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  • Winkler, Moa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Den modiga pojken och den duktiga flickan: En genusanalys av Harry Potter och de vises sten med svenskdidaktisk anknytning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie är en genusanalys av karaktärerna Harry Potter och Hermione Granger i Harry Potter och de vises sten. Harry Potter-serien har haft ett stort genomslag på bokmarknaden och är en av de tre största fantasyserierna i modern tid (Alkestrand, 2016:28). Detta gör det relevant att kritiskt granska boken för att sedan använda den i klassrummet, både på högstadie- och gymnasienivå. Syftet med studien är således att granska boken utifrån ett genusperspektiv och problematisera eventuella stereotyper. Centralt i studien är en jämförelse mellan hur Harry och Hermione skildras och hur skildringarna reproducerar eller ifrågasätter normer kring genus. Studien utgår från ett didaktiskt perspektiv och en av frågeställningarna utgår därför ifrån vad litteratur kan ha för påverkan på våra förutfattade meningar och hur detta kan uppmärksammas i en klassrumssituation. Studien visar således att karaktärerna i Harry Potter och de vises sten uppfyller många stereotyper om vad som anses vara manligt och kvinnligt. Harry tillskrivs rollen som den modiga, aktiva pojken och Hermione som den passiva, duktiga flickan som utsätts för negativa konsekvenser när hon bryter mot normerna.

  • Sjöstrand, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Didaktiska möjligheter utifrån genuskonstruktioner i Hungerspelen: En karaktärsanalys av Katniss Everdeen och Peeta Mellark2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie har för avsikt att studera romanen Hungerspelen, skriven av Suzanne Collins. Syftet är att undersöka hur karaktärerna Katniss och Peeta skildras ur ett feministiskt perspektiv där fokus ligger på att studera de båda karaktärernas genuskonstruktioner. Ett delsyfte för studien är även att undersöka vilka didaktiska implikationer ett arbete med denna roman kan leda till i undervisningen i en gymnasieklass. Den metod som använts i analysen är närläsning där fokus legat på att utifrån romanens innehåll analysera framställningen av Katniss och Peeta, främst utifrån delar av Nikolajevas motsatsschema över stereotypa kvinnliga och manliga egenskaper. Analysen visar att de båda karaktärerna skildras som normbrytande men även att de bekräftar många av de stereotyper och normer som finns när det gäller kvinnligt och manligt beteende.

  • Nykvist, Leo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Emotionell kompetens och svåra besked.: En kvalitativ studie utförd hos Kronofogden.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sambandet mellan emotionella kompetenser och svåra besked är ett relativit outforskat område, den tidigare forskningen har bedrivits i huvudsak inom vårdvetenskap. I denna studie studeras vilka emotionella kompetenser respondenterna anser sig behöva för att kunna lämna svåra besked och vad ett svårt besked är enligt deras uppfattning. Instrumenten som användes var en semistrukturerad intervjuguide och en enkät. Fem respondenter fick svara på frågor gällande svåra besked och fylla i en enkät som belyste emotionella kompetenser. Resultatet visar att de anser att svåra besked är ett komplext ämne och beror på situationen och hur avsändaren och mottagaren uppfattar innehållet i budskapet. De hade en samsyn på 11 av 25 emotionella kompetenser som de ansåg behövdes för att kunna lämna svåra besked. De var: emotionell medvetenhet, korrekt självbedömning, pålitlighet, noggrannhet, innovationsförmåga, engagemang, optimism, förstå andra, serviceorientering, samverkan och samarbete samt teamförmåga.

  • Mc Guire Nyström, Charlie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Biomarkörer & bröstcancer: Förutsägelse av tamoxifeneffekt vid östrogenreceptorpositiv bröstcancer hos kvinnor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    For women breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in Sweden, approximately 10 000 patients were diagnosed in 2017. Breast cancer is the leading cause of death among women around the world and in Sweden it is the second most common cause of death. Breast cancer arise from the terminal duct lobular units of the breast, most tumour types are classified as non-invasive called cancer in situ, specifically as ductal cancer in situ. When diagnosing breast cancer there are different ways to characterize tumours. One example is the use of prognostic and predictive biomarkes, which provides information about prognosis and treatment effect. The most common analysis is that of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) expression. Estrogen and progesterone regulate proliferation of mammary glands and the development of breast tissue. Approximately 85 % of tumours express these two steroid receptors. The presence of ER in cancer cells is the most important marker for prediction of adjuvant tamoxifen treatment effect. Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which upon binding to the ER in breast tissue regulate the proliferative effects and acts as an anti-estrogen. Tamoxifen is used in the treatment of breast cancer in pre and postmenopausal women with ER-positive tumours. Some patients, however, will still not respond to treatment and experience a breast cancer relapse within 15 years. Because of this it’s important to aquire knowledge of and validate these prognostic and predictive biomarkes as well as futher study breast cancer biology to better individualise treatment according to patient needs. 

    The aim of this study was to evaluate potential predictive biomarkers in the treatment of ER-positive breast cancer with adjuvant tamoxifen. Specifically, if the effect of tamoxifen can be predicted using specific biomarkers. Potential future biomarkes evaluated were the expression of HOXB13, IL17BR, CYP2C19, CCND1 and RSF1 genes and the protein expression of mTOR, Akt, ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, HOXB13, AIB1, CXCL10 and CXCR3. This litterature study is based on the analysis of 10 different retrospecitve studies of predictive markers based on patient materials from original randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of tamoxifen. Seven of the studies were collected using the database PubMed, however two studies were collected from a thesis. The search was limited to articles which studied tumour material of pre- or postmenopausal female breast cancer patients randomized to adjuvant tamoxifen treatment or control.

    Based on the results presented, potential predicitive biomarkes of tamoxifen efficacy and benefit of breast cancer patients could be a high protein expression of AIB1, a low expression of the HOXB13 protein and a high expression of CXCL10 and CXCR3. Moreover, predicitve markers of tamoxifen benefit could also be a CYP2C19*2 variant allel. A reduced response to treatment could be predicted with the positive expression of p-mTOR-s2448, p-ER-s167/s305 and p-Akt. HER2-positivity could be a marker for identifying patients who will not respond to tamoxifen and may benefit greater from other treatments. These results, however, needs to be verified in bigger cohorts of breast cancer patients, e.g. in meta-analyses or prospective randomized studies.

  • Lindell, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Behandling med monoklonala antikroppar vid episodisk och kronisk migrän2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Migrän är en av de vanligaste huvudvärksformerna och drabbar 11–12% av den vuxna befolkningen. Det finns flera olika utlösande faktorer bland annat stress, hunger och sömnbrist. Vid ett migränanfall är smärtan unilateral, pulserande och förvärras vanligen vid fysisk ansträngning. Ofta upplever den drabbade även icke-smärtrelaterande symtom, så som illamående, kräkning samt ljud- och ljuskänslighet. Migrän diagnostiseras med hjälp av kriteriesystemet International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) utefter den drabbades symtom. Det finns sex underkategorier av migrän, där kronisk migrän är en av dessa och innebär huvudvärk i minst 15 dagar per månad där minst åtta av dagarna är migrän. Episodisk migrän klassificeras inte enligt ICHD, utan definieras i flera studier som huvudvärk i färre än 15 dagar per månad. Patofysiologin vid migrän är fortfarande inte helt klarlagd, men teorier föreslår att migrän orsakas av kortikal depressionsspridning (CSD) som sprider sig över hjärnbarken, den så kallade aurafasen. Aurafasen orsakar synförändringar hos den drabbade och ibland även sensoriska symtom. När CSD sprider sig över nervvävnader i hjärnan kommer det trigeminovaskulära systemet aktiveras, vilket leder till frisättning av bland annat kalcitonin gen-relaterad peptid (CGRP). CGRP når meningeala och intrakraniella artärer och binder till kalcitonin gen-relaterad peptidreceptor (CGRP-receptor) och orsakar vasodilatation. Dessutom binder CGRP till CGRP-receptorer på centrala neuron vilket leder till sensitisering av smärtreceptorer. Denna kaskad av händelser tros vara orsaken till migränsmärta. Migrän förekommer även utan att aurafasen fås och forskare tro att det sker ett CSD-liknande fenomen även här. Dessa teorier om att CGRP har en central roll i utvecklandet av migrän har gjort att läkemedel riktade mot CGRP eller CGRP-receptorn börjat utvecklas exempel monoklonala antikroppar. Idag finns de tre monoklonala antikroppar riktade mot CGRP (exempel fremanezumab) och en mot CGRP-receptorn (erenumab). Fremanezumab binder specifikt till CGRP och förhindrar peptiden från att binda till sin receptor, medan erenumab binder direkt till receptorn och förhindrar att peptiden kan binda in. Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att jämföra effekten av fremanezumab och erenumab mot placebo hos patienter med kronisk eller episodisk migrän. Dessutom studerades läkemedlens biverkningar. Metod: En litteraturstudie utfördes där sju artiklar, hämtade från databasen PubMed, granskades. Resultat: Tre studier granskade fremanezumab och alla doser (225 mg och 675 mg) av läkemedlet minskade antalet migrändagar per månad signifikant jämfört med placebo. Fyra studier granskade erenumab och doserna 70–140 mg minskade signifikant antalet migrändagar per månad jämfört med placebo. Biverkningarna var liknande mellan läkemedelsgrupperna och placebo, där injektionssmärta var vanligast förekommande. Slutsats: Behandling med fremanezumab i doserna 225–675 mg månadsvis eller kvartalsvis och erenumab i doserna 70–140 mg månadsvis minskade signifikant antalet migrändagar per månad jämfört med placebo. Biverkningarna var få, men studier med längre behandlingstid är nödvändiga för att utvärdera säkerheten och toleransen av läkemedlen under ett längre perspektiv.

  • Zineldin, Mosad
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Cognitive and Brain Reserve (CBR): Tools to Reduce the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer2018In: Advances in Alzheimer's Diseases, ISSN 2210-5727, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 93-102, article id 88472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The study was performed to examine and assess the impact of the education, occupation and leisure time on building brain and cognitive reserves (CBR). A cross sectional study of 132 persons at age between 40 to 70 years old has been conducted. A structuredquestionnaire covering multiple constructs was used to collect the data. Multivariate regression results show that the three independent variables (LE, OC and ED) were statistically significant in the models with CBR as dependent variable. Leisure time and activities (LE) makethe strongest unique contribution (0.683) followed by occupation (0.261) and the weak contribution of the education (0.198) to explainthe dependent variable cognitive and brain reserve (CBR).The Brain and Cognitive Reserve hypothesesassumes that a rich intellectual measures and abilities a person have during her/his life enable this person to copewith difficult cognitive tasks and social events in life.

  • Halldin, Malin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    De äldre patienternas upplevelser av besöket på akutmottagningen: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background.

    Previous research shows that the proportion of older people over the age of 65 increases. This increase results in a larger number of elderly people in the Swedish emergency departments which are not adapted for older patients with more complex care needs. The waiting times for elderly patients are long and due to lack of care measures, the risk is they suffer from injuries such as malnutrition, overflowing bladder and fall.

    Aim.

    The purpose was to describe the elderlies` experiences of visiting the emergency department.

    Method.

    The present study is a systematic review of literature based on eleven scientific articles.

    Result.

    The result shows that the elderly patients have both positive and negative experiences of staying at the emergency department. The results are presented in six categories, which are Safety, Confirmation, Understanding, Communication, Waiting, and Physical Discomfort.

    Conclusion.

    The result provides in-depth knowledge to the emergency nurse in meeting with older patients. Knowledge can contribute to identifying improvement measures in the care of the elderly, thereby reducing the risk of healthcare injuries and suffering. The conclusion is that the care of older patients can be improved. The result shows that the elderly wants confirmation from the nursing staff and they also want to be involved in thir care by getting information in a level that they can understand. Through the application of a person-centered approach, participation can be achieved and the patient's individual needs can be more easy to identify, which contributes to reduced suffering for elderly patients.

  • Skoogh, Camilla
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rydin, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Det sitter i väggarna: En enkätstudie om säkerhetskultur i operationsmiljö2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injury caused by healthcare causes both a suffering for the patient but also a great cost to society. The operation department is a high-risk environment that demands both personal risk-consciousness and well-functioning team work. WHO:s checklist can improve the team's cooperation but also a good safety culture can strengthen the team's performance. Safety culture is the individual's attitudes towards each other and the common perceptions of risks.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate attitudes to the safety culture and the WHO:s checklist. The question of the study was: do attitudes differ to the safety culture between professions and hospitals?

    Methods: The study was based on a quantitative research approach, data has been obtained using a web survey with the intention of measuring and then analyzing different groups' attitudes to the safety culture and the WHO:s checklist. Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ-OR) is adapted to operating care and provides a snapshot of the safety culture. The questionnaire consisted of 30 questions divided into six factors, three self-constructed questions were also included. The selection was based on a convenience sample which included operating theatre nurses and surgeons that works on a central unit, two hospitals were included in the study.Result: Results showed varied positive attitudes within the safety culture. Work satisfaction and attitudes to the WHO:s checklist hade the highest scores while the perception of management was the lowest. The study showed no differences between the professions. In the comparison of hospitals, differences in awareness of stress and perception of management were discovered.

    Conclusion: Improvements are needed in the dialogue and relationship between managers and staff. Furthermore, the staff must be given the right conditions from the organization to conduct a safe care.

  • Eriksson, Hilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Idin, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ljud från medicinsk utrustning: - Hur påverkas intensivvårdspatienter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Intensive care patients are constantly subjected to noise because of the continuously monitoring of medical equipment in a hospital environment. According to WHO’s recommendations the noise levels within the intensive care should not exceed 30-40 dB. When the patients are subjected to alarm and noise their sleep is affected and as a result recovery and healing is negatively affected for the critically ill patient.

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe the noise from the medical equipment at the ICU and how it affects the patients and their sleep.

    Methods: An integrative literature study.

    Result: The noise from the medical equipment in the intensive care exceeded the noise level for optimal sleep and rest for patients. The patients experienced the noise both positively and negatively. The quality of sleep could be improved by sleep-aiding measures.

    The result is presented by using two main categories: Environment and Quality of sleep including the following subcategories; Noise intensity, Patient’s interpretation of the noise, Sleep disturbance and Sleep-aiding measures.

    Conclusion: The noise from the medical equipment affects the patients to different degrees and contributes to their sleep being disturbed. Through improving the knowledge of the intensive care nurse and by introducing clear guidelines for sleep-aiding measures, the patients sleep and rest can be improved. In the literature study the current knowledge levels are mapped out, which shows a lack of knowledge with the intensive care nursing staff. Further research is needed to improve and increase the level of knowledge of the topic.

  • Andersson, Staffan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ethics Management Strategies in Public Organisations: The Case of Sweden2019In: Presented at The Annual Conference of the American Society for Public Administration (Panel: Best Practices in Public Ethics Management: The Role of Democratic Values), March 10, 2019, Washington, D.C, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Hiltunen, Linda
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emma
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Edvardsson Aurin, Ingrid
    Region Kronoberg, Sweden.
    Tillitens villkor: Ungas röster om tillit och hur den kan stärkas i Kronobergs län2017Report (Other academic)
  • Klope, Eva
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    I skuggan av ett yrke: om gymnasieelevers identitetsskapande på hantverksprogrammet frisör2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study attempts to understand the creation of identities, especially focusing on vocational identities within the vocational education and training (VET) for hairdressers. To be trained for a vocation like hairdressing means that more has to be learnt other than to do nice haircuts or other treatments. The handicraft is one part of the vocational knowing of hairdressing, but to be a hairdresser is about something more besides handicraft. Identity in this study is understood from a sociological perspective influenced by Richard Jenkins’ (2004, 2008) theoretical model of social identities. This is used together with the Bourdieu-inspired concept of vocational habitus (Colley, James, Tedder, & Diment, 2003). The method is inspired by ethnographic research and the empirical material consists of interviews and observations. Based on this material personal portraits have been created of four students. The intention is to focus on the students’ perspective about the everyday activities in school and their experiences of being trained for a vocation in school. The analyse shows that students are trained to develop a vocational habitus, to look, move, talk and feel like a hairdresser is expected to. The students encounter these expectations differently, depending on their identities as hairdressers, students or identities established in other contexts. A main finding of the study is that student identities and vocational identities sometimes are in conflict with each other.

    The contribution of the study is an increased understanding of identity creation in vocational education. It also contributes to a better knowledge of young people in vocational education and their relationship with their vocational education and upcoming vocation.

  • Fridén, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Fotboll i Textilstaden: En studie kring IF Elfsborgs väg genom ett tufft men framgångsrikt 1930-tal2019Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay has been to study IF Elfsborgs way through the economic hardships of the 1930s, a decade known as the clubs most successful. Basically, the focus has been to emphasize the decisions made by the club during this period in contrast to its surroundings and swedish society as a whole. How has the club been affected by changes in society and to what extent has the club had an impact on the working class in its home town of Borås? With this study I want to demonstrate the role of football in 1930s swedish society, and also emphasize the importance of the network of relationships between the club and the city's entrepreneurs.The source material for this study consists mainly of archival protocols such as; annual protocols, section protocols, economic accounts and activity reports. I have also used newspaper clippings, membership lists and pictures, all available at the association archive, located at the city archive in Borås. Besides the source material my main literary support during this process has been Torbjörn Anderssons Kung Fotboll (2002), along with a few others such as Rolf Pålbrants Arbetarrörelsen och idrotten 1919-1939 (1977) and Rune Jungens Vävarstad i uppror: arbetarrörelsen i Borås 1880-1920 (1978).The main result of this study has been that societal circumstances particular to Borås at the time, along with the club’s connections with the city’s business owners were crucial to maintaining a good relationship with the working class which in turn played a major role in the club’s success in the 1930s.

  • Jansson, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effekten och potentiella risker med bedaquiline, delamanid och pretomanid vid behandling av multiresistent tuberkulos2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Archeological findings of tuberculosis can be found way back to the Stone Age but it wasn’t before the 18th century that Robert Koch discovered that it was Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) who caused the disease tuberculosis. Current data indicates that approximately 10 million people are infected with tuberculosis each year and 600 000 new cases of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was observed in 2017.  Tuberculosis is a bacterium with a unique cell wall consisting of a high concentration of mycolic acid. The fatty cell wall of the bacteria can act as a barrier against antituberculotic drugs, making the disease difficult to treat. Tuberculosis is a disease who can be spread among people via airborne droplets but only about 10 % of all people who are infected are affected by disease symptoms.  Tuberculosis is usually diagnosed by spot-sputum samples from deep within the airways. Resistance to antituberculotic drugs are detected by culture growth of the bacteria on either a liquid or solid medium. Tuberculosis is treated with a combination of several different drugs such as isoniazide, rifampicine, pyrazinamide and ethambutol. Also called HRZE and is a standard regimen for tuberculosis. If treatment occurs incorrectly or is incomplete the bacteria can develop resistance to these drugs and MDR-TB can emerge. Patients with MDR-TB is usually resistant to either or both isoniazide and rifampicine which makes the disease difficult to treat and another combination of drugs is needed. Bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide are newly developed drugs that can hopefully be used in the treatment of MDR-TB.

    The purpose of the thesis was to analyze the efficacy and potential risks with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide in the treatment of MDR-TB. The articles for this literature study were obtained from the two databases PubMed and ClinicalTrials. A total of 7 articles were chosen to analyze the efficacy and potential risks with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid used in treatment in patients with MDR-TB.

    The result obtained from the articles was obtained by primarily analyzing the primary outcome from each article. All articles suggest that bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide have a favorable bactericidal efficacy against M. tuberculosis and may shorten the treatment period. However, all of the studied drugs produced numerous side effects such as headaches, nausea, dizziness, hyperuricemia and an extended QT interval. Although all the side effects that occurred in the studies were classified as mild to moderate. Many side effects occurred in the studies and only a few participants participated in each study. However, it was observed that the new combinations with bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanide can reduce the development of additional drug resistance. Despite some deviations in the studies, bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid may be new alternative treatments for MDR-TB. But more studies with a larger study population is needed to ensure the safety profile and efficacy of all of the drugs above. However, bedaquiline, delamanide and pretomanid show promising results in current studies for the future fight against MDR-TB.

  • Öberg, Tilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Martina, Hultqvist
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Faktorer som påverkar patientsäkerheten pre- och intraoperativt: En systematisk litteraturstudie utifrån operationssjuksköterskors erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The surgical care is characterized by a hich-tech work environment where the operating theatre nurse has a great responsibility for the patient. The focus is on seeing and protecting the entire patient in order to prevent suffering of the patient as a result of adverse event. By keeping a watchful eye on the environment various risk factors can be prevented. There is a lot of research that concerns the area, but it is very sparingly studied on the basis of the operating theatre nurse experiences and how they consider that different factors pre- and intraoperatively affect patient safety.

    Purpose: The purpose was to make visible factors that affect patient safety pre- and intraoperatively, based on operating theatre nurse experiences.

    Method: A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with Bettany-Saltikov and McSherry (2016). In order to get a deeper interpretation and understanding of the chosen problem area, an inductive and qualitative approach was used. The analysis included twelve scientific articles that were compiled into a result.

    Result: The result showed that there were many different factors that played a considerable role in patient safety, both pre- and intraoperatively. Four main categories emerged from the result; the importance of the working environment, the importance of the team, planning and preparation and professional-specific skills.

    Conclusion: Working as an operating theatre nurse meant having full focus on both the patient and the environment in order to prevent risk factors. There were several factors that affect patient safety pre- and intraoperatively, both positive and negative. One factor was that the working environment was characterised by high workload and stress, wich was a major concern. Another factor showed that the cooperation within the operation team was influenced by how we respond to each other. By responding to each other with respect, good cooperation and thus a safer care was promoted.

  • Palm, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lisborg, Helena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ambulanspersonalens uppfattningar av språkbarriär: en kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ambulance care is a field which is becoming more and more advanced. Prehospital emergency care is characterized by quick assessments, decision making and evaluation in safe as well as unsafe environments. Correct management of the patient demands a functioning communication. Otherwise there is an increased risk of misunderstandings, diminished patient safety, adverse events and increased suffering. Language barriers have been studied extensively within intra-hospital care but research regarding the phenomenon in the ambulance care setting is utterly sparse.Aim: The aim of this studywas to explore the ambulance personnel’s perceptions of language barrier in the encounter with the patient.Methods: The study was conducted using a qualitative, inductive approach. Data was collected through semi structured interviews with 18 participants from different professions, of varying experience, sex and age. Phenomenographic method was used when analysing the transcribed interviews. Results:The variations of perceptions that the authors have identified were distributed in four categories of description: A positive outlook, Effects on the encounter, Strategies to overcome language barriersand Part of a complex relationship.Conclusions:This study highlights the presence of a relationship between language barrier and insufficient care. When communication is unsatisfactory the patient runs the risk of not receiving equal careon equal terms. Ambulance personnel’s actions are pragmatic and solution orientedin time critical situations in order to secure the patient’s interests and deliver safe care.Available tools are perceivedas inadequate and need to be re-evaluated.

  • Dufva Svensson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Rydén, Fannie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av arbetsmiljöns inverkan på vårdandet som utförs på akutmottagningen: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of patients at emergency departments in Sweden are annually increasing. This often leads to overcrowded emergency departments with long waiting times, an increased working load, impaired working environment and patient safety. The nurse has an important role in the nursing care and maintaining the patient safety. Earlier research has usually shown how nurses are affected by the working environment and not the working environment’s impact on the caring. Therefore it is important to examine the nurses experience of the working environment’s impact on the nursing caring. Purpose: Illustrate the nurses’ experience of the working environment’s impact on the nursing caring at the emergency department. Method: A qualitative semi-structured interview study was performed with eleven nurses at two different emergency departments. The analysis was made using a latent content analysis. Results: The results are based on the theme "The working environment’s impact on the missing care", two categories "The workload impact on the patient" and "The resources’ impact on patient safety", and eight subcategories showing that a high workload affects the patient safety and increases the risk of health care injuries. According to the nurses, factors like facilities and staffing were also affecting the patients’ integrity and the nurses’ ability to perform good care. Conclusion: High workload leads to an impaired nursing care, which may result in increased risk of health care injuries and unnecessary suffering for the patient. Health care injuries can lead to longer hospital stays which for example affects the society negatively in increased costs.

  • Poulsen, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Superman and Wonder Woman to the rescue: “Man of Steel” and “Wonder Woman” as pedagogical aids to discuss gender in the EFL classroom2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the American superhero films continue to increase their popularity around the globe, and because of the reccurent criticism against their poor and stereotypical representation, this essay aims to analyse the two newly made productions Man of Steel and Wonder Woman from a gender perspective. The essay argues a difference in Superman and Wonder Woman’s superhero images and further discussess the opportunities as well as potential problems the superhero narratives can offer to discuss gender in the EFL classroom.

  • Robinsson, Sofia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Stereotypical gender roles alive and well in the Netflix production The Kissing Booth: Using readily available film to unveil and challenge gender norms in the EFL classroom2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is focused on gender issues in the film The Kissing Booth directed by Vince Marcello and how it can be used in a Swedish EFL classroom to problematize the stereotypical portrayals of the main characters. Since film is readily available for people in the Western world, including young students, it is important to teach them to be mindful of how media content can influence people in different ways. Even though the movie challenges some gender norms at first glance, an application of the Bechdel test shows that The Kissing Booth actually strengthens the Western world's traditional representation of gender. Because gender was mostly viewed as a binary correlated to sex before, it is easy to stay within those restrictive ways when creating and depicting characters in film. However, theorists have found that gender is not innate but performative and if it is not depicted as such in mainstream media, it may uphold outdated notions of gender and prevent changes in attitudes needed for a more inclusive society. Modern events, such as the Me Too movement, also indicate that there is a need for more conversations about these issues.

  • Floryd, Vanja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Female agency in Burnt Shadows and Postcolonial Feminism in the EFL Classroom2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay analyses Burnt Shadows (2009) by Kamila Shamsie from a postcolonial feminist perspective, with a focus on agency of women, representation and re-presentation, and cultural stereotypes. The degree of agency in the main characters Hiroko, Elizabeth and Kim is discussed, followed by an analysis of the re-presentation of Indian, Pakistani and Arab Muslim women characters in the text, with a focus on homogenisation and voice. Moreover, suggestions of how to teach Burnt Shadows with a postcolonial (and) feminist lens within the course English 6 in the Swedish upper secondary school EFL classroom are discussed. It is concluded that Hiroko, Elizabeth and Kim have voice and agency to various degrees. Moreover, it is stated that Indian, Pakistani and Arab Muslim women are re-presented in a stereotypical and homogenising way, and their lack of voice obstruct the possibilities of regarding these characters from a contextual, historical, and cultural perspective. The pedagogical framework concludes that Burnt Shadows can be used to study postcolonial feminist theory in the EFL classroom. Given that the teacher is open-minded, inclusive and objective, the teaching can pursue equality and solidarity in line with the fundamental values of the Swedish upper secondary school.

  • Berggren, Jan
    et al.
    Kalmarsunds gymnasieförbund, Sweden.
    Torpsten, Ann-Christin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Knowledge I brought with me could not be used, it was not in Swedish2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years the Swedish education system has experienced a rise in the number of newly arrived students speaking different languages and with different school backgrounds. A newly arrived student is according to school legislation (Skollagen, 2010:800) a student under 18 years of age, who has migrated to Sweden lacking basic skills in the Swedish language.

    This paper aims to shed light on a group of newly arrived students’ perspectives on conditions for learning in the Swedish upper secondary education system. Using Bourdieu’s concept of capital we critically discuss organisational and pedagogical responses in the education system as experienced by 19 newly arrived students.

    Findings indicate that students’ performances using Swedish for academic purposes and being able to analyse Swedish culture are crucial skills. Simultaneously, unsuccessful students have to remain in Language introduction focusing on learning Swedish. Some students show resistance to current demands in mainstream teaching, which can be traced in students who resent not being able to make use of their previous learning and skills in different languages without using Swedish. As individuals, they are left with an experience of deficit, having no or little knowledge about Swedish culture and language. This is expressed by one student saying that sometimes knowledge from her native country cannot be used because it is in another language and that subject teaching often stipulates knowledge about Swedish history and Swedish kings.

    At stake is newly arrived students’ educational careers, and their chances in society. “Education is my passport”, one student says. The authors argue for acknowledging students’ various language knowledge and cultural backgrounds in teaching, thereby improving students’ opportunities to receive recognition of their existing cultural capital while offering them a gateway to continued education and social inclusion.

  • Bokström, Malin
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tellefsen, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Strategier för att förebygga och reducera perioperativ oro hos barn: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Today numerous paediatric surgeries are performed – In Sweden, 2017, approximately 90 000 children from zero to fourteen years of age underwent surgery/were operated on. To receive anaesthesia and have an operation is probably among the most disturbing and stressful a child can experience. Anxiety is found in 50-75% of children undergoing surgery. Anxiety can, among other things, complicate anesthesia, increase medical need and cause postoperative complications.

    Purpose: The aim was to elucidate strategies to prevent and reduce children’s perioperative anxiety through a systematic literature review.

    Method: A systematic literature review with quantitative approach. Children two to twelwe years of age who are to undergo or have undergone anesthesia and surgery. Article searches were carried out in three, for the subject area, relevant databases.

    Result: The study comprises 25 result articles that show varying strategies for dealing with children's perioperative anxiety. Five of these did not show any superior or reducing effect compared to conventional or comparative strategies. Information and distraction were distinguished as main categories. Multimedia was a prominent subcategory that included several different strategies. Some protruding strategies included scented inhalation masks and theater performances.

    Conclusion: There is a variation in how anxiety can be managed to be prevented and reduced in pediatric perioperative care. The strategies in the sub-category multimedia appear prominent in this study, which may indicate that these strategies occur to a greater extent within this form of care. It was made clear that there is no single individual strategy considered to be accepted or superior to others. A nonpharmacological strategy might be preferred as it can be considered a safe, non-invasive and thus pleasant alternative to conventional pharmacological strategies such as premedication.

  • Svensson, Linus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Obeständiga arbetsdelningar: En studie om hur kontrollen över arbetsuppgifter förskjuts mellan professioner på sjukhusavdelningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The regional healthcare in Sweden is suffering from a acute shortage of nurses. In order to cope with the situation, the regional healthcare institutions has included other professions to perform the job assigments of the absent nurses. A public debate emerged whether or not nurses were replacable with other professions in regional healtcare instituitons. This theisis believes that more research of nurses field of work could contribute to the discussion. The theisis aims to contribute to the existing research of nurses field of work by studying the division of labour between nurses and physicians and between nurses and auxillary nurses in order to understand how the division of labour between these professions look like and why they are constituted as they are.

    By conducting seven semi-structured interviews with nurses and taking theoretical inspiration from Andrew Abbotts theory of ”jurisdictional claims” and the three realms where claims can be made, this theisis finds that the reality of the job assigments in the division of labour between the professions are, by using Abbotts own word of choice, ”fuzzy”. The nurses’ descriptions of the divions of labour tells that nurses are losing control of job assignments in a field that they are trained to exicute, care-related work, while gaining control over medicinal assignments that they are relationally under-trained to exicute. Nurses are also giving away control over fully controlled medicinal tasks that they are trained to do to auxillary nurses, while physicians are giving away control over assignments in the same fashion to nurses. This theisis concludes that the divisions of labour displays three variations of how control can be displaced: By organizational structures, by the controlling professions themselves and by the state-required assignments; forced upon nurses as the profession is regulated by The National Board of Health and Welfare.

  • Abrahamsson, Helene
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Comment se porte le français au lycée suédois ?: Évolution du rôle des plans d’études dans l’enseignement des langues vivantes 2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [fr]

    Depuis au moins 17 ans la matière scolaire la langue française baisse en popularité au lycée suédois. Pendant la même période, des sondages internationaux comme l’enquête PISA ont montré que l’école suédoise n’accomplit pas de bons résultats. C’est la politique scolaire qui par ses directives forme le développement de l’enseignement, et, par conséquent, les connaissances chez les étudiants. Les directives très importantes pour les professeurs sont les plans d’études (en suédois ämnesplaner), et ceux-ci devraient être des soutiens pour les professeurs dans leur enseignement.

    Ceci dit, comment se porte le français, une des langues vivantes?

    Dans cette étude, nous cherchons à trouver comment le plan d’études pour les langues vivantes a influencé l’enseignement du français au lycée. La méthode utilisée est qualitative et phénoménologique. Nous avons étudié un nombre de documents sur le sujet pour obtenir une image factuelle.  Pour compléter l’étude nous avons également interviewé trois professeurs avec une grande expérience de l’enseignement. L’objectif était d’obtenir leurs points de vue sur l’importance qu’ils donnent aux plans directifs.

    Les résultats ont montré que le plan d’études actuel donne aux  professeurs une grande liberté sur comment former leurs enseignements. Comme conséquence, cette possibilité est favorable aux enseignants expérimentés mais elle donne moins de soutiens aux enseignants novices.  Nous pouvons aussi constater que ce manque de cursus consultatif peut apporter un enseignement moins efficace, surtout quand le système scolaire suédois manque de professeurs diplômés. En outre, après avoir étudié  des rapports sur la situation des langues vivantes, nous avons remarqué qu’il semble y avoir un manque de volonté politique de fortifier ces langues.     

  • Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Hinduiska kvinnors upplevelser av arrangerade äktenskap: En forskningsöversikt2019Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study about Hindu women's experiences of arranged marriages. The study is based on previous research on women’s experiences. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the underlying factors that contribute to Hindu women experiencing that their mental health is affected by arranged marriages. The purpose was also to investigate how the women felt that the new legislation regulating of the dowry system has affected them regarding their relationship with the new family. The main purpose was to identify themes in women's experiences of arranged marriages and investigate connections between these themes.

     

    The result showed that women who live in arranged marriages are more frequently exposed to both physical and mental violence, and as a result outcome they often suffer from different kinds of mental illness. The papers result also showed that these women’s opinions about arranged marriages differ slightly depending on their life situation. For instance, whether they live in a city or on the countryside, or how conscious they are about people who have other opinions and perceptions than their own. This study also shows the importance of these women having a job outside their home, as it offers contact with people beyond their family, enables the women contribute financially to the family and in other ways affects the women’s situation positively.

  • Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Jarlh, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Föräldrars upplevelser av att ha ett kritiskt sjukt barn på en intensivvårdsavdelning.: - En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barnintensivvård beskrivs som stark känsloladdad vård för både föräldrar och sjukvårdspersonal. Att ha ett barn inlagt på en intensivvårdsavdelning är förenat med stress och oro hos de flesta föräldrar. Barn är en särskilt utsatt patientkategori och när patienten är ett barn kan anhöriga kan uppfattas ställa högre krav på vården. Kunskapsökning om föräldrarnas situation skulle inte bara leda till ökad trygghet hos föräldrarna utan även hos intensivvårdssjuksköterskan, vilket kan generera i en bättre och tryggare vård för det sjuka barnet. Syfte: Syftet var att belysa föräldrars upplevelser av att ha ett kritiskt sjukt barn på en intensivvårdsavdelning. Metod: Systematisk litteraturstudie med kvalitativ ansats. Materialet från insamlad data har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Studiens resultat genererade i ett övergripande tema; att vara inkluderad i en surrealistisk värld, elva underkategorier och fyra kategorier: Föräldrars behov under vistelsen på intensivvårdsavdelningen; Upplevelser av intensivvården; En vårdmiljö som väcker känslor; och Upplevelsen av stöd. Slutsats: Vårdteamet och sjuksköterskans roll är central i den kliniska vården, genom att se familjen som en helhet med ett holistiskt helhetstänk. En god familjecentrerad omvårdnad kan bidra till att göra familjen trygg och stärka föräldrarna. Genom att bjuda in föräldrar i vården kring barnet blir de delaktiga, känner stöd och upplever sig inkluderade, vilket skapar ökad trygghet och tillit för både föräldrar och de som vårdar barnet. Vidare forskning skulle kunna öka förståelsen hos sjuksköterskan och leda till en mer specifik familjecentrerad vård, för att hjälpa och möta upp föräldrarnas behov i deras utsatta situation.

  • Wanglin, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Lindblad, Jonas
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av att vara vaken i regional anestesi: En systematisk litteraturstudie med kvalitativ innehållsanalys2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Patients experiences of being awake in regional anesthesia – A systematic litterature review with a qualitative content analysis.

     Background: The use of regional anesthesia in surgery is increasing. By blocking nerve signals this enables different kind of surgeries on the anesthetized body. This means that the patient can be awake during the surgery and is able to interact with caregivers in the operating room.

     Aim: The aim was to illuminate patients’ experiences of being awake in regional anesthesia.

     Method: The litterature review has been conducted using a content analysis. The result from ten qualitative articles has been compiled and analyzed according to Bettany-Saltikov and McSherry (2016).

     Results: The experience of being awake during surgery is individual and varies between curiosity and deep anxiety. The result of this study revealed the need of patient to get customized information according to their needs and the significance of the relationship with caregivers and especially the nurse anesthetist. Through a good relationship with caregivers the experience of the surgery can improve.

     Conclusions: The importance of communication between the patient and the anaesthesia nurse has emerged to have a significant impact on how the surgery and anaesthesia are experienced. Through a good care relationship reduces the need for drugs and leads to a faster recovery.

  • Byrlind Cronqvist, Olle
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ryd, Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Intensivvårdssjuksköterskors och anestesiologers erfarenheter av intensivvårdsrelaterad posttraumatiskt stressyndrom hos intensivvårdspatienter: En intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Posttraumatiskt stressyndrom (PTSD) är ett tillstånd som kännetecknas av ångest och oro relaterat till situationer som påminner om en traumatisk händelse. Intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD har fått ökad uppmärksamhet de senaste åren. Genom ett preventivt arbete och tidiga insatser minskar risken för att patienter utvecklar PTSD. För att detta ska ske krävs god kunskap av problemet hos intensivvårdspersonal. Hur deras erfarenheter ser ut är tidigare outforskat.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva intensivvårdssjuksköterskors och anestesiologers erfarenheter av intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD hos intensivvårdspatienter.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie gjordes. Semistrukturerade och individuella intervjuer genomfördes med nio intensivvårdssjuksköterskor och fyra anestesiologer. Data analyserades med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Analysen resulterade i tre kategorier: En känsla att vi kan göra mer, Att normalisera livet och Fortsatt stöd efter tiden på IVA. Resultatet visade att delirium upplevdes vara en ledande riskfaktor till PTSD. Relationer och kommunikation upplevdes som viktiga i det profylaktiska arbetet mot PTSD. Post-IVAmottagningar och dagböcker tros kunna bidra till bättre uppföljning och kan fungera preventivt mot PTSD.

    Slutsats: Resultatet visar att det finns en liten erfarenhet om PTSD efter intensivvård, ändå förekom ett omedvetet preventivt arbete. En organisatorisk satsning behövs för att öka medvetenhet hos intensivvårdspersonalen. Det behövs mer kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning om bland annat riskfaktorer och uppföljning gällande intensivvårdsrelaterad PTSD.

  • Ek, Matilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Westergaard-Nielsen, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Preoperativ kroppstemperatur: En empirisk studie på en dagkirurgisk avdelning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypothermia is a common problem within the surgical context and can lead to serious consequences for the patient and increased costs for society. Efforts to prevent hypothermia in the preoperative phase have proven important to minimize the risk of developing hypothermia.

    Aim: The aim was to examine core- and peripheral temperature of surgical outpatients, during the preoperative phase. The hypothesis was that the temperature would decrease during the preoperative preparation.

    Method: 50 patients, at a medium-sized hospital in Sweden, participated. The temperature was measured twice; when the patient had changed into surgical attire, and when placed on the operating table. The core temperature was measured using an axillary thermometer, and the peripheral temperature was measured at four locations using an infrared thermometer. The data was normally distributed and paired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

    Result: The results show that there was no significant change in core temperature, whereas a change occurred in the peripheral temperature. The direction of change was incoherent, where the points of measurements on the upper body decreased in temperature, while the points of measurement on the lower extremities increased.

    Conclusion: The core temperature can remain unchanged during the preoperative period. This does not imply that the temperature is within preoperative temperature recommendations. More research, studying the temperature throughout the perioperative process, is necessary to attain knowledge regarding the development of the temperature of the patient undergoing surgery.

  • Trofast, Joanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Kvaliteten i kliniska riktlinjer för preoperativ helkroppstvätt: En kvantitativ studie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background: Preoperative bodywash aims to prevent surgical site infections. However, there is no evidence supporting that chlorhexidine soap is a better alternative for preoperative bodywash than plain soap in the prevention of surgical site infections. The requirement is that the care must be conducted evidence-based in order to provide a safe patient care. Well-designed guidelines are required so that the evidence-based care can be implemented clinically. 

    Aim:To systematically evaluate and compare the quality of clinical guidelines for preoperative bodywash using the AGREE II instrument.

    Method: A quantitative empirical study with non-experimental design. The sample was made of a province in Central Sweden. 46 guidelines describing the preoperative bodywash were included. Using the AGREE II instrument the assessment of the guidelines where obtained and presented with descriptive statistics. The comparison between the sections within the province was carried out by using the Kruskal-Wallis test. 

    Results: The main finding in the study shows that there was no clear scope and purpose in the guidelines on preoperative bodywash and it varied in terms of which agent was used for the shower. The development of the guidelines where inadequate in its rigour for development.

    Conclusion:The gap between what research concludes and what is performed still exists in the guidelines. A national board should take action to developing nationwide guidelines regarding preoperative bodywash. Further research should be conducted if preoperative bodywash is part of the prevention against surgical site infections. 

  • Falk, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ottosson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tre myndigheter, en uppdragsgivare: En integrativ litteraturstudie om hälso- och sjukvårdens, polismyndighetens och socialtjänstens interprofessionella samverkan för ett förbättrat omhändertagande vid våld i nära relationer2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Våld i nära relationer är ett globalt fenomen och utgör ettåterkommande inslag i arbetet inom hälso- och sjukvården, polismyndigheten ochsocialtjänsten. Våld i nära relationer förekommer i alla samhällsklasser, åldrar,oavsett sexuell läggning och är inte relaterad till vare sig etnicitet, kulturell ellerreligiös bakgrund. Det finns flertal myndigheter som ger skydd och stöd tillvåldsutsatta. För att säkerställa ett professionellt omhändertagande av denvåldsutsatta måste de olika myndigheterna samverka. Forskning visar dock attsamverkan ofta brister vilket kan resultera i ett försämrat omhändertagande av dendrabbade individen.Syfte: Att undersöka vilka faktorer som är av betydelse för myndigheterssamverkan vid vuxnas utsatthet för våld i nära relationer, utifrån hälso- ochsjukvårdens, polismyndighetens, och socialtjänstens perspektiv.Metod: Studien är en integrativ litteraturstudie. Litteratursökningarna eftervetenskapliga artiklar genomfördes i databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed, Criminal justiceabstracts, Social services abstracts, Psycinfo och Social science premium collection.De för studien relevanta artiklarna har kvalitetsgranskats, kodats, kategoriserats ochanalyserats enligt gällande metod.Resultat: Resultatet baseras på tio vetenskapliga artiklar och visar att det finns ettflertal faktorer som har betydelse för myndigheters samverkan vid våld i närarelationer. Faktorer som kunskap, organisation, kommunikation och kultur har idenna studie visat sig vara särskilt utmärkande. Dessa faktorer kan verka bådehämmande och främjande beroende på rådande omständigheter inom respektivemyndighetSlutsats: Samverkan mellan myndigheter är en absolut förutsättning för ett adekvatomhändertagande av den individ som utsatts för våld i en nära relation. Fenomenetmedför en komplex problematik. Det finns ett uppenbart utbildningsbehov för flerayrkeskategorier, främst gällande identifikation och bemötande av den våldsutsattasamt klargörande kring de olika myndigheternas olika ansvarsområden ochbefogenheter. Arbetet bör i framtiden organiseras utifrån den drabbades behov avolika hjälpinsatser istället för att som idag utgå från de olika myndigheternasrespektive kompetensområde.

  • Halimic, Samela
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Alm, Josephine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Betydelsen av att använda kommunikationsverktyg vid överrapportering från anestesipersonal till postoperativ avdelning: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lack of communication between healthcare professionals is one of the most common causes of the injuries and deviation reports that occur annually in the healthcare system. In the event of a handover, there is a risk that information will be misunderstood or that information will not be submitted, which may compromise patient safety. Because the use of communication tools is advocated, there was reason to describe the importance of communication tools in handover.

    Purpose: The purpose was to describe the importance of using communication tools in handover from anesthetic staff to post-operative department.

    Methods: A systematic literature review with quantitative approach was used. Searches were conducted in Cinahl and Pubmed. A total of eleven articles were identified and data extracted by an extraction template.

    Results: The result is summarized in three categories; changed time for over-reporting, reduced information loss and changes in the team. The use of communication tools increased or decreased the time for over-reporting. The information loss decreased as the number of errors decreased, the details were easier to remember and the number of intermediaries decreased. Changes in the team could be seen from the view that the use of communication tools created the conditions for improved collaboration in the team, while there were some difficulties with routine changes in connection with the introduction of a communication tool.

    Conclusion: The result shows the many advantages of using communication tools but also challenges in it. Further research in the field is needed to evaluate the impact of the communication tool on the patient's safety.

  • Sucio, Steffi
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Ceberla, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda strokedrabbade patienter.: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Att som sjuksköterska vårda strokedrabbade patienter kan upplevastidskrävande och känslosamt. Sjuksköterskornas upplevelse påverkas olika beroende vilka arbetsuppgifter sjuksköterskan ställs inför, t.ex. med känslor som stress vid brist på tid, känsla av otillräcklighet och osäkerhet vid minskad utbildningsmöjligheter. Sjuksköterskans kunskaper och upplevelser måste lyftas fram, då risken finns att omvårdnads kvaliteten brister och utvecklingen av strokevård annars stannar upp eftersom  sjuksköterskors hälsa och välmående är viktigt för en fungerande sjukvård.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva allmänsjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda strokedrabbade patienter.

    Metod: En  litteraturstudie med tio kvalitativa vetenskapliga artiklar  som analyserades med en manifest kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Friberg. Sökningen av artiklar genomfördes via databaserna Cinahl, Pubmed och Medline.

    Resultat: I resultatet framkom fyra kategorier som beskriver allmänsjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vårda strokedrabbade patienter. Kategorierna var: En känsla av tillfredsställelse, en känsla av stress, avsaknad av utbildningsmöjligheter samt hoppetsom drivkraft.

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor upplever att de behöver stärka sitt yrkeskunnande inom strokeområdet med kontinuerlig utbildning. Med rätt kunskap kan de hantera överraskande, livsavgörande akuta situationer. Sjuksköterskorna upplever också att det krävs god bemanning av sjuksköterskor för att minska stressen, de känner tillfredsställelse av att ge rehabilitering och de upplever att hoppet är en drivkraft för att de ska kunna ge optimal vård. Sammanhållning och trivsel på arbetsplatsen betyder mycket och de upplever att arbetsglädje är nyckeln till vårdkvalite.

  • Engström, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Grubisic, Luka
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    A subspace iteration algorithm for Fredholm valued functions2015In: Mathematical problems in engineering (Print), ISSN 1024-123X, E-ISSN 1563-5147, Vol. 2015, p. 1-14, article id 459895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an algorithm for approximating an eigensubspace of a spectral component of an analytic Fredholm valued function. Our approach is based on numerical contour integration and the analytic Fredholm theorem. The presented method can be seen as a variant of the FEAST algorithm for infinite dimensional nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the algorithm for polynomial and rational eigenvalue problems.

  • Engström, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Torshage, Axel
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Enclosure of the numerical range of a class of non-selfadjoint rational operator functions2017In: Integral equations and operator theory, ISSN 0378-620X, E-ISSN 1420-8989, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 151-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce an enclosure of the numerical range of a class of rational operator functions. In contrast to the numerical range the presented enclosure can be computed exactly in the infinite dimensional case as well as in the finite dimensional case. Moreover, the new enclosure is minimal given only the numerical ranges of the operator coefficients and many characteristics of the numerical range can be obtained by investigating the enclosure. We introduce a pseudonumerical range and study an enclosure of this set. This enclosure provides a computable upper bound of the norm of the resolvent.

  • Engström, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Torshage, Axel
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    On equivalence and linearization of operator matrix functions with unbounded entries2017In: Integral equations and operator theory, ISSN 0378-620X, E-ISSN 1420-8989, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 465-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present equivalence results for several types of unbounded operator functions. A generalization of the concept equivalence after extension is introduced and used to prove equivalence and linearization for classes of unbounded operator functions. Further, we deduce methods of finding equivalences to operator matrix functions that utilizes equivalences of the entries. Finally, a method of finding equivalences and linearizations to a general case of operator matrix polynomials is presented.

  • Brunow, Dagmar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Film and Literature.
    Manchester’s post-punk heritage: mobilising and contesting transcultural memory in the context of urban regeneration2019In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 9-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban memories are remediated and mobilised by different - and often conflicting - stakeholders, representing the heritage industry, municipal city branding campaigns or anti-gentrification struggles. Post-punk ‘retromania’ (Reynolds 2011) coincided with the culture-led regeneration of former industrial cities in the Northwest of England, relaunching the cities as creative clusters (Cohen 2007, Bottà 2009, Roberts & Cohen 2014, Roberts 2014). Drawing on my case study of the memory cultures evolving around Manchester‘s post-punk era (Brunow 2015), this article shows how narratives and images travel through urban space. Looking at contemporary politics of city branding, it examines the power relations involved in adapting (white homosocial) post-punk memories into the self-fashioning of Manchester as a creative city. Situated at the interface of memory studies and film studies, this article offers an anti-essentialist approach to the notion of ‘transcultural memory’. Examining the power relations involved in the construction of audiovisual memories, this article argues that subcultural or popular memories are not emancipatory per se, but can easily tie into neoliberal politics. Moreover, there has been a tendency to sideline or overlook feminist and queer as well as Black and Asian British contributions to post-punk culture. Only partially have such marginalised narratives been observed so far, for instance in Carol Morley’s documentary The Alcohol Years (2000) or by the Manchester Digital Music Archive. The article illustrates how different stakeholders invest in subcultural histories, sustaining or contesting hegemonic power relations within memory culture. While being remediated within various transmedia contexts, Manchester’s postpunk memories have been sanitised, fabricating consensus instead of celebrating difference.

  • Wernholm, Marina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.
    Children´s shared experiences of participating in digital communities2018In: Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, ISSN 1891-943X, E-ISSN 1891-943X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 38-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to gain knowledge about children’s participation in digital communities and to develop a model that can be used as a tool for practitioners. The research question guiding the study is: What kind of participation emerges from children’s shared experiences when engaging in digital communities? Lave and Wenger’s theory about communities of practice, and their notion of legitimate peripheral participation, are used. The data consist of nine individual interviews with children. Through nexus analysis, four different kinds of participation are identified: friendship-driven, interest-driven, knowledge-driven and performance-driven. The study generates an empirical model that can be used for interpreting and understanding children’s participation. The main findings are significant aspects of participation, linked to friendship, the connection between digital cultures, learning, literacy, identity and performativity, democratic implications and practices in constant change.

  • Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Algabroun, Hatem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Mikael
    E-maintenance Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Maintenance 4.0 to fulfil the demands of Industry 4.0 and Factory of the Future2018In: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's high market competition, industries attempt adapt new technologies retain their market share. With technology advancement in factories, maintenance methods are developed to suit the new manufacturers. demands. Now, with the Industry 4.0, new maintenance techniques have to be developed to fulfill the new demands which we refer to as Maintenance 4.0. Each currently used maintenance technique has its own advantages and disadvantages. Until now it is unclear if these techniques are suitable for Industry 4.0. This study shows how to identify the maintenance technique that is the most suitable to be further developed for Industry 4.0. In this paper, the tasks and features of Maintenance 4.0 are identified, and the suitability of the most popular maintenance techniques is examined with respect to Industry 4.0 demands. This is done by using Multiple Attribute Decision Making combined with the Simple Additive Weight. The results show that Total Quality Maintenance(TQMain) and then Condition Based Maintenance(CBM) are the highest ranked among the examined maintenance techniques, and therefore it is concluded that these maintenance techniques could be used as a based to develop Maintenance 4.0.

  • Al-Najjar, Basim
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Algabroun, Hatem
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Mikael
    E-maintenance Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Smart maintenance model using cyber physical system2018In: Paper presented at the International Conference on "Role of Industrial Engineering in Industry 4.0 Paradigm" (ICIEIND), Bhubaneswar, India, September 27-30, 2018, 2018, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing are exposed to rapid and dynamic changes in operating conditions, market demands, national and international competition. Therefore, new generations and concepts of maintenance techniques are necessary to overcome the deficiencies  in the current techniques. The purpose of this paper is to propse a maintenance model that is automatic, digitzalised and intelligent using Cyber Physical System (CPS-Maint). In this paper, we presented comparable maintenance approaches and described their shortages. Thereafter, we developed a new maintenance model. Then, A simulation using LabVIEW is conducted  to examin the model and its behavior. The results showed that the required tasks are performed with no conflict among its components. The major result is the development of CPS-Maint and the major conclusion is applying CPS-Maint fulfills industry needs. This paper provides a framework that could help developers and researchers in desining and developing an automatic and smart maintenance system.

  • Ekelund, Christopher
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Being polite: An experimental study of request strategies in Swedish EFL classes2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world which continuously becomes more globalised, the need to adapt one's language depending on context becomes increasingly important. This is acknowledged in the Swedish syllabus for the upper-secondary school, which emphasises communicative competence and the need to adapt to situation and hearer. This study uses a foundation based on politeness theory, where the act of requesting is considered a threat to the notion of face. The concept of face that is being used is based on the work of Brown and Levinson (1987) and the idea is that everyone has a positive- and negative face where the former is the need for one’s self-image to be respected and the latter is the freedom to act without imposition from others. By role-playing different scenarios, the participants of the study, all students of the English 7 course, were asked to perform requests which varied in imposition and which targeted hearers of different statuses. The results were analysed using a qualitative approach, which leads to the conclusion that half of the six participants adapted their language appropriately to the communicative situation. Those three had managed to show an increase in face-saving acts where the imposition was greater, or the hearer was of a higher status. That only half of the participants managed to do this shows a lack of success in teaching the students the necessary pragmatic skills encoded in the syllabus and more focused studies in this area are recommended to address this issue. Due to the small number of participants, further studies are needed to fully confirm the results presented in this study.

  • Albinsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arnesson, Kerstin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Mångfald i arbetslivet: betydelsen av mångfaldsutbildning i offentliga och privata organisationer2007Report (Other academic)
  • Albinsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arnesson, Kerstin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Opportunities and hindrances of combating discrimination: diversity in the labour market. The project Key Forces2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Albinsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Arnesson, Kerstin
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jogmark, Marina
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Utvärdering av mångfaldsutbildningen och mångfaldskonsulenternas genomförande av rådslag inom ramen för projekt Nyckelkrafter2005Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport är en utvärdering av utbildningsdelen inom projekt Nyckelkrafter. Projektet bedrivs inom Equalprogrammet, vars övergripande mål är ett arbetsliv utan diskriminering och ojämlikhet, präglat av mångfald.

  • Zakre, Kenan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    The Use Of Learning Management Systems In Primary Schools: A Qualitative Study Among Teachers In Sweden2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology is used in the education field in Sweden toimprove learning quality. The aim of this research is to investigate the use of LearningManagement Systems in primary schools, in the specific context of the role of LearningManagement System (LMS) in learning and teaching processes from teachers‟perspectives. Furthermore, This Thesis aims to explore teachers‟ perceptions of how touse this learning management system which is used in primary Swedish schools.Six teachers from two different primary schools in small municipality in the south ofSweden participated in semi-structured interviews. The theoretical model of UnifiedTheory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) inspired this qualitativeresearch along with the other related past studies. This quantitative model was only usedto sensitize the research process, for collecting and analysing qualitative data in thisstudy.The different elements of the theory such as performance expectancy, effort expectancy,social influence and facilitating conditions along with studies helps in conducting studybasedon qualitative approach for analysing the interviews. The research results indicatethat teachers were content with the usage of this learning management system, but thereis a lack of knowledge regarding this system. The system is helpful in performanceevaluation, planning, communication and overall working for routine tasks. Theresponses of interviews showed that teachers are not trained for using the features ofLearning management system in the way that it is designed for. The findings showed thatteachers require the support from professionals to integrate the system into their routineplanning. Furthermore, they also emphasise on the need to make the system user-friendlywith easy navigation. The findings of this study were compared to previous studies, anda further comparison was carried out regarding how it relates to the determinants andmoderating factors such as peer influence, internal perceptions and motivations, timeconstraints, organisational structure and facilitating conditions. Hence, support andtraining are needed to enhance learning and teaching through this Learning managementsystem.

  • Flybring, Linnea
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Jämställdhetens paradox: En diskursanalys av hur SD och NMR använder jämställdhet i sin politiska retorik2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser undersöka Sverigedemokraternas (SD) och Nordiska motståndsrörelsens (NMR) användning av jämställdhet, utifrån hur de skriver om jämställdhet, nation, kön, feminism, familjepolitik och/eller hbtq-frågor. Studien är komparativ och jämför NMR:s och SD:s sätt att använda jämställdhet i sin politiska retorik. För det används diskursanalytisk metod och empirin består av partiprogram och artiklar från vardera parti. Den teoretiska ansatsen utgår från jämställdhet, svenskhet, familj och heteronormativitet.

    Min analys av materialet visar att det finns både likheter och skillnader vad gäller SD:s och NMR:s sätt att skriva om jämställdhet kopplat till kön, hbtq och familj, men att deras retorik kring jämställdhet ändå utgår från samma kärna. Skillnader finns i att NMR inte använder begreppet jämställdhet i lika stor utsträckning som SD vad gäller att beskriva sin egen politik. SD:s sätt att skriva om jämställdhet i relation till sin egen politik gör jämställdheten till en fråga som främst berör kvinnor, trots att de uttrycker att de anser att jämställdhet ska handla om både män och kvinnor, medan NMR i större utsträckning skriver om män. Båda partier kopplar jämställdheten som något svenskt eller nordiskt, för att sedan ställa det i motsats till de icke-svenska, eller invandrarna, som icke jämställda – här blir jämställdheten en tillgång. Samtidigt ser de också feminism och genusvetenskap som problem för samhället, främst i form av att den splittrar familjen som grund. Detta skapar en dubbelhet i hur de använder jämställdhet, där hotet mot det svenska samhället kommer både inifrån och utifrån Sverige.

  • XU, Yangyang
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Distance students’ perspectives about a formal learning management system at a Swedish university 2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has conducted interpretive qualitative research to investigate the impacts and limitations of LMS Moodle in distance students’ learning process from distance students’ perspectives. The qualitative data was collected from mediated semi-structured interviews with distance students participating in a Master program at Linnaeus University. Through empirical findings and analysis, the positive experiences and limitations of using Moodle in facilitating distance learning process have been revealed from distance students’ perspectives. The positive experiences include that LMS Moodle was used by distance students for interacting with other students, teachers and accessing study contents during their distance learning process. Moodle was used to know new classmates, teachers and the new learning system, recruit group members for the collaborative works, communicate with teachers and other classmates, and obtain significant information about courses. Especially, accessing study contents in Moodle easily was critical for distance students' learning. However, there were still some limitations. Distance students preferred Facebook to Moodle for student-student interaction during the process of collaborative works. The interaction with teachers was not adequate and timely for distance students. The limitations also include unsatisfactory Moodle interface design and poor usability of Moodle.

     

    Some suggestions about improving LMS Moodle in different ways had also been acquired from the research. The suggestions from distance students mainly focus on integrating Moodle with other web conferencing platforms for improving the quality of student-student, student-teacher interaction in Moodle, ameliorating the interface design of Moodle, and adding Moodle tutorials. The result will help the development of LMS based on distance students' needs and finally benefit distance students' learning process.  

  • Svensson, Linda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Jämförelse av effektivitet och farmakologiska skillnader på gonadotropiner för kontrollerad ovarie-stimulering vid provrörsbefruktning: Follitropin alfa vs högrenat menotropin2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns många orsaker till ofrivillig barnlöshet men tack vare nya tekniker har det blivit möjligt att få barn för många. Först och främst är det in vitro fertilisering (IVF)- / Intracytoplasmatisk spermieinjektion (ICSI)-behandlingar genom kontrollerad ovariestimulering (COS) av gonadotropiner som har ökat möjligheten att få flera ägg för att öka chansen att få en lyckad graviditet. Under de senaste årtiondena har en markant utveckling gjorts inom gonadotropins område från urin extraherade gonadotropiner till rekombinanta gonadotropiner. De två välstuderade och mest använda gonadotropinerna för COS vid IVF/ICSI är högrenat humant menopausalt gonadotropin (HP-hMG) och rekombinant humant follikelstimulerande hormon (r-hFSH, follitropin alfa).

    Syfte: Syftet med föreliggande arbete var att jämföra effektivitet och farmakologiska skillnader på Menopur ® (HP-hMG) och GONAL-f ® (r-hFSH) för COS vid IVF/ICSI-behandling.

    Metod: Denna litteraturstudie byggde på vetenskapliga artiklar, som söktes fram via PubMed, Webb of Science. Fem kliniska studier, vilka främst fokuserade på effektiviteten och farmakologiska skillnader av två gonadotropinpreparat (r-hFSH och HP-hMG) för COS vid IVF/ICSI, granskades närmare.

    Resultat: Granskningen visade att resultatet med avseende på pågående graviditetsgrad är jämförbart mellan HP-hMG och follitropin alfa oavsett fast eller flexibel dos både med GnRH-agonist- och antagonistprotokoll. Resultat med avseende på farmakologiska skillnader för COS visade att antalet erhöllna oocyter och progesteronnivån var signifikant högre hos r-hFSH-gruppen. Däremot var serum E2-nivån signifikant högre hos HP-hMG-gruppen medan serum LH-nivån var liknande i båda grupperna.

    Slutsats: Utifrån denna litteraturstudie demonstrerades icke-inferioritet med avseende på den pågående graviditeten för HP-hMG jämfört med r-hFSH. Men det fanns tydligt farmakologiska skillnader för COS mellan dessa två gonadotropinpreparat exempelvis serum E2-nivå, progesteronnivå och antal erhöllna oocyter. Detta skulle kunna bero på att LH-aktivitet spelade en viktig roll både för att optimera kvalitet och utvecklingspotential hos oocyterna. r-hFSH är rekombinant och därmed kan tillverkas oberoende av tillgång på humant material. Detta bör på längre sikt innebära att tillverkningskostnaderna minskar och att preparatet blir billigare samt mera tillgängligt för patienterna. Då effekten mellan preparaten i denna studie inte tycks skilja sig åt i någon högre utsträckning kanske framtida investeringar skulle sikta på att försöka utveckla effektivare r-hFSH-preparat. Dessutom bör större kunskap om betydelsen av de olika farmakologiska profilerna av dessa två gonadotropiner med avseende på reproduktiva resultat utredas genom ytterligare undersökningar i större effektstudier. Ur ett kliniskt perspektiv bör mer forskningsfokus läggas på att undersöka behandlingsprotokoll som förbättrar oocytkvaliteten och kliniska utfall istället för att maximera antalet erhållna oocyter.

  • Lundgårdh, Filip
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Svensson, Kjell
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden.
    Alricsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Epidemiology of hip- and groin injuries in Swedish male first football league2019In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Purpose  This study aimed to investigate the incidence, pattern and burden of hip/groin injuries in Swedish professional male football players over five consecutive seasons.

    Methods  Injury history from 16 football teams in the Swedish male first football league was evaluated during five consecutive seasons. The team’s medical staff recorded team exposure and time-loss injuries prospectively between 2012 and 2016.

    Results  In total, 467 time-loss injuries located in the hip/groin area were recorded among 1,687 professional male football players, with an overall incidence and burden of 0.82/1,000 h and 15.6/1,000 h, respectively. There appeared to be an increased risk of hip/groin injuries during the last two seasons (2015-2016); however, the difference was not statistically significant (n.s). Recurrent injury rate was relatively low (14%), and overuse injuries accounted for the majority of injuries and absence days. Muscle injuries were the main injury type, while kicking and sprinting/running were the primary causes of injury. Goalkeepers had the lowest percentage of injuries and absence days.

    Conclusion  Hip/groin injuries are a substantial problem in football, but does not seem to be an increasing phenomenon in the Swedish male first football league. Index and overuse injuries accounted for the majority of injuries and absence days. Thus, the focus should be on preventing hip/groin injuries to lower the injury rate. These new findings should be taken into consideration when designing and implementing preventive training interventions.

     

  • Jogmark, Marina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Den regionala transformationsprocessens sociala dimension: Karlskrona 1989-20022015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How can we understand places and their development processes from a social perspective? The aim of this case study is to understand the emergence of an IT-industry in Karlskrona between 1989-2002 from a social capital perspective. Historically, the production and the form of life of the population in Karlskrona, has been characterized by the fact that Karlskrona is a naval city, which for several centuries has had a naval base and a naval ship yard. Karlskrona is also an interesting case to study because of the stagnation in the economy and the insignificant prospects for industrial renewal in the late 1980s. Despite these conditions, something happens that for a short period of time changes the local structure both in terms of production and population. How can we understand the social dimension of such a change?

    In a narrated form this case study highlights how the transformation of Karlskrona contain both bridging and bonding forms of social relations. The main purpose of this dissertation is accordingly to understand which networks of relations the key participants of the study are a part of and get resources from. The study also aim to highlight structures for action around the development of the IT-industry in relation to the ties that bind in the already established industrial specialization in Karlskrona, in other words the lasting relationships tied to the naval base, the navy and the naval yard. From this viewpoint questions are asked regarding what kind of social relations appear, both in the new and the old Karlskrona, and what it is in particular that characterizes the new social capital that makes up the key participants room to manoeuvre in the process of transformation for Karlskrona.

     

    The phenomenon where the place Karlskrona appears as socially divided between exchanges within the context of the new and the already established industry, is illustrated as two pillars of social capital. The pillars are assumed to be separated at the beginning of the transformation, and then they change as people live their lives and are included in new types of exchanges with each other. From the case specific study of the transformation of Karlskrona between 1989-2002, other, more general analytical connections are made in the discussion about how the dynamics of the transformation could be made possible, and why it stopped. From the theoretical viewpoint of social capital the dissertation follows a discussion about the lessons which can be learnt regarding the question how we can view places and their transformation processes. The conclusions particularly emphasize the importance of how newcomers can contribute as well as the crucial role held by border crossers when it comes to

    create linking social capital of the place.