment through their minds and use different ways to handle the experience of being operated in a wakeful state. To feel safe it is important to receive continuous information and to feel presence to the carers.

    Conclusions: To provide good care for patients operating in regional anesthesia, the operating theatre nurse must have knowledge about patients experience in the intraoperative period as well as the ability to see and respond to each patient based on their unique lifeworld.

  • Aldén, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Livsstilsförändringar vid fetma: En litteraturstudie som undersöker livsstilsförändringar samt hur täta kontakter påverkar följsamheten2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has become one of our times most endemic disease on a global scale and changes to lifestyle is the most cost-effective way to treat patients, when the cost for healthcare related treatment is staggeringly high for obesity and sequela diseases NAFLD, diabetes typ 2, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome.The problem with this remedy is that it requires work and dedication. But changes require hard work, and in this patient group- low compliance, weight gain after treatment, dropping out of programs and small desire to change are the most common problems. Motivational studies report that readiness in obese patients is low and the best way to help patients to move forward is by motivational conversations. The obesity sequela disease NAFLD is an asymptomatic disease it displays no symptoms until very late stages. Therefore it’s a problem to get patients make the patient understand his illness and the seriousness of it.

    Aim: This literature work was aimed at investigating compliance in lifestyle changes in obese subject and to see if close contact with healthcare staff affected the achieved results.

    Method: In this literature study, the databases Pubmed, Science Direct, Medline and Sportdiscus were used to find information. Article inclusion criteria were that the articles were not older than 10 years and were in English.

    Result: Frequent and regular contacts between participants and professional staff provided good results both with regard to weight loss, biochemical response, and the participants' willingness to change. Also it shows that return visits at least every three months will improve weight loss if the participant is motivated to implement a change to lifestyle.

    Conclusion: Overall, this literature study shows the difficulties with lifestyle changes in people with obesity and sequela NAFLD. Close contacts of the patients with healthcare staff has proven to have a positive impact on treatment compliance, but there are other lifestyle difficulties in these patient groups which hamper compliance. 

  • Andersson, Klara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ledarskap till sjöss: Utmaningar med multikulturellt ledarskap ombord i fartyg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possible challenges regarding multicultural leadership at sea, and to see if these differ from challenges connected to multicultural leadership ashore.

    Considering the special conditions onboard a ship, and based on previous studies and literature, five components for successful multicultural leadership at sea has been identified. These five components have been the base of an interview guide, which has been used to conduct interviews with twelve seafarers onboard a Swedish flagged ship. The seafarers were asked what they consider to be good leadership, their expectations on leadership and how they feel affected by the environment onboard.

    According to the interviews, the seafarers feels that the most important traits for a leader is to be fair, kind and knowledgeable. The seafarers appear to be aware of the expectations connected to their roles onboard, but they do not seem to contemplate that people from different cultures may have different expectations on their role. Based on the literature study and the interviews, one can make out that a ship-specific culture rules the social environment onboard. The crewmembers seem to primarily adapt and adjust to this ship-specific culture, and their own national culture comes in second hand.  In conclusion, the biggest challenge of multicultural leadership at sea is recognized to be the ability to be a fair and kind leader in an isolated and wearying environment.

  • Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nelander, Pierre
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Icke farmakologiska interventioner som förebygger preoperativ oro: En systematisk litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Preoperativ oro har visat sig vara vanligt bland patienter som väntar på kirurgiska ingrepp. Det finns ett samband mellan preoperativ oro och postoperativa komplikationer med förlängd sjukhusvistelse till följd. Genom att minska den preoperativa oron främjas hälsa, vilket är anestesisjuksköterskans ansvarsområde. Syfte: Syftet var att identifiera förekommande icke-farmakologiska interventioner för att lindra preoperativ oro och effekten av dessa åtgärder.Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie med kvantitativ ansats och en beskrivande analys utifrån 23 vetenskapliga artiklar.Resultat: Fyra kategorier i resultatet hittades. Information och undervisning gav en god effekt med minskad preoperativ oro där bemötandet kunde ses vara en viktig komponent för att ge positiv effekt. Ljud och musik gav signifikant minskning av preoperativ oro, en aspekt som stod ut var livemusik. Avslappning gav en god effekt medan Övriga metoder hade sämre effekt förutom Akupressur som gav signifikant minskning av preoperativ oro.Slutsats: Information, undervisning, musik och avslappning ger en god effekt med minskad preoperativ oro. Dessa behandlingar är kostnadseffektiva och lätta att implementera i vården, särskilt musik.