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Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Schimmack, U. & Carlsson, R. (2020). Young unarmed nonsuicidal male victims of fatal use of force are 13 times more likely to be Black than White [Letter to the editor]. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(3), 1263-1263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Young unarmed nonsuicidal male victims of fatal use of force are 13 times more likely to be Black than White
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, no 3, p. 1263-1263Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The National Academy of Sciences, 2020
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-91746 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1917915117 (DOI)000508977600010 ()31964782 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2020-02-03 Created: 2020-02-03 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R., Lindqvist, P. & Nordänger, U. K. (2019). Is teacher attrition a poor estimate of the value of teacher education? A Swedish case.. European Journal of Teacher Education, 42(2), 243-257
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is teacher attrition a poor estimate of the value of teacher education? A Swedish case.
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 243-257Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Far from all who complete teacher education end up working as teachers throughout their entire career. At first sight the value of teacher education, in terms of efficiency, seems to be a failure. In the present article we argue that teacher attrition, when defined as whether one is working as teacher or not, is a too blunt measure to gauge whether teacher education has been valuable. With a unique dataset, where we have detailed information on 87 Swedish teacher graduates’ working life across 23 years, we can consider whether activities and/or experiences point to an apparent use of teacher education. In conclusion, we find that in order to get informative estimates of its value it is important to consider it from different perspectives and to consider attrition related to the total working time spent in educational settings across a career rather than percentage leaving teaching after a set of years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
teacher attrition, teacher education, teacher career
National Category
Pedagogical Work
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80668 (URN)10.1080/02619768.2019.1566315 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060151390 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lindersson, L., Guntell, L., Carlsson, R. & Agerström, J. (2019). Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving. International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 24(1), 1-6, Article ID e1617.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77848 (URN)10.1002/nvsm.1617 (DOI)000458529200001 ()2-s2.0-85061091090 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R., Agerström, J., Williams, D. & Burns, G. N. (2018). A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior. Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 14(3), 193-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior
2018 (English)In: Quantitative Methods for Psychology, E-ISSN 2292-1354, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A central question in social psychology is to what extent individual differences in attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes can predict discriminatory behavior. This is often studied by simply regressing a measure of behavior toward a single group (e.g., behavior toward Black people only) onto the predictors (e.g., attitude measures). In the present paper, we remind researchers that an analysis focusing on predicting the differential treatment (e.g., behavior towards Black people vs. White people) has a higher conceptual validity and will result in more informative effect sizes. The paper is concluded with a list of suggestions for future research on the link between attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2018
Keywords
Discrimination, attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, methodology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79525 (URN)10.20982/tqmp.14.3.p193 (DOI)000447603000004 ()
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Lakens, D., Adolfi, F. G., Albers, C. J., Anvari, F., Apps, M. A. J., Argamon, S. E., . . . Zwaan, R. A. (2018). Justify your alpha. Nature Human Behaviour, 2(3), 168-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Justify your alpha
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2018 (English)In: Nature Human Behaviour, E-ISSN 2397-3374, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 168-171Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80520 (URN)10.1038/s41562-018-0311-x (DOI)000435522800003 ()
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Silberzahn, R., Uhlmann, E., Martin, D., Anselmi, P., Aust, F., Awtrey, E., . . . Nosek, B. (2018). Many analysts, one dataset: Making transparent how variations in analytical choices affect results. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, 1(3), 337-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Many analysts, one dataset: Making transparent how variations in analytical choices affect results
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2018 (English)In: Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science, ISSN 2515-2459, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 337-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Twenty-nine teams involving 61 analysts used the same dataset to address the same research question: whether soccer referees are more likely to give red cards to dark skin toned players than light skin toned players. Analytic approaches varied widely across teams, and estimated effect sizes ranged from 0.89 to 2.93 in odds ratio units, with a median of 1.31. Twenty teams (69%) found a statistically significant positive effect and nine teams (31%) observed a non-significant relationship. Overall 29 differentanalyses used 21 unique combinations of covariates. We found that neither analysts' prior beliefs about the effect, nor their level of expertise, nor peer-reviewed quality of analysis readily explained variation in analysis outcomes. This suggests that significant variation in the results of analyses of complex data may be difficult to avoid, even by experts with honest intentions. Crowdsourcing data analysis, a strategy by which numerous research teams are recruited to simultaneously investigate the same research question, makes transparent how defensible, yet subjective analytic choices influence research results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-70907 (URN)10.1177/2515245917747646 (DOI)
Note

Correction published in: Corrigendum: Many Analysts, One Data Set: Making Transparent How Variations in Analytic Choices Affect Results. (2018). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245918810511

Available from: 2018-02-14 Created: 2018-02-14 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R. & Sinclair, S. (2018). Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination. Journal of Social Psychology, 158(3), 285-297
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination
2018 (English)In: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 158, no 3, p. 285-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study investigated the relative importance of two explanations behind perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring: prototypes and same- gender bias. According to the prototype explanation, people perceive an event as discrimination to the extent that it fits their preconceptions of typical discrimination. In contrast, the same-gender bias explanation asserts that people more readily detect discrimination toward members of their own gender. In four experiments (n = 797), women and men made considerably stronger discrimination attributions, and were moderately more discouraged from seeking work, when the victim was female rather than male. Further, a series of regressions analyses showed beliefs in discrimination of women to be moderately correlated with discrimination attributions of female victims, but little added explanatory value of participant gender, stigma consciousness, or feminist identification. The results offer strong support for the prototype explanation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Gender, In-group bias, Perceived discrimination, Prototypes
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-67323 (URN)10.1080/00224545.2017.1341374 (DOI)000428207700002 ()28614000 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028562522 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-21 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Durante, F., Fiske, S. T., Gelfand, M., Crippa, F., Suttora, C., Stillwell, A., . . . Teymoori, A. (2017). Ambivalent stereotypes link to peace, conflict, and inequality across 38 nations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(4), 669-674
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ambivalent stereotypes link to peace, conflict, and inequality across 38 nations
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 4, p. 669-674Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cross-national study, 49 samples in 38 nations (n = 4,344), inves- tigates whether national peace and conflict reflect ambivalent warmth and competence stereotypes: High-conflict societies (Pakistan) may need clearcut, unambivalent group images distinguishing friends from foes. Highly peaceful countries (Denmark) also may need less ambivalence because most groups occupy the shared national identity, with only a few outcasts. Finally, nations with interme- diate conflict (United States) may need ambivalence to justify more complex intergroup-system stability. Using the Global Peace Index to measure conflict, a curvilinear (quadratic) relationship be- tween ambivalence and conflict highlights how both extremely peaceful and extremely conflictual countries display lower stereo- type ambivalence, whereas countries intermediate on peace-conflict present higher ambivalence. These data also replicated a linear inequality–ambivalence relationship. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2017
Keywords
stereotypes, peace, conflict, inequality, ambivalence
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59715 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1611874114 (DOI)000392597000038 ()2-s2.0-85010928377 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R., Schimmack, U., Williams, D. & Bürkner, P.-C. (2017). Bayes Factors From Pooled Data Are No Substitute for Bayesian Meta-Analysis: Commentary on Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016) [Letter to the editor]. Psychological Science, 28(11), 1694-1697
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bayes Factors From Pooled Data Are No Substitute for Bayesian Meta-Analysis: Commentary on Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016)
2017 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 1694-1697Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scheibehenne, Jamil, and Wagenmakers (2016; SJW) recently introduced Bayesian evidence synthesis (BES). They used it to combine evidence from seven published studies that examined the influence of social-norm messages on hotel towel reuse rates. Although most of the original studies provided non-significant results (p-value > .05), BES provided strong support for the effect (Bayes factor = 37). We think that this conclusion is wrong. We demonstrate that BES is inherently flawed because it pools data in a way that is vulnerable to a Simpson’s paradox, and that a Bayesian meta-analysis that avoids this problem produces weaker evidence. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Meta-analysis, Bayesian, Social norms
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59448 (URN)10.1177/0956797616684682 (DOI)000414656900014 ()28910202 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-21 Created: 2016-12-21 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Williams, D., Carlsson, R. & Bürkner, P.-C. (2017). Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones and behavior: Inflated false positives and diminished power. Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), 47, 154-166
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Between-litter variation in developmental studies of hormones and behavior: Inflated false positives and diminished power
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in neuroendocrinology (Print), ISSN 0091-3022, E-ISSN 1095-6808, Vol. 47, p. 154-166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Developmental studies of hormones and behavior often include littermates—rodent siblings that share early-life experiences and genes. Due to between-litter variation (i.e., litter effects), the statistical assumption of independent observations is untenable. In two literatures—natural variation in maternal care and prenatal stress—entire litters are categorized based on maternal behavior or experimental condition. Here, we (1) review both literatures; (2) simulate false positive rates for commonly used statistical methods in each literature; and (3) characterize small sample performance of multilevel models (MLM) and generalized estimating equations (GEE). We found that the assumption of independence was routinely violated (>85%), false positives (α = 0.05) exceeded nominal levels (up to 0.70), and power (1−β) rarely surpassed 0.80 (even for optimistic sample and effect sizes). Additionally, we show that MLMs and GEEs have adequate performance for common research designs. We discuss implications for the extant literature, the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, and provide recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Hormones and behavior, False Positives, Litter Effects
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68404 (URN)10.1016/j.yfrne.2017.08.003 (DOI)000412154600010 ()28837830 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028583521 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-20 Created: 2017-10-20 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6456-5735

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