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  • Frandsen, Martina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Rechercheintensive Werbemittelerstellung und sozialversicherungspflichtige Onlinemarketingagenturen: Eine deutsch-schwedische Übersetzungsanalyse von Substantiv- und Adjektivkomposita2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Compounds, i.e. combining two lexical morphemes, are used for various reasons, e.g. naming, reduction of letters and words, drawing attention and producing expressive and humorous effects, etc. Compounding is not a unique concept to the German language, but is regarded as one of its characteristic features. As the stylistic norms differ from language to language, it renders the task of translating compounds challenging. There are various translation strategies for translating compounds, the tendencies of which are explored in this study. The analysis is based on a Swedish translation of Kühn’s (2016) Das Handbuch für digitale Nomaden and focuses on noun and adjective compounds, as they are the most frequent compounds in German. Concerning noun compounds, the study shows a tendency towards translation strategies, which are close to the source text material in form and meaning, whereas translations of adjective compounds tend to use strategies, which are similar in meaning, but not in form, e.g. a paraphrase. On this basis, it is concluded that even though German and Swedish share linguistic similarities, they differ when it comes to stylistic norms, as German is considered more nominal, whereas Swedish has a more verbal mode of expression.

  • Pontén, Josefine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Das Wort kenne ich!: Eine Frequenzanalyse von Vokabeln in zwei DaF-Lehrwerken für das Niveau A22019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This two-part study investigates the word frequency of a total of 1296 vocabularies presented in the textbooks Digilär Tyska 3 and Lieber Deutsch 3 2.0, which correspond to the language proficiency level A2. The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent the designated vocabulary in the two textbooks represents the most frequent words in the German language. To determine this, the study was divided into two parts: In the first part, a quantitative study was conducted to answer the following research question: To what extent does the vocabulary in two German textbooks used in Swedish upper secondary schools represent the most frequent words in the German language? The chapter vocabularies were compared to the corpus-based frequency dictionary A Frequency Dictionary of German which lists the 4034 most frequent words in the German language. This study showed that both textbooks provided a high coverage of high frequency words with a percentage of 78% and 73%. Additionally, the vocabularies belonging to the vocabulary excerises in Digilär Tyska 3 were investigated and the result showed that 62% of these words had a low frequency and were not included in the frequency dictionary. Due to this low frequency coverage in the vocabulary exercises a need for a second part of the study was identified to investigate whether this vocabulary, despite its low frequency would still be important for the students to learn. Therefore, a second study with the following two research questions was conducted: Which themes do the low frequent words belong to? To what extent would each word separately in a low frequent composition come across as high frequent?The analyses in the second part of this study showed that the most dominating themes among the low frequency words were describing words, animals, hobbies and other. Consequently, it was argued that these themes could be relevant to address the students’ varying interests. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the low frequency compositions showed that 13.8 % of the low frequency words could be seen as high frequent when the frequency of each word within a composition was taken into account. Based on these results, it was argued that students learning German with the help of these textbooks would encounter many high frequency words. However, it was stressed that frequency alone cannot be the only deciding factor when identifying the adequate vocabulary for language learners. Motivational aspects such as incorporating vocabulary belonging to themes that students have an interest in would be another important factor that needs to be taken into account when choosing vocabulary. Furthermore, it was argued that teachers should incorporate strategies for German word composition to increase their students’ vocabulary range.

  • Svanberg, Kerstin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Les sensations sensorielles qu’évoquent les vins - pénibles à exprimer et encore plus à traduire ?: À propos de la richesse des couleurs et des arômes du roi bordelais et de ses confrères. 2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is based on a translation of a text about wine and wine-making, from French to Swedish. The purpose has been to identify and find solutions for the challenges that can arise in the translation of a text containing numerous descriptions of sensory sensations, i.e. tastes, smells, appearance and touch, in the field of wine.

    Based on a set of data retrieved from the two texts, our study is focusing on the deviations between descriptions of wine and grape varietals as to their grammatical or linguistic categories in the two languages. We have looked at three different types of descriptions: simple descriptors, metaphors and similes. Subsequently, these have been analyzed from a translation point of view in order to identify which tools are at the hands of the translator to render an idiomatic target text.

  • Wiktor Windblixt, Ida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Karlsson, Maria
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building Technology.
    Jämförelse av stegljudsisolering mellan tre olika bjälklagstyper2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sound and vibration which originate from footsteps can spread in a building and may disturb the people who residence it. Ability to insulate impact sound varies depending on how the joists system is designed and how high its stiffness and mass are. In this thesis the impact sound insulation of three different joists systems will be examined. The joists systems are installed in existing buildings located in Växjö, Sweden and owned by the real estate company Videum.

     

    The purpose of the thesis was to examine which of the three different joists systems that is most suitable for office- and university buildings, concerning acoustics. Furthermore, the purpose was to examine which of the joists systems that has the best ability to sequester impact sound horizontally. The goal with the thesis was to perform a standardized impact sound insulation measurement and a survey to determine which of the joists systems that has the best impact sound insulation. All data was analyzed and calculated.

     

    The results show that the CLT board with a concrete layer reduces the impact sound most efficiently. However, it should be mentioned that the designs of the objects are not fully comparable and therefore the results relate to the entire design including the wall floor connection, rather than to the joists systems alone.

  • Olsson, Jennie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Jämförelse av ekonomiskt utfall vid klassning av massaved enligt dagens klassningssystem och det nya systemet Prima-Sekunda: – En fallstudie på Mellanskog2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In August 2019, Prima-Sekunda is about to be introduced, a new classification system for the classification of pulpwood during surveying to industry. This new classification system should be more time and cost effective and at the same time offer the industries commodity volume with better quality. The purpose of this study was to compare if there was any difference in the economic outcome with the new Prima-Sekunda compared to today's classification system when measuring pulpwood. Based on the 95 piles measured, it appeared that today's classification system gives somewhat better paid than Prima-Sekunda due to the prices for Prima-Sekunda which are initially set slightly lower than today's pulpwood price. The introduction of Prima-Sekunda should be price neutral, which means that the prices for Prima-Sekunda as shown in the current study must be reasonably equal to the current pulpwood price for this goal to be materialized.

  • Pontusson, Jonas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Wallson, Victor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    Söderberg, Tobias
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science.
    ”Han behöver inte vara den bästa tränaren, han ska vara den bästa ledaren.”: En kvalitativ studie om likheter och olikheter i internatinella elitföreningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is more common today than in earlier ages that young athletes decides that they want to become professional athletes, and because of that works hard to reach their goals. This makes demands on the sport clubs we have today, if they want the best athletes and the most wanted talents, they need to provide a professional environment where athletes feels that they can improve.

    This following text is an essay, an essay about talent development environment. More exactly is it an essay about how European ice-hockey clubs works to provide their players the best surroundings to help them become a successful ice-hockey player. The essay Is comparing how different countries think about and work with talent development environments. And then with the help of previous research the authors of the essay come with conclusions which countries that are further in the progress and which countries that are a bit behind. 

  • Ahlgren, Wilmer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Sociala interaktioner i video-slots: En kvalitativ studie om intresset för sociala interaktioner i video-slots och hur det kan utformas för att skapa en bra spelupplevelse samt om det kan bidra till en sundare spelstil2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to investigate whether there is an interest in social interactions in video-slots and how that can be designed to give users a good user experience. Online casino is the form of gaming that has increased most in popularity in Sweden in recent years and the video-slots gametype are growing the most. Previous studies shows that there is a driving force to do things together and that strengthens and enriches experiences. Studies on social interactions in online games clearly shows that enjoyment is an important element for playing. The purpose is also to investigate if social interactions in video-slots can provide a healthier game for people who have gambling problems. 

    Video-slots is a hedonic motivation system (HMS) and is used to give the user pleasure and joy in a system. The theory on which the study is based on is HMSAM, which is an HMS specific model that has been used to create an understanding of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, joy, control and curiosity, which can affect internal motivation. Internal motivation is needed for users to be able to deepen and continue to use an HMS-system.

    The study has a qualitative approach and qualitative semi-structured interviews have been used in the collection of empirical data. The focus has been on the users' experiences, their motivations, driving forces, control and desires regarding social interactions in the playing of video-slots.The questions in the interviews are based on HMSAM, but also on the basis of the Octalysis gamification framework. The results from the data collection were analyzed on the basis of the categories and patterns that were created. The analysis showed a great motivation to play video-slots online together and that it would enhance their gaming experience. Even though it had simplified their gaming sessions and higher community when the majority of the informants already played video-slots today together, but with their own constructed methods. The analysis also showed that the informants play primarily for the pleasure and excitement. Based on the data from the interviews, design proposals were made, in support of the gamification framework. The design proposals resulted in six graphical interface sketches with functions that were considered to create a good user experience.

  • Wahlström, Ninni
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Classroom research: Methodology, categories and coding2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this text is to frame the methodological considerations developed in two research projects focused on classroom research. The first project is titled Understanding curriculum reforms – A theory-oriented evaluation of the Swedish curriculum reform Lgr 11 (years 2014–2017), and the second project has the title Exploring the elusive teaching gap – Equity and knowledge segregation in teaching processes (years 2018–2020). Both projects are financed by the Swedish Research Council.

    In the research projects, empirical data are collected from curriculum events in the classroom. The task is therefore about developing an analytical framework to investigate various organisational repertoires (frame factors) that are actualised with a curriculum; for example, factors such as content-orientation, teaching space and temporal organisation of the teaching. It is also about how a curriculum takes shape in the classroom and which different communicative repertoires  (teaching talk including listening and learning talk including listening) are activated in relation to different content focuses, as well as how such repertoires can be described based on comparative typologies/categories. The focus of the research is the coding of data relating to knowledge perceptions and forms of knowledge, which is a more challenging task. All the recorded lessons relate to teaching in a full class. The coding scheme can be found in the last chapter in this anthology

  • Johansson, Daniel
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Alternativa isoleringsmaterial: Aerogel inom sjöfarten2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is about using a theoretical model to calculate the various amounts of thermal losses that some insulation materials release. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether a specific insulation material that has not been properly tested in shipping has the potential to lower energy that passes through the insulation materials. The methods used are that a theoretical model was built to use the thermal conductivity of different insulation materials in order to calculate the theoretical heat losses. The result shows that aerogel would be suitable for use in shipping thanks to its properties and insulation ability, which is much better than mineral wool. 

  • Bjälevik, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Albertz, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Skolbibliotekarier och lärare: Ett professionsöverskridande samarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish School Inspectorate school libraries in Sweden are not utilized to their full potential. They conclude that this has a lot to do with a lack of communication and collaboration. We have, with this as a working premise, analyzed the collaboration between school librarians and teachers with a basis in the Teacher Librarian Collaboration-models. The TLC-models illustrates the collaboration between school librarians and teachers by using four categories for collaboration. The results are based on four interviews with school librarians on the topic of collaboration with teachers from the librarians’ point of view. Three things to note according to the informants are their dependence on a library plan, the need for a more involved management that has a deeper understanding for what they want from the school library, and that overall, they express a satisfaction with the collaborations they do have with teachers although two of the respondents wish these were conducted with all of the teachers in their workplace and not just a select few. The models have been applied to the result to elucidate the level of cooperation and we can conclude that although the collaboration patterns are far from terrible there is room for improvement. For further research we suggest deeper investigations on the role of the library plan and its impact on the collaboration. We also suggest further research on the role of the teachers and principals should be done in disciplines outside Library and Information science. At last we see an advantage in this kind of study, but in a grand scale to gather a broad array of ideas and perspectives.

  • Davidsson, Clara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Goude, Ellinore
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Folkbibliotekens utveckling: En analys av tio biblioteksplaner2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what ideas there are about the future role of the public libraries in society, what challenges the public libraries may face and how the public libraries will continue to be a place to meet. The future of the public libraries has been, and still is, a discussed topic and many believe that public libraries have an obvious place in society. The thesis focuses on library plans from the ten largest municipalities in Sweden. The theory used to analyze the source material in the study is The Four Space Model made by Henrik Jochumsen, Casper Hvenegaard Rasmussen and Dorte Skot‐Hansen. This model consists of four “spaces”, learning, meeting, inspiration and performative space that represents different aspects of how to manage a library, these spaces were more or less represented in the library plans. The results of the thesis showed that the library is a popular meeting place and that the public library has an important role, as an institution, to play in the society. Results also showed that cooperation between the libraries in the same municipality, but also cooperation with public libraries in other municipalities is important for the future.  

  • Saukko, Julia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Die Klima-Apokalypse steht vor der Tür: Zur Übersetzung von Metaphern in deutschen Texten über Klimawandel2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the translation methods used for a German-Swedish translation of metaphors in two books about climate change and environmental policy. These books contain a large number of metaphors, and this essay raises the question of how those are translated. The theory used for defining and classifying the metaphors found in the material is the conceptual metaphor theory, as defined by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), and their notion of metaphor is also fundamental in how it is later being analysed. The study finds that of the four different  translation strategies used, direct translation is by far the most common one. It also shows that a few metaphors were altered in terms of the lexicalisation of the metaphorical expression, however with the underlying conceptual metaphor still intact. Only one metaphor was translated with a completely different conceptual metaphor than in the original, and in two other cases the metaphor was translated with non-figurative language.

  • Furvall, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Reningstekniker för reducering av ammoniumkväve i rökgaskondensat.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from incineration plants have decreased since the introduction of nitrogen oxide charge. Flue gas treatment with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) is used to reduce the NOx-levels where ammonia is added. This results in unreacted ammonia in the flue gas, which ends up in the condensate as ammonium. Many plants have conditions of ammonium in condensate which require purification before the water is released to a recipient.

    Through cooperation with the heating plant in Kiruna, their plant has been used as a study object. They need to purify ammonium from the flue gas condensate to cope with future limits of emissions. Thus, this work investigates which technique for ammonium removal is the best for Kiruna´s heating plant. Four different purification techniques for ammonium and an alternative method has been investigated. The techniques are ammonia stripper, contact membrane, return of ammonia-containing water to boiler and removal with RO. The alternative method is to install a slip-SCR that takes care of the ammonia residues in the flue gas.

    The results show that all techniques have a purification rate of about 90%. According to this study, the best technology for Kiruna´s heating plant is an ammonia stripper that is also the most common and proven technology.

  • Hayford, Nana
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Nordström, Kevalee
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hot och våld: En litteraturstudie om sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av hot och våld på akutmottagning.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:Hot och våld är vanligt förekommande i sjukvården. Sjuksköterskor som arbetar på en akutmottagning tillhör en riskgrupp som kan hamna i situationer med våld och hot. Beroende på vart man jobbar och vilken bransch man är i så finns det olika anledningar och orsaker till hot och våld.  Enligt Arbetsmiljöverket (2018) ska arbetsgivaren se till att det finns resurser och informationen till personalen som är tillräcklig för att kunna arbeta på ett tryggt och säkert sätt. KASAM har använts som teoretisk referensram. Syfte: Studiens syfte var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av hot och våld på akutmottagning. Metod: Det har gjorts en litteraturstudie med integrerad analys. Strukturerade sökningar genomfördes i databaserna CINAHL och PubMed. Resultatet består av 16 vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultat: Det framkom att sjuksköterskor upplevde en otrygghet och osäkerhet på arbetsplatsen, vilket var obehagligt för många. Hot och våld upplevdes av sjuksköterskorna som en del av deras arbete och det påverkade även deras privatliv både fysiskt och psykiskt. Resurser och utbildningar för att hantera våldsamma situationer var otillräckliga. Slutsats:Sjuksköterskor som blev utsatta för hot och våld drabbades psykiskt och fysiskt, samt att det väckte starka känslor. Det fanns behov av kontinuerlig utbildning för vårdpersonal för att stärka kunskapen kring hur hot och våld kunde hanteras på bästa sätt. 

  • Nilsson, Karin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Har vi reformerats?: En studie om hur förändringarna i Ukraina sedan självständig­heten har påverkat fysiklärarna i deras yrkesutövning.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie redogör för hur en utvald grupp av fysiklärare i Ukraina upplever att de har påverkats i sin yrkesutövning sedan självständigheten från Sovjetunionen 1991. Reformerna inom skolan har varit många men fysikämnet har inte varit prioriterat för reformering. Innehållsmässigt är det oförändrat samtidigt som timtilldelningen har minskat drastiskt. Detta har resul­terat i att fysiklärarna kämpar med att hinna lära ut ett innehåll som är avan­cerat och till viss del förlegat. Elevernas intresse för fysik har dessutom minskat vilket har gjort att fysiklärarna har svårt att inspirera och motivera dem till att satsa på fysikämnet. Som följd av detta fokuserar lärarna mest på de få elever som är duk­tiga och intresserade. Den andra gruppen elever, som är i stor majoritet, låter de till viss del vara och nöjer sig med att de tillägnar sig det absolut mest basala. De ekono­miska svårigheter Ukraina har genomlidit har även påverkat fysiklärarna negativt. Framförallt ser den framtida försörjningen av fysiklärare ut att vara hotad, delvis beroende på de låga lönerna. 

    2016 sjösattes en skolreform kallad the New Ukrainian Schoolsom avser att revolut­ion­era skolsystemet. Den är under implementering och kommer inte att vara klar för­rän 2029. Denna studie pekar på många utmaningar för reformen rent generellt men också specifikt för fysikämnet. 

  • Public defence: 2019-11-06 13:00 Homeros (F332), Växjö
    Hemmilä, Venla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
    Towards low-emitting and sustainable particleandfibreboards: Formaldehyde emission test methods and adhesives from biorefinery lignins2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High volumes, fast production speed, and low material costs have been historically the driving factors of the particle- and fibreboard industries. However, in recent years the fossil-fuel dependency and health issues of the formaldehyde-containing adhesives used in the production have gained attention from both legislators and consumers. The latest example of legislation development is the change that the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety of Germany  (Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Nukleare Sicherheit) made to their testing method, effectively lowering the formaldehyde emission levels of wood-based panels in Germany from the European emission level of 0.1 ppm (E1, EN 717-1) to 0.05 ppm. As the emission levels of requirements decrease, market opportunities arise for formaldehyde-free bio-based adhesive systems. The aim of this thesis was thus to evaluate the different formaldehyde test methods at low emission levels (<0.05 ppm), and to explore new adhesive alternatives to the formaldehyde and petroleum-based systems used today.

    As formaldehyde emissions decrease, choosing the right measurement method becomes increasingly important. Repeatability and correlation between the main European and American formaldehyde measurement chambers, described in EN 717-1 and ASTM D 6007 standards respectively, were determined. In addition, an alternative fast factory method based on emissions was evaluated, and the effect of reducing the conditioning time before emission measurements was investigated. A literature research was conducted on different bio-based raw materials in order to review their potential, from both scientific and industrial viewpoints, as alternatives to the current petroleum-derived and formaldehyde-based adhesives. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were chosen for further testing due to their increasing volumes and potential to suit various pathways for adhesive making. Three different biorefinery lignins were compared, and ammonium lignosulfonate was chosen for making adhesives for particleboards by using one petroleum-based and one bio-based crosslinker.

    The main conclusion of the formaldehyde emission part of the thesis was that formaldehyde emissions can be measured both accurately and quickly at low levels using chamber methods, even at factory environment. There was a good correlation between the American D 6007 and European EN 717-1 chamber methods at emission levels <0.05 ppm for both particleboards (r2 = 0.9167) and fibreboards (r2 = 0.9443). Further understanding on the effect of edge-sealing of boards and analytical methods described in the standards was obtained. It was confirmed that a fast chamber method with 1 day conditioning and 15 minutes measuring time could be used for factory formaldehyde control for most board types.

    The bio-based adhesives’ literature review revealed a large amount of studies on different sustainable adhesive systems, some of which seem promising. Both soy protein and tannin were found to be partially commercialized, with certain pre-requisites. Kraft-lignin was especially well researched, but was found to be difficult to use for other applications than partial replacement of phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives due to poor water solubility and purity. Lignin residues from biorefinery processes were found to be a less studied, growing raw-material source with a lot of potential. Thus, supercritical water hydrolysis lignin (SCWH) and two biorefinery lignosulfonates were chemically and thermally characterized, and evaluated as raw materials for value-added applications, including adhesives. SCWH lignin was found to have more β-R linkages and lower amount of impurities than the lignosulfonates. High amount of phenolic hydroxyl groups indicated that SCWH would be well suited for phenol replacement in PF adhesives. The two lignosulfonates had more aliphatic hydroxyl groups, which can be interesting for other crosslinking reactions than PF. Ammonium lignosulfonate (ALS) was chosen for further evaluation as having slightly better properties than sodium lignosulfonate (SLS). ALS was combined with one bio-based crosslinker, furfuryl alcohol (FOH), and one synthetic crosslinker, 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI), and tested as particleboard adhesive. Although in veneer tensile shear strength testing the crosslinkers worked equally well, pMDI provided significantly better results in particleboards. In addition, higher emissions than what can be expected from wood particles alone were detected from the particleboard samples crosslinked with FOH, even though FOH can be classified as non-formaldehyde added adhesive system. Further research is needed to elucidate how much the lignin contributes to the final adhesion strength when it is used together with pMDI.

    This thesis has provided new insights on formaldehyde emissions and bio-based adhesives towards healthier and more sustainable particle- and fibreboards. It has been proven that formaldehyde emissions can be measured accurately at emission levels of wood, enabling comparisons of formaldehyde-free systems. Formaldehyde-free adhesives based on a biorefinery lignin type and pMDI showed promising results for particleboards. However, these results need to be improved by different modifications of the lignin in order to bring the adhesive system to the economical and performance level required by the particleboard industry.

  • Ryall, Kylie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Abu Amcha, Bichara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet efter en höftfraktur hos äldre: En kvantitativ litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Höftfrakturer håller på att bli ett stort hälso- och vårdproblem på grund av den snabbt växande åldrande befolkningen. Det är därför viktigt att undersöka hur höftfrakturer påverkar de äldres hälsorelaterade livskvalitet.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur höftfraktur hos äldre personer, över 60 år, påverkar deras uppfattade hälsorelaterade livskvalitet.

    Metod: Studien är en litteraturöversikt och består av 12 vetenskapliga originalartiklar med kvantitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Höftfrakturer har en negativ påverkan av individens hälsorelaterade livskvalitet. Framförallt försämras individens rörlighet och självständighet. Ålder utgör den främsta bidragande faktorn och störst återhämtning sker under det första halvåret. Efter ett år är den fortsatta återhämtningen måttlig eller obefintlig. 

    Slutsats: Höftfraktur har en direkt negativ påverkan hos den enskilda individens funktionella rörlighet och psykosociala omständigheter vilket negativt påverkar individens hälsorelaterade livskvalitet. För att möta kommande vårdbehov skulle investeringar i mer resurser behövas, för att aktivt arbeta med att utveckla rehabiliteringsprogram för individer som råkat ut för höftfraktur, för att minska bestående besvär och tidigt avvärja vidare komplikationer. Samt att sjukvården aktivt informerar om höftfrakturer, så att patienter har realistiska förväntningar på sin återhämtning. För fortsatt forskning bör fler mätinstrument än EQ-5D inkluderas för att skapa en bättre helhetssyn av individens hälsosituation.

  • Liljevald, Alexandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Terrorist eller gärningsman?: En innehållsanalys kring medias framställningar av två terrorattentat2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this essay is to contribute with knowledge about medias portraying. This by examining whether the two terrorists Rakhmat Akilov and Brenton Tarrant is presented differently in the two Swedish newspapers Aftonbladet and Expressen. These two terrorists were chosen because of their different backgrounds. It also aims to study whether the medias portrayal of the terrorists reproduce mechanisms between ”us and them”. The method that was used in this essay was a content analysis with a qualitative approach as the essay aims to examine the entirety of the articles and to capture the central content that they present.

    The theories that has been used to analyze the empirical data is Orientalism by Edward Said and the theory of othering. These have been used as a key to understand the representations.

    The result of this essay shows that the representations of the terrorists both have similarities and differences. The portraying of Akilov have focused on what sets him apart from ”us” and he is described as an individual who is a part of something structural. In the case of Brenton Tarrant he is presented from a individualistic perspective, where the attack is explained by the individual and not by the group.

  • Che, Denis Ben
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Livelihood strategies ofrefugees:: A study of NakivaleRefugee Settlement in Uganda2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every day people are forced by either, war, conflict, natural disasters or other uncontrollable circumstances to either leave their native lands to seek refuge in other nations or they are being displaced within their country. While they may find temporal succour from the disasters that push them out of their country, they are yet faced with other greater challenges as they become highly dependent on the generosity of the international community and the receiving countries for their survival and livelihood. In most cases if not all, the reliance on handouts from the international community and the host government leaves these people of concern more vulnerable and become more dependent on humanitarian assistance. In situations where humanitarian assistance cannot sufficiently provide for the basic needs of displaced persons, they seek alternative ways to negotiate livelihoods. The benefit of social networks has been established to be resourceful to people of this category; however, when positive coping mechanism becomes disenfranchised some indulge in negative coping mechanisms.The sustainable livelihood framework will be applied to understand the vulnerability context of refugees in the settlement. This model looks at the various capital assets available for the refugees and the various possibilities of negotiating a better live in the settlement. The study shows that refugees are entrapped in the settlement with little options to seek alternative means to survive. Refugees are actively adopting survival strategies such as petty trading, farming and labour assistance to the locals among others.This paper explore the various strategies implored by the refugees in negotiating livelihoods and the role of agencies in promoting livelihood options that are impacting the refugees positively within the settlement. These options provides independence to refugees and lessen the burden of host communities.

  • Andersson, Sandra
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    La influencia del género en el uso de la cortesía verbal2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the essay is to discover whether gender is a variable that affects the way to apply one of the pragmatics fields, that is, the verbal courtesy. In the second aspect, the aim also consists in exploring which of the different courtesy strategies each gender tends to use. At last, the purpose is also to analyse and determine if the application of the verbal courtesy between men and women change according to the geographic location. To be able to conduct the essay, a survey will be distributed at the University of Stockholm and at the University of Malaga. The survey contains questions which alternatives are related to the different courtesy strategies, which will make it possible to establish men and women’s ways of using verbal courtesy respectively.This research illustrates that the utilization of the verbal courtesy differs between men and women since they use the courtesy strategies with a different frequency. Nevertheless, there is not a marked difference since they both tend to use the same strategies. In addition, the result also shows that women use more often than men three of the strategies that have the major focus on the politeness. It furthermore shows that men tend to use a strategy that is a more direct way of making speech acts, comparing to women. Ultimately, there is a difference of the use of verbal courtesy between the people of each gender more noticeable in the University of Stockholm, due to the strategy that men use the least, off-record, is not corresponding to the one that women are using the least, which is bald on-record.

  • Loxbo, Karl
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blombäck, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hinnfors, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Demker, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hagevi, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Reliability testing of coded election manifesto data in the DIPAC-project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The data described in this report were collected for the DIPAC-project.1 The project’s aim was to closer investigate the proposed crisis of parties and party systems in Western Europe during the last decades.  To fulfil this aim, one of our main goals was to collect electoral manifestos from all parties in the respective party system for all selected years, and code their ideological contents. The main reason for our choice to code manifestos was to provide a more detailed and nuanced foundation for analyzing ideological polarization and ideological change in Western European party system than the saliency-oriented perspective that has hitherto dominated manifesto-research. In this report, we conclude that the DIPAC coding of ideological position has yielded highly reliable measures, whereas the coding of saliency should be interpreted with some caution with regard to the GAL-TAN dimension and sub-dimensions. 

  • Halléni, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Att läsa eller inte läsa, det är frågan: En undersökning om hur barns läsvanor påverkas, och vad som påverkar dem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will be looking at children’s reading habits, their attitudes towards reading, and whether or not the presence of digital technology such as television or computers have any effect on said reading habits. The material of the study will be collected via group interviews with students at age nine to ten at two different schools in neighbouring towns in the south of Sweden. The parents of the students have all been informed of the study, and approved of their children taking part of it. The purpose of interviewing the students directly, and not to their parents or teachers, is that the chance of them giving relevant and thoughtful answers increase of they are treated as individuals with thoughts and opinions of their own. The study shows that most of the students read with the purpose of school assignments and while most of them don’t mind reading, not many do it for pleasure if there are possibilities of other activities offered instead. Some of these other activities do involve screen time, but many also enjoy being active and spending time with their friends and families.

  • Persson, Lovis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    En plats för oss av oss: En studie i design av universitetsbibliotek i användarnas anda2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to explore the importance of library design to students, whether the interior design of a library has any effect on their experience when using its services, and what the students themselves believe is most important for the library to do to stay afloat in a society that is constantly evolving and becoming more digital. The study will also bring up UX (User Experience) as a method for library design. The theories used in this study are the third place theory, as well as a comparison to the ideals of the Learning Commons model. In order to find out how the students view the library and the impact of its design, five interviews with five different students at Linneaus University in Växjö were conducted. The results show that the library generally inspires the students to feel motivated and at ease in a place that is comfortable and safe. It also shows that the design and the general atmosphere of the library does play a specific role in the students’ overall experience of the library as it impacts many of the choices they make while they’re there, such as where to sit or which places to avoid. The majority of the students are mostly happy with the library as it is except for minor inconveniences, and merely wishes for the library to continue in the same way in the future while adapting to any new changes that may come in its way.

  • Annie, Onemark
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Jämställdhet eller illusion?: En kvalitativ studie om strukturella och kulturella fenomen i jämställdhetsexperternas verklighet. 2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is about experts in equality. These experts have extensive knowledge and the cultural and structural phenomena that effects individual’s way of looking at equality. European Gender Equality Index for the first decade of the twenty first century shows that equality is far from reaching its structural aim for equality.   

    The purpose of this study is to find out how cultural and structural phenomena effects equality in organisations, how the experts experience these phenomena and what role they play in the experts work for equality. The study is based on a qualitative approach and has given empirical material through seven interviews with experts. To best understand and present the empirical material I have chosen two theoretical perspectives to work with. Out of these theoretical perspectives four concepts: gender, norm, gender segregation and homochirality has been used to explain the findings.

    The result shows that historically inherited structural and cultural phenomena still control many parts of equality. The construction of equality is still portraited by men as the norm even though findings also show segregation within the female gender. Homosociality excludes women and gender is no longer only between men and women but between masculine and feminine. Findings also suggest that even the experts are questioned in their gender when implementing equality in organisations. This study has contributed with deeper insight into equality experts prerequisites to structural and cultural phenomena.

  • Public defence: 2019-11-06 14:00 C305K, Falken, Kalmar
    Smits, Vivian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences. Studio Västsvensk Konservering, Sweden.
    Att skapa ett kulturarv2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at improving cooperation and communication between actors in the field of Swedish contract archaeology in order to maximize the benefits of their work. It addresses two research questions: How did the development of archaeology into contract archaeology as an independent business affect museum collections in Sweden? And: How do communication and terminology affect the processes that transform material culture into cultural heritage?

    Departing from “actor-network-theory” and taking a linguistic perspective, I first examine closely some important processes and structures behind the making of heritage. The background of contemporary contract archaeology is then illuminated through a literature study focusing on the history of and current practices in contract archaeology, conservation practice and museum management. Later, I investigate the particular effects of contract archaeology on museum collections. This is based in part on a comparative analysis of selection and de-selection processes of artefacts in collections and partly on a survey among contract archaeologists. I conclude with a discourse analysis of policies and other governing documents, highlighting the significance of communication and terminology in processes during which archaeological artefacts acquire a new identity as cultural heritage.

    The study shows how the contemporary system of contract archaeology creates a biased representation of (pre-)history, as selection and de-selection processes of artefacts in museum collections are affected by various internal practices and external demands that ultimately shape cultural heritage. This bias is not helped by the fact that those collecting the artefacts in the field use different terminology compared with those collecting in museums. I argue that behind this gap lies the “cultural heritage paradox” which derives from different understandings and aims of cultural heritage by different actors. 

  • Antonio, Zubak
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Viberg, Jacob
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Informationsspridning vid Introduktionsprocessen på ett Bemanningsföretag: En studie där informationsspridningen vid Introduktionsprocessen studerats.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personalomsättningen är idag väldigt stor inom organisationer och numera söker sig unga människor med mindre arbetslivserfarenhet till bemanningsföretag. Tidspressen är hög inom branschen och företagen vill snabbt få ut sina anställda, vilket ställer stora krav på en lyckad och tidsbegränsad introduktion. Fördelar med en lyckad introduktion är att den anställde känner trygghet och tillit inför kommande uppdrag och arbetsgivare. Bakgrunden till ett fördjupat intresse av att studera introduktionsprocessen inom bemanningsbranschen framstod när tidigare forskningar påvisade tydliga brister men även förbättringsmöjligheter som finns inom området. En bidragande orsak till valet av studie var fallföretagets engagemang, vilja och positiva inställning till en fördjupad forskning. Genom tidigare erfarenheter inom branschen av författarna upplevdes forskningsfrågan relevant och viktig. Efter en avstämning med tänkt fallföretag framkom det att konsultchefen upplevde att informationsspridningen under introduktionsprocessen var problematiskt. Därmed var vår tanke att bidra med en extern samt intern synvinkel över introduktionsprocessen. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur nyanställda konsulter upplever informationsspridningen vid introduktionsprocessen ur ett informationslogistiskt perspektiv. För att få fram önskade data har ett induktivt angreppssätt använts där författaren gått från empiri till teori. För att få fram djupgående fakta och insikter användes en kvalitativ datainsamlingsmetod där 7 informanter i olika åldersgrupper intervjuades. För att besvara frågeställningen har följande teorier använts; Knowlegde Management, Organisatoriskt lärande, Informationslogistik, Informationsspridning och Bauers 4:cn. Studien har resulterat i en slutsats som visar olika tillvägagångssätt av förbättringsförslag som kan användas till underlag för att implementera och etablera en förändring av introduktionsprocessen. Dessa områden är att göra konsulten mer aktiv under introduktionen, att avsätta tid utifrån varje individs behov samt att använda workshops för att konsulterna ska kunna sprida insikter till varandra. Förslag till fortsatt forskning inom området är att studera ledarskapets roll i introduktionsprocessen samt hur en helt digital introduktion skulle kunna effektivisera introduktionen.

  • Kniif, Gustav
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Tibell, Jessica
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Beredskapen är allt: En kartläggning av övningar inför allvarlig händelse i ett län i södra Sverige.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background. This master thesis from the nurse specialist program in emergency care is a pilot study conducted on assignment of Center for interprofessional collaboration and artel within emergency care (CISA). Major accidents or disasters are events where resources need to be redistributed, lead, and used in a specific manner. International experience shows that preparedness for major accidents or disaster is an area in need of improvement. National experiences point out communication and introduction of new employees as areas of improvement. A major accident or disaster involves multiple functions, that within this extreme situation need to cooperate, something that past experiences have shown to be difficult. Exercise can prepare personnel in dealing with different situations, as well as improve cooperation in real events. Digital simulation exercises contribute as an effective way to learn in a safe environment. Aim of the study was to map how exercises for major accidents are implemented and experienced within the emergency response system in a county in southern Sweden. Method. The chosen design was a cross-sectional study. The data collection was conducted through a survey study. The sample was collected with the help of CISA’s control group through convenience sample. The study got a total of 108 participants, of these participants nine were excluded because of total or partial (>30%) non-completion. Analysis of descriptive and analytic statistics was carried out in SPSS v.25. A thematic content analysis was conducted on the free text answers. Results/Conclusion The participants that work within the emergency response system exercise to different extents based on which unit within the emergency response system they belong to as well as if they have a management role in case of a major accident or not. The units corporate for major accidents but tend to co-exercise either prehospitally or intrahospitally. A clear majority of the participants agree that they practise too rarely. The exercises are generally seen as meaningful by the participants. Realism, amount of training and time for practice are identified as areas of improvement. More research is needed within the area, as a suggestion with equal sized groups of representatives from the different units, to be able to draw more certain conclusions from the result and thereby favor the individual patient, by increasing the readiness for major accidents or disasters in society.

  • Lincke, Alisa
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Lozano Prieto, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Herault, Romain Christian
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Forsgärde, Elin-Sofie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Milrad, Marcelo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Visualizing learners’ navigation behaviour using 360 degrees interactive videos2019In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Web Information Systems and Technologies / [ed] Alessandro Bozzon, Francisco Domínguez Mayo & Joaquim Filipe, Vienna: SciTePress, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 358-364Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of 360-degrees interactive videos for educational purposes in the medical field has increased in recent years, as well as the use of virtual reality in general. Learner’s navigation behavior in 360-degrees interactive video learning environments has not been thoroughly explored yet. In this paper, a dataset of interactions generated by 80 students working in 16 groups while learning about patient trauma treatment using 360-degrees interactive videos is used to visualize learners’ navigation behavior. Three visualization approaches were designed and implemented for exploring users’ navigation paths and patterns of interaction with the learning materials are presented and discussed. The visualization tool was developed to explore the issues above and it provides a comprehensive overview of the navigation paths and patterns. A user study with four experts in the information visualization field has revealed the advantages and drawbacks of our solution. The paper concludes by providing some suggestions for improvements of the proposed visualizations.

  • Gewers, Einar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Digitalisering inom bibliotek: En kvalitativ studie av påverkan inom kommunikation mellan folkbibliotek och användare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The library in general has been faced with a new society with changed forms of communication. This means that the development has altered the use of media in general, but also that the communication from traditional oral and written to digital communication. The aim of this study is to investigate how communication between libraries and users has changed in the more digital society. The thesis is about communication between libraries and users by means of digital channels. I have conducted interviews with librarians who handle communication within their respective public libraries and to find out how they handle communication with their users via digital channels and other means. In the study, I chose to use a qualitative method that consisted of five semi-structured interviews. I analyzed the results using the Marketing mix theory. The results of the study show that according to the participants, the presence of social media has changed how libraries communicate with their users, as they have given the libraries several channels of communication. Hence the increased part of citizens with a digital presence gives libraries the opportunity to disseminate information about the library to a larger number of users or future users.

  • Good, Anna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Metsmaa, Ebba
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Cultural Sciences.
    Finns den som e-bok?: En undersökning kring riktlinjer för e-medier på gymnasiebibliotek2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is titled; Is this available as an e-book? An investigationabout guidelines for e-books in high school libraries which is a study about guidelines for e-books in Swedish high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate how clear guidelines are for e-media in high school libraries that maybe wasn’t very known by the public. The purpose of this study was also how these potential guidelines were followed and what view high school libraries have on e-media in their libraries. The study's problem definitions was the lack of clear guidelines regarding e-media in high school libraries, the great lack of research regarding high school libraries and also that school libraries do not seem particularly interested in e-books as e-media. The questions we wanted answered in this study were “How clear are the guidelines for digital resources in high school libraries?", "How are e-media guidelines used?" and "How do school libraries view e-media as a resource at their school library?". We used semi-structured interviews that were booked via telephone and email. We limited ourselves to six interviews due to lack of time and interest from the potential respondents. The questions in this study were answered with the help of the interviews that we executed, the data that was collected and with the help of Michael Buckland’s (1991) information theory. We were able to make an analysis and start a discussion in hopes that more studies will be made about e-books and it's uses in high school libraries in the future.

  • Omiti, Matabel Nite
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Nu är det dags för ditt val!: Den politiska kommunikation på sociala medier inför riksdagsvalet 2018.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the political material published before the parliamentary elections 2018 from two party leaders who were competing for the prime minister's role in 2018. Stefan Löfven and Ulf Kristersson are the two political actors who present themselves and  their party for the parliamentary elections in 2018. The two social media that has been selected are Facebook and Instagram, which at the time of the study were the most widely used around the world. This study use Aristotle's philosophy about the rhetoric’s ethos, logos and pathos and Walter Lippman's research on agenda theory. These two theories explain that people communicate through different rhetorical arguments and agendas, especially in political communication where the goal is often to convince the people what the society looks like. The goal is to gain their trust for the election. The survey shows that this indeed is used by both Löfven and Kristersson, though in different ways. The differences may be different due to the high probability of party leaders ahead of the parliamentary elections. Löfven is already prime minister and is running for second term, while Kristersson is newly elected party leader and new candidate to become Sweden's prime minister. What became surprising during the study was to see how they both benefit from using ethos, logos and pathos in a way that truly represent the party’s political statements. The conclusion that can be drawn from the results is that during the parliamentary elections 2018 Kristersson focused on sending a more persuasive message that the Moderates are the obvious choice and through his ways of painting the reality sent a signal that he, as the future party leader, is fully ready to responsible address Sweden. Löfven, on the other hand, focused on to channel a more relaxed presentation of himself as well as a message aimed to the working class in society. Much of his speech consisted of his proximity to the people and understanding of their everyday problems.

  • Pronckute, Karolina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Rörliga bilder och äldre personer: En kvalitativ studie om äldre personers upplevelser på online nyhetssidor och hur användarupplevelse kan förbättras2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study was focused on a research of how older people experience moving images on news pages online. It was based on the HMSAM model and of previous research in connection to user experience, information overload and accessibility. The increase of people watching moving images can help us sharing and publishing videos quickly. The aim of the study was to fill in the knowledge gap when it comes to older people and moving images. The purpose of the study has been to create an understanding of how news pages can be accessed more easily and help to increase good user experience even for older people. Eight potential users of news sites were involved in the study. The empirical material has been collected through individual semi-structured interviews and user tests with observations. Moving images can affect users negatively or positively depending on attitude, previous experiences and news format priorities. In general, they did not feel that moving images improves or worsen the user experience, it is more about what they contain and how it is posted. The results of this study have shown that users can lose interest in news due to loss of control, digital advertising and information overload. Video interviews provide first-hand information and are a credible news source according to research participants. You can remember the news better if you read a text and watch a video. Users want control and decide for themselves when they want to watch a video.

  • Ahlstrand, Marcus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Interaktion med en digital tjänst: En kvalitativ studie om hur god interaktion för en samhällstjänst kan utformas för medborgare2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In modern society, our interaction with services is continuous and offers opportunities for a richer everyday life. One example is that state agencies provide their services digitally to simplify and improve community services to citizens. At the same time, interaction with digital services poses a challenge for users. These challenges can be the reason why users of the Swedish Consumer Agency’s service Budgetkalkylen expressed opportunities for improvement. In this thesis, usefulness, usability and cognitive load is used to examine the interaction between users and the service Budgetkalkylen. This is to contribute with proposals for improvement concerning usefulness, usability and cognitive load. The theory describes how the cognitive load on our working memory affects the constituents of the usability of a system. Usability, which is important when interplay with a product is of concern, form together with utility the products usefulness. The usefulness of a system is the reason why a product is used to achieve goals. To investigate this, a study with a qualitative approach has been conducted containing interviews and user testing. The data collection was carried out with students who had no prior experience with the service. The result shows that parts of the interaction that constituted high cognitive load reduced the usability of the service. Splitting up the tasks and information in smaller steps, giving more clear instructions and adapting the instructional design to the users level of knowledge is considered to reduce the cognitive load. The utility was expressed as a means to create a holistic view of their finances. Some wanted more proactivity through being able to set up saving goals and some wanted to use it more reactively. Literature describing that cognitive load affects usability was supported by this study. The method of examining the cognitive load to find definices in the interaction was also supported. 

  • Rexhaj, Betim
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Perishable Inventory Management Solutions and Challenges of Kosovo FFRs: Avoiding Product Expiration at Retails Shelves2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Perishable Inventory Management Solutions and Challenges of Kosovo FFRs. Avoiding Product Expiration at Retails ShelvesPurpose: In this thesis perishable inventory management solutions and challenges at Kosovo FFRs have been studied and identified. Hence, after identifying PIM solutions and challenges the research suggests ideas that will contribute to avoid the expiration of perishable products if selling them takes more time than their actual shelf life. This contributes to minimizing food waste in food supply chains and fresh food retailers.

    Methodology: Thesis consist of qualitative methods where multiple case studies in cooperation with Kosovo FFRs have been performed. Data collection methods included semi structured interviews, site visits and some financial data accessed from annual and government reports.

    Theory: Theoretical chapter has been developed from preexisting theory on perishable inventory management. Five phases of fresh food retailing inventory management have been developed and used as the basis for practical research. Moreover, part two of the theoretical chapter talks about the perishable inventory management challenges and is the basis for the second research question.

    Findings: The findings have shown that Kosovo FFRs use a mixture of PIM solutions with a focus on shelf life and replenishment solutions. The study also revealed that Kosovo FFRs are outdated regarding to product identification and software solutions, however, manage to perform somehow satisfactorily. Consequently, because of the lack of contemporary identification technologies Kosovo FFRs PIM challenges where found to be related to data accuracy and real time data access.

  • Larsson, Simon Lars Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Danger prediction by modern technology: The role of wearable technology in improving workers’ situational awareness in hazardous industries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The health and safety of workers is critically important to all companies, especially those operating in hazardous environments.  Companies typically rely on an array of personal protective equipment to help ensure the safety of their workers, however as technology evolves, a new generation of devices are helping revolutionize the industry.  Wearable technology is now becoming commonplace in both our personal and professional lives. 

     

    This study focused on understanding the use of, and attitude towards, various wearable technologies by workers in hazardous environments.  It also explored the change in perception within the workers as these technologies were leveraged and made recommendations for improvement in the future.

     

    A qualitive methodology was applied to understand the people, social, and cultural context.  Participants from industry were interviewed in an inductive and iterative manner, extracting data with an emphasis on the narrative.  Thematic analysis was then utilized to distill the data into Codes, Categories, and ultimately Concepts.

     

    While it became evident that workers had limited personal experience with wearable technology outside of the workplace, they all used it in some manner during their work.  The use of wearable technology was largely motivated by policies and procedures imposed by the companies.  Interestingly, the workers did have an expectation that the user of these devices had a positive impact on their overall safety.  Somewhat surprisingly, the outlook on the future of the technology was not very positive.  There are several opportunities for improvement both to design and implementation of safety related wearable technology, as well as a desire to better leverage artificial intelligence and augmented reality.

     

    Most companies utilize some level of wearable technology to assist in keeping their workers safe.  How workers utilize wearable technology to identify dangerous locations and situations varies greatly from organization to organization, but also between individual workers within any organization.  Although the use of wearable technology within the workplace has been demonstrated to improve safety, the primary motivator for its use is the fact that organization mandate their staff to compliance through policies and standard operating processes. Despite the fact that personal safety should be of utmost importance to any worker, they appear to be so unmotivated to actually utilize the technology available to them that it must be made mandatory through policy.  Within this environment, it becomes very difficult for workers to consider how wearable technology capabilities can be improved in regard to safety-related situational awareness.

  • Huang, Rong
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Using Student Response System in Higher education: teachers' perception of influential factors and challenges2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies have changed the traditional concept of education and improved existing educational methods. Student Response System is a new teaching system that combines technology and education. Student Response System encourages immediate feedback on teaching content, which not only improves student engagement, learning, and satisfaction but also enhances their understanding of course materials. The purpose of this paper is to study the reasons and motivations that affecting the use of SRS also the challenges that are faced by teachers from technology faculty at Linnaeus University. In this study, a qualitative research method is used to conduct a semi-structured interview with eight teachers who have the experience of using the Student Response System and collect data as well. Data analysis and identification of three major themes based onresearch questions and related literature. According to the interview results, the reasons why teachers use such a system is that it can promote students' participation, learning and provide timely feedback, but they still face problems such as insufficient software functions, network instability, teaching time constraints. The study may provide suggestions for improving teaching methods and help other Swedish universities and departments to use SRS better.Also software designers can get some advice.

  • Blombäck, Sofie
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hinnfors, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Demker, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hagevi, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    DIPAC Election Manifesto Data: Technical report 1.02019Report (Other academic)
  • Hagevi, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Blombäck, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hinnfors, Jonas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Demker, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Loxbo, Karl
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    DIPAC CITIZEN DATA: Technical report 1.02019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The data described in this report were collected for the DIPAC-project: Decreased Ideological Polarisation and Conflict in Western Europe?  This report describes DIPAC Citizen data set. The first part of this report gives information on the project as a whole, including discussions of case selection and core concepts. Following this, there are a technical report the DIPAC citizen data set.

  • Nyman, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Provozin, Annastasiya
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    The Harmful Effects of Online and Offline Anti LGBTI Hate Speech2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people (LGBTI) are discriminated and subjected to violence in societies across the world, and ensuring their rights is on the international agenda. On a European level, nationalism, state-led persecution and rhetoric of hate have slowed down the process of ensuring human rights for LGBTI people particularly in Eastern Europe, where they are subject to violence, discrimination and hostility. One type of hostility targeting LGBTI people is hate speech. As literature has shown, hate speech can have harmful effects on its targets. Additionally, with the increased accessibility and use of the Internet and social media networks, hate speech has become more widespread and new challenges have appeared.

    Our research objective has addressed the gap identified by Brown (2018); to contribute to the research on hate speech and its harmful effects in general, comparing the effects of online and offline hate speech in particular. Additionally, by comparing the findings from Moldova and Ukraine, we have investigated if the context in which the hate speech is produced has any effect on the harmful effects experienced by targets.

    The research was conducted using a mixed method with a parallel convergent design, giving equal priority to qualitative and quantitative data. Data collection took place in Moldova (Chisinau) and in Ukraine (Kyiv) during Pride in the respective countries. Due to the nature of this research, results are not representative, and conclusions drawn can neither be applied to the entire LGBTI community in Moldova nor in Ukraine. Conclusions can, however, provide interesting insights for further research.

    Constitutive and consequential harms from online and offline hate speech are experienced by the LGBTI activists and community in both countries. In terms of constitutive harms, LGBTI community have suffered from harms like negative impact on self-esteem, silencing, psychological distress and restrictions on freedom of movement and association. Experienced consequential harms were negative stereotyping, physical violence and normalization of discrimination. Further, this research indicated that there is a difference in terms of harms caused by online and offline hate speech when it comes to the constitutive harms, as the harms from offline hate speech seemed to be experienced to a larger extent. Comparing results from Moldova and Ukraine, it can be concluded that the content of hate speech and harmful effects of hate speech are experienced differently depending on the context in which hate speech was produced. In general, hate speech in Ukraine seemed to be more violent and aggressive while in Moldova it was more related to the structural violence. 

  • Lindquist, Thérese
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Undersökning av mängden organiskt kol i ett område med sura sulfatjordar i Kristianstads kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the nature reserve Fredriksdalsviken in Kristianstad municipality, extensive metal leakage occurred after a flood in the summer of 2007 that caused damage to wildlife and plant life. The heavy metal leaks are suspected to be derived from acid sulphate soils in the area. Acid sulphate soils are among the most environmentally harmful soils in the world due to its extensive acidification and leaching of metals to the environment. In the light of humic substances key role for metal transport in natural environments, this study aimed to investigate how organic carbon is distributed, spread and how it can be explained in an area near the affected nature reserve. The study is part of an ongoing research project in the area conducted at Linnaeus University.

    The study area is dominated by agriculture land which is drained by a ditch system from north to south. The drained water in the ditch system is finally pumped to a wetland in the Fredriksdalsviken nature reserve. In the area, total organic carbon was analysed on soil from arable land, ditch sediment, pore water and ditch water with the methods loss of ignition and cuvette-test. Total levels were compared with pH and the groundwater level in arable land. The results and conclusions of the study are that the highest content of dissolved organic carbon in the ditch water upstream the ditch system is probably due to benthic fauna that doesn’t grow in other parts of the system. In the ditch sediment, the organic content increases downstream in the ditch system and can be explained by the supply of organic carbon from two ditches that drain arable land rich in organic carbon. In arable land are the highest levels of organic carbon due to a thin peat layer. The results does not show a clear statistical correlation between pH and total organic carbon in soil, but a sharp decrease in pH together with high total levels of organic carbon in peat soil is probably due to humic substances rather than to acid sulphate soil. In the western arable land of the ditch system, levels of total organic carbon increase laterally towards the ditch system at the same time as the pH decreases, which is probably affected by stronger binding mechanisms to minerals, lower microbial activity and reduced leaching of dissolved organic carbon. However, more research is required in the study area, since land use, erosion, soil texture and constitution together with the flow paths of water also are crucial factors for the distribution and pathways of organic carbon in natural environments.

  • Hussein, Iman
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sexuellt våld i konflikt: En jämförande feministisk studie om sexuellt våld i Demokratiska republiken Kongo2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Conflict related sexual violence is a phenomenon that has come to light since world war II, however it is only in recent years that conflict related sexual violence has been discussed in larger forums. In recent years the subject of Conflict related sexual violence has been researched and brought to light in media. This thesis aims to study the conflict related sexual violence in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The method applied on this thesis was a comparative feminist study. The theoretical framework used in this study is liberal feminism and radical feminism. In this study a comparison between the two feministic focuses has been the main object. The result of the study found that both radical feminism and liberal feminism can explain conflict related sexual violence. Radical feminism main concepts in their theory is sexual oppression that women face. Liberal feminism focus on inequality in the society between the sexes. In the result it was found that both perspectives of feminism could explain the sexual violence as something structural. There is inequality between the sexes in a societal level therefor sexual violence can be used as a way to maintain power.

  • Nguyen, Nha
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer: En analys av fyra självbiografier2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Domestic violence is regarded as a complex social issue since it does not only exist in some abnormal groups of people, or abused by a certain type of men, nor exposed by a particular type of women. Hence, the problem can occur in all-ages, social classes and occupational groups throughout the society. Domestic violence therefore reflects the unequal distribution of power in different aspects between men and women that still remains and is maintained in different ways in today’s society. On this basis, the aim of this study is to examine women’s narrative life stories about their experiences of domestic violence in their autobiographies. This study also aims to analyze how women construct domestic violence in autobiographies from beginning to end. With the use of autobiographies as empirical material I chose to take the qualitative narrative analysis as a method, and on the basis of a social constructivists perspective. I have chosen four autobiographies all written by women who have been subjected to domestic violence in Sweden. Results analysis is divided into different parts which follow how an abusive relationship begins, how it develops and how it ends. The results show that most women described domestic violence which begins as a romantic relationship that gradually transforms into a relationship of violence, and that ends with women managing to break up from men with help of the environment in order to survive. Through autobiographies can this domestic violence also be explained as a normalization process of violence which caused by men’s violence and women’s adaptation to it.

  • Gutierrez Sanchez, Braulio Francisco
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Design.
    Hej Åsikter!: An Ecosystem of Child and Youth Participation.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major contributions of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child(UNCRC) to the context of children’s rights was the introduction of participation.In addition to the right to provision and protection, participation gives children theright to express their opinions in all matters affecting them. Furthermore, theyhave to be provided the opportunity to be heard. As part of their continuedcommitment towards children’s rights, Sweden has now decided to incorporatethe UNCRC to its legislation. Based on this context and drawing from literatureabout children's rights and participation, and a study case of youth participationand culture, the project seeks to create a model that promotes and improvechildren’s and young people’s participation an influence. Thus, the project aimsto contribute to the applied research field and inform on practical approaches tochildren’s participation and influence. As a result, the project proposes HejÅsikter! An ecosystem for children’s and young people’s participation, wheredifferent stakeholders benefits from collaborative and coordinated work andultimately achieve children’s acknowledgement and empowerment.

  • Lundin, Rebecca
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Organisation and Entrepreneurship.
    Ett världsarvs påverkan på bilden av en destination: En fallstudie av världsarvet Örlogsstaden Karlskrona2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kandidatuppsats i Turismvetenskap III 15 hp, Ekonomihögskolan vid Linnéuniversitetet i Kalmar, hösten 2017.

    Författare: Rebecca Lundin

    Titel: Ett världsarvs påverkan på bilden av en destination - En fallstudie av världsarvet Örlogsstaden Karlskrona

    Syfte: Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka om, och beskriva hur, ett världsarv påverkar den förmedlade och uppfattade bilden av en destination. För att uppnå detta syfte krävs det att man studerar destinationen ur både ett producent- och konsumentperspektiv. Producentperspektivet studeras för att undersöka vilken betydelse världsarvet har i arbetet med att profilera och varumärka destinationen. För att undersöka om världsarvet finns med i den bild som invånare och besökare har av destinationen, det vill säga huruvida världsarvet påverkar den uppfattade bilden av Karlskrona som destination, studeras även destinationen från ett konsumentperspektiv.

    Metod: Studien har en kvalitativ forskningsstrategi med en typ av deduktiv ansats som behandlar fenomenet världsarv och dess påverkan på bilden av en destination. Studien är en fallstudie och destinationen som undersöks är Karlskrona, med sitt världsarv Örlogsstaden Karlskrona som har varit uppsatt på världsarvslistan sedan 1998. Empirin har samlats in genom intervjuer med turistchefen och världsarvssamordnaren i Karlskrona, samt en enkätundersökning med invånare och besökare.

    Slutsats: Tendenser visar att världsarvet påverkar både den förmedlade och uppfattade bilden av Karlskrona. Dock är det inte världsarvet i sig som påverkar bilden, utan snarare den militära prägeln som utgör stadens primära identitet. Eftersom världsarvet trots allt är en produkt av den långvariga militära närvaron i staden, kan slutsatsen dras att världsarvet är en stor del av den förmedlade och uppfattade bilden, trots att bilden inte alltid uttrycks specifikt med begreppet världsarv.

    Nyckelord: Karlskrona, världsarv, platsmarknadsföring, destinationsvarumärke, profil, identitet.

  • Ideström, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gymgående mäns syn på dopningsmedelsanvändning.: Hur social bakgrund och manlighetsbilder påverkar attityder mot användandet av dopningsmedel.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Author: Erik Ideström

    Title: Gym going male’s view on the use of doping agents. How social background and masculinity depictions affect attitudes of the usage of doping agents. [Translated title]

    Supervisor: Lars Sörnsen

    The aim of this study is to examine views on the use of doping agents among gym going males. More specifically it examines if the view on masculinity and social background have correlations with the view on using doping agents. The study uses a web survey on two different populations, one is specific gym members and the other is two internet forums. The participants of the study were gym going males in the ages between 18 and 51. The analysis builds on three theories: hegemonic masculinity, symbolic capital and habitus. The study’s results points towards a positive correlation between having a hegemonic view on masculinity and being positive towards the use of doping agents. The study also found a correlation between a good childhood and a negative view on using doping agents. The study concludes that there is a correlation between a hegemonic view on masculinity and a positive view om doping agents.

  • Vulgari, Sofia Kiriaki
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Hand Gesture based Telemedicine enabled by Mobile VR2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) is a highly evolving domain and is used in anincreasing number of areas in today's society. Among the technologiesassociated with VR and especially mobile VR, is hand tracking and handgesture recognition. Telemedicine is one of the elds where VR is startingto thrive, and so the concept of adding the use of hand gestures came to bein order to explore the possibilities that can come from it. This researchis conducted with the development of a prototype application that usessome of the most emerging technologies. Manomotion's hand trackingand hand gesture recognition algorithms, and Photon's servers and developerkit, which makes multi-user applications achievable, allowed theconceptual idea of the prototype to become reality. In order to test itsusability and how potential users perceive it, a user study with 24 participantswas made, 8 of which were either studying or working in themedical eld. Additional expert meetings and observations from the userstudy also contributed to ndings that helped show how hand gesturescan aect a doctor consultation in Telemedicine. Findings showed thatthe participants thought of the proposed system as a less costly and timesaving solution, and that they felt immersed in the VR. The hand gestureswere accepted and understood. The participants did not have dicultieson learning or executing them, and had control of the prototype environment.In addition, the data showed that participants considered it to beusable in the medical eld in the future.

  • Algotsson, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education and Teacher's Practice.
    Teknikdidaktikens vad och hur.: En kvalitativ studie om hur förskolepedagoger synliggör teknik i förskolan.2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstrakt

    Titel- Teknikdidaktikens vad och hur. En kvalitativ studie om hur förskolepedagoger synliggör teknik i förskolan.

    Title­ Technology educations what and how. A qualitive study about how preschool teachers visible technology in preschool.

     

    Enligt tidigare studie har pedagoger svarat att teknikundervisning är svårt och komplicerat att göra. Ibland förväxlas teknik med andra ämnen på grund av att teknikintresset är litet bland pedagoger samtidigt står det i styrdokumentet Läroplanen för förskolan att barnen ska få möjlighet att urskilja teknik i vardagen och skapa med olika redskap och material.

     

    Syftet med denna studie är att studera om hur förskolepedagoger synliggör teknik i förskolan. Studien genomfördes på två förskolor i samma kommun i Sverige. Empirin bygger på observationer som sträcker sig från planerade aktiviteter till barnens fria lek till rutinsituationer i förskolans vardag. Observationerna genomfördes på tre avdelningar: två med äldre barn och en med yngre barn. Resultatet analyserades med utgångpunkt från utvecklingspedagogikens lärandets objekt och lärandets akt. Resultatet visar att förskolepedagoger i förskolan synliggör användandet av artefakter, lösningars variationer, skapande i konstruktionslek och tekniska system genom att förklara ställa frågor och visa. Förskolepedagogernas teknikundervisning ägde rum i olika situationer under dagen såsom i planerade aktiviteter, fri lek och rutinsituationer.

  • Alexei, Viktorovitch
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Music and Art.
    Förutsättningslös Musikproduktion: Fem sätt att skapa en låt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Fredriksson, Benjamin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Effekt av ß-alanintillskott på Muskelkarnosin, Blodlaktat och Fysisk prestation.: En Litteraturstudie med Meta-analys2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The use of dietary supplements has increased in recent years. Which leads to the continuous production of new supplements that have no evidence of effect. A dietary supplement that has gained increased interest in recent years is β-alanine. For activities where glycolysis is stimulated and lactic acid production is high, β-alanine has been suggested to be an effective supplement. The effects and functions of ß-alanine in the body are not fully established. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of ß-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentration, blood lactate, muscle strength and endurance/time to exhaustion. Method: The study is designed as a systematic literature study with meta-analysis. Pubmed was used as a database for the literature search. Meta-assays were performed for carnosine concentration and blood lactate. Result: Dosage at 3.2g / day of β-alanine for 4 weeks shows significant effects on carnosine concentration. The size of the effect on carnosine concentration between the groups after 4 weeks of supplementation was 1,255 (p = 0.001). The effect size between the groups for 8-10 weeks was 2,054 (p = 0.008). No significant effects on blood lactate, the effect size between the groups was 0.148 (p = 0.278). Significant effect of βalanine on time to fatigue (TTE) in high intensity cycling. β-alanine supplementation showed significant effects on a repetition max (1RM) and whole body strength (WBS).

    2 Conclusion: β-alanine supplementation with a dosage of at least 3.2g / day for 4 weeks gives a significant increase in muscle carnosine concentration. Larger dosages than 3.2g does not show greater effect. β-alanine does not have a significant effect on blood lactate. Significant effect was shown on TTE for high intensity cycling sprints. The ßalanine supplemental effect on muscle strength is difficult to identify because only two studies could be included.

  • Söderlind, Sara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Bergdalen, Maria
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Pettersson, Caroline
    Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Management Accounting and Logistics.
    Hållbarhetsrapportering kontra hållbarhetsprestation: En fallstudie om ICA Sveriges miljöarbete2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel: Hållbarhetsrapportering kontra hållbarhetsprestation - En fallstudie om ICA Sveriges miljöarbete 

    Bakgrund och problem: Oron angående världens miljöpåverkan har ökat på senare tid och ett område som fått mycket uppmärksamhet gällande hållbarhetsfrågor är konsumtion, där just livsmedelskonsumtion står för en stor del av världens miljöpåverkan. Då ICA är Sveriges ledande aktör inom dagligvaruhandeln har de stor möjlighet att bidra till arbetet för ett mer hållbart samhälle. ICA har dessutom tydligt uppställda mål och visioner kring hållbarhet som presenteras i deras externa hållbarhetsrapport, där de vill visa att de tar ansvar och samtidigt vill förbättra verksamheten inom miljömässiga hållbarhetsaspekter. Vidare finns det olika teorier som förklarar företags olika rapporteringsbeteende utifrån sanningshalten i dessa. Greenwashing har blivit ett ökande fenomen i samhället där företag försöker förmedla en bild av sig själva där de presterar bättre angående hållbarhetsaspekter än vad de egentligen gör. Med detta till grund finns det intresse att undersöka ifall ICAs prestationer verkligen överensstämmer med det som ICA rapporterar externt i hållbarhetsrapporten. Vidare kan det finnas svårigheter att få samtliga enheter inom ICA att arbeta på det vis central nivå önskar. För att kunna implementera hållbarhetsprocesser och policys i ett så stort företag som ICA krävs det en fungerande intern styrning för att säkerhetsställa att samtliga enheter arbetar efter dessa. Därav finns ytterligare intresse att undersöka hur ICA arbetar för att integrera miljöfrågor i hela verksamheten genom att undersöka hållbarhetsprestationer ner på enhetsnivå. 

    Syfte: Denna studie syftar till att undersöka i vilken grad de miljömål som ICA Sverige presenterar i sin externa hållbarhetsrapport överensstämmer med det miljöarbete som genomförs inom ICA på enhetsnivå. Detta görs för att se hur olika enheter inom ICA arbetar utefter de miljömål som koncernen externt rapporterar om. Vidare syftar studien till att se hur förmedlingen av olika rekommendationer och riktlinjer gällande det interna arbetet kring miljömässig hållbarhet fungerar mellan ICAs centrala- och enhetsnivå. 

    Metod: Denna studie har genomförts genom en kvalitativ forskningsmetod med en deduktiv forskningsansats. Via semi-strukturerade intervjuer har en fallstudie gjorts på sex stycken olika enheter tillhörande ICA Sverige på geografiskt spridda platser över landet. 

    Resultat: Studien tyder på att många delar av den externa rapporten och det interna arbetet har en god överensstämmelse, vilket innebär att ICA är sanningsenliga i deras hållbarhetsrapport med få undantag. Vår tolkning av hållbarhetsrapporten är att mycket av den information som ICA presenterar är frivillig information och innefattar mer än vad som obligatoriskt enligt lag att rapportera om. Detta rapporteringsbeteende skulle därmed kunna förklaras till största del av VDT, men även få enstaka områden som till viss del kan förklaras av greenwashing och legitimitetsteorin. Studiens resultat visar även att ICA använder sig av olika styrverktyg för att förmedla riktlinjer och rekommendationer kring hållbarhet, och att denna förmedling fungerar väl då enheterna arbetar utefter dessa. Den brist som har identifierats är dock att det inte sker någon kontroll att dessa riktlinjer och rekommendationer efterföljs på enhetsnivå, och att den interna styrningen hade kunnat förbättras här.