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Nilsson, M. & González-Marín, L. (2019). Violent Peace: Local Perceptions of Threat and Insecurity in Post-Conflict Colombia. International Peacekeeping
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Violent Peace: Local Perceptions of Threat and Insecurity in Post-Conflict Colombia
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Peacekeeping, ISSN 1353-3312, E-ISSN 1743-906XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Countries that sign a peace agreement to emerge from protracted violent conflict often begin reconstructing their societies amidst continued high levels of violence. Responding to this situation, national security policies often identify core threats primarily from a state perspective, disregarding local community perceptions of threat and insecurity. This paper is based on interviews conducted in Colombia with members of three rural communities that have undergone and still suffer from different forms of post-accord violence. Differentiating between measurable and lived security threats, it identifies the communities’ perceptions of threats to their current security situation and compares them to those of the state security actors stationed in the communities. Embedded in the call for more pragmatic, bottom-up peacebuilding, we argue that security is context-specific and stress the importance of understanding the diversity of local community perspectives on security for building sustainable peace under conditions of ongoing violence. Final policy recommendations thus underline the need for a more differentiated approach towards improving security levels that meets the specific threat perceptions and security concerns of local communities and improves cooperation between the communities and state security actors to bring sustainable, localized peace to context-specific security environments.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Emneord
peace, conflict, development, violence, threat, insecurity, Colombia
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89773 (URN)10.1080/13533312.2019.1677159 (DOI)000492450700001 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-10-23 Laget: 2019-10-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-08
Nilsson, M. (2018). Building Peace Amidst Violence: An Analysis of Colombia's Policies to Address Security and Development Challenges. Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Carribbean Studies, 47(1), 34-44
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Building Peace Amidst Violence: An Analysis of Colombia's Policies to Address Security and Development Challenges
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Iberoamericana - Nordic Journal of Latin American and Carribbean Studies, E-ISSN 2002-4509, Vol. 47, nr 1, s. 34-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Building peace in societies where levels of violence continue to be high is one of today’s biggest challenges for countries like Colombia that are emerging from decades of protracted social conflict. The article examines how the Colombian state reasons about the challenges of re-establishing security and devel- opment as two core pillars for sustainable peace. It is embedded in the international debates on the security-development nexus within the statebuilding-peacebuilding discourse and based on an in-depth analysis of government policy documents, complemented by field interviews conducted between 2013 and 2017. It evaluates the Colombian government’s perception of the nexus between security and devel- opment as a first step towards understanding how state actor perspectives in post-conflict societies with high levels of violence compare to international peacebuilding perspectives. The findings underline that while Colombia’s national consolidation and reconstruction policies definitely display a belief in the existence of a nexus between security and development, that understanding differs significantly from international peacebuilding perspectives. It places heavy emphasis on a security-first approach that aims at statebuilding and subordinates development concerns to that overall goal, which creates an imbalance that translates as well into actor choices for the peacebuilding policies to be applied locally.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2018
Emneord
Colombia, peacebuilding, security-development nexus, state-building, violence
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77579 (URN)10.16993/iberoamericana.411 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-05 Laget: 2018-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. & González Marín, L. (2018). Building Peace amidst Violence: Is Colombia’s Program to Substitute Crops Used for Illegal Purposes Improving Security and Development?. In: Presented at: Development Research Conference: Rethinking Development, Gothenburg, August 22-23, 2018: . Paper presented at Development Research Conference: Rethinking Development, Gothenburg, August 22-23, 2018.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Building Peace amidst Violence: Is Colombia’s Program to Substitute Crops Used for Illegal Purposes Improving Security and Development?
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Presented at: Development Research Conference: Rethinking Development, Gothenburg, August 22-23, 2018, 2018Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

One of the core problems of peacebuilding conducted amidst violence is the complex relationship between the security and development arenas, two major pillars in peacebuilding that international peacebuilding frameworks consider to be inextricably linked. Yet, empirical research on how violent environments influence how peacebuilding policies in those two arenas relate to each other on the ground is scarce. This paper explores the relationship between security and development in peacebuilding policies in Colombia, a country barely emerging from decades of protracted armed conflict that continues to experience high levels and of violence. It particularly focuses on Colombia’s efforts to substitute crops used for illegal purposes with alternative forms of sustainable livelihood in order to curb what is perceived as one of the biggest threats to both security and development in the country. Through in-depth interviews with multiple actors involved in this effort, ranging from state and regional institutions and members of the army and the police force to different actor groups at the local community level, the paper explores how Colombia's violent environment shaped the country's efforts to deal with the substitution of drugs used for illegal purposes. The findings argue that continued violencecreates considerable obstacles for local peacebuilding actors trying to follow the international policy imperative to implement peacebuilding strategies that intend to pursue security and development at the same time. Violent peacebuilding environments can significantly counteract and undermine the successful outcomes of peacebuilding, turning security and development programs against each other and blocking each other's success. 

Emneord
Drug substitution, security, development, Colombia, peace building, post-accord, conflict
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82100 (URN)
Konferanse
Development Research Conference: Rethinking Development, Gothenburg, August 22-23, 2018
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-23 Laget: 2019-04-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. (2018). Civil Society Actors in Peace Negotiations in Central America. Journal of Civil Society, 14(2), 135-152
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Civil Society Actors in Peace Negotiations in Central America
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Civil Society, ISSN 1744-8689, E-ISSN 1744-8697, Vol. 14, nr 2, s. 135-152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Civil society actors are assumed to play an important part in post-conflict peacebuilding;

therefore, the international community pushes for civil society participation already during

peace negotiations. However, the actual connection between civil society’s participation in

those negotiations and its role in implementation processes remains unclear. Taking the

Central American peace processes of the late 1980s and early 90s as a case study, this

article compares civil society participation in peace negotiations and provisions for civil

society involvement for the implementation phase, with the actual role that the civil society

played in the implementation processes in Nicaragua, Guatemala and El Salvador. The

article

KEYWORDS: civil society, peace making, peacebuilding, Central America, peace process

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
London: Routledge, 2018
Emneord
civil society, Central America, peace negotations
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75569 (URN)10.1080/17448689.2018.1484004 (DOI)000436535600003 ()2-s2.0-85048808856 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-11 Laget: 2018-06-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-29bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. & González Marín, L. (2018). Searching for sustainable peace in Colombia: Civilian and military perceptions concerning the role of the military in the post-conflict future. In: : . Paper presented at Latin American Studies Association (LASA) annual conference, May 23-26, 2018, Barcelona, Spain.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Searching for sustainable peace in Colombia: Civilian and military perceptions concerning the role of the military in the post-conflict future
2018 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Colombia’s search for peace to end a protracted social conflict that has mired the country in violence for decades reached a climax the fall of 2016 with the signing of a peace agreement between the government and the country’s largest armed opposition group. However, violence levels continue to be high, a fact that directs attention to the future role of one of the main actors in the conflict: the country's military forces. How security issues are addressed from here on will greatly affect Colombia’s future development. This study looks at the military's difficult transformation from a wartime to a peacetime institution, its role in peacebuilding and its relationship to the civilian state actors, its aspirations, strategies and visions for the future as well as its efforts to re-invent its own identity in an environment that is marked by continued violence. It is based on interviews conducted in the country between 2015 and 2018 with members of the Colombian military at both national and regional levels, the police, the Ministry of Defense and members of civil society organizations. The findings underline that the military's vision of its future role poses considerable challenges for the civilian government actors and Colombian civil society.

Emneord
civil-military relations, Colombia, military
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82101 (URN)
Konferanse
Latin American Studies Association (LASA) annual conference, May 23-26, 2018, Barcelona, Spain
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-23 Laget: 2019-04-23 Sist oppdatert: 2019-11-19bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. & Taylor, L. K. (2017). Applying the security-development nexus on the ground: Land restitution in Colombia. Conflict, Security and Development, 17(1), 73-89
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Applying the security-development nexus on the ground: Land restitution in Colombia
2017 (engelsk)Inngår i: Conflict, Security and Development, ISSN 1467-8802, E-ISSN 1478-1174, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 73-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The general consensus on the security-development nexus is that both are key to achieving sustainable peace in war-torn societies. However, this debate has largely taken place among international actors, with little empirical evidence about how security and development relate to each other or are even considered by local actors. The current paper applies the security-development nexus to the case of land restitution in Colombia. Following decades of internal armed conflict, in 2012 the national government passed sweeping land restitution legislation amid ongoing violence. Through in-depth interviews and focus groups with multiple actors involved in this process, ranging from international organisations to national government units, from regional institutions to local communities, the paper analyses the objectives, impact, challenges and opportunities for land restitution related to security and development. Undermining peace-building, a lack of coherence in the integration of security and development priorities limits the extent to which either supports, or is promoted by, land restitution efforts in Colombia. The paper concludes with reflections on how the security-development nexus may promote peace-building amid ongoing conflict.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
London: Taylor & Francis, 2017
Emneord
security, development, Colombia, land restitution, reparations, peace building
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60823 (URN)10.1080/14678802.2016.1231844 (DOI)000408629700004 ()2-s2.0-84992358970 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-02-21 Laget: 2017-02-21 Sist oppdatert: 2019-08-29bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. (2017). Searching for sustainable peace: Challenges and opportunities for cooperation between military and civilian actors in Colombia. In: : . Paper presented at 9th Nordic Latin American Research Network Conference, NOLAN 2017, 15-17 June, 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Searching for sustainable peace: Challenges and opportunities for cooperation between military and civilian actors in Colombia
2017 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Fagfellevurdert)
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75575 (URN)
Konferanse
9th Nordic Latin American Research Network Conference, NOLAN 2017, 15-17 June, 2017, Gothenburg, Sweden
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-11 Laget: 2018-06-11 Sist oppdatert: 2018-12-07bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. (2016). Implementing the security-development nexus: An analysis of the state level in the example of reconstruction in Colombia. In: : . Paper presented at Swedish Development Research Conference, August 22-24,2016, Stockholm.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Implementing the security-development nexus: An analysis of the state level in the example of reconstruction in Colombia
2016 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Fagfellevurdert)
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75574 (URN)
Konferanse
Swedish Development Research Conference, August 22-24,2016, Stockholm
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-06-11 Laget: 2018-06-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-02-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Taylor, L., Nilsson, M. & Amezquite-Castro, B. (2016). Reconstructing the social fabric amid ongoing violence: attitudes toward reconciliation and structural transformation in Colombia. Peacebuilding, 4(1), 83-98
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reconstructing the social fabric amid ongoing violence: attitudes toward reconciliation and structural transformation in Colombia
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Peacebuilding, ISSN 2164-7259, E-ISSN 2164-7267, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 83-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Given the increase of reconciliation processes initiated amid ongoing violence, this study focuses on community reconciliation and its relation to structural transformation, or social reconstruction through reforming unjust institutions and practices that facilitate protracted violent conflict. Drawing lessons from the Caribbean coast of Colombia, mixed-methods analyses include 8 in-depth interviews and 184 surveys. Four key dimensions of reconciliation – truth, justice, mercy and peace – are examined. In the interviews, participants prioritise reconstructing the truth and bringing perpetrators to justice as essential aspects of reconciliation. Notions of mercy and forgiveness are less apparent. For the participants, sustainable peace is dependent on structural transformation to improve livelihoods. These data, however, do not indicate how this understanding of reconciliation may relate to individual participation in reconciliation processes. Complementing the qualitative data, quantitative analyses identify some broad patterns that relate to participation in reconciliation events. Compared to those who did not participate, individuals who engaged in reconciliation initiatives report higher levels of personal experience with violence, live alongside demobilised paramilitaries, are more engaged in civic life and express greater preference for structural transformation. The paper concludes with policy implications that integrate reconciliation and structural transformation to deepen efforts to rebuild the social fabric amid violence.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Routledge, 2016
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51501 (URN)10.1080/21647259.2015.1094909 (DOI)000382764200008 ()
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-03-29 Laget: 2016-03-29 Sist oppdatert: 2018-04-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, M. (2016). Restituting Land in the midst of Violence: A Case Study of Colombia. In: ISA's 57th Annual Convention: Exploring Peace. Paper presented at Presented at ISA's 57th Annual Convention: Exploring Peace, Atlanta, March 16-19, 2016..
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Restituting Land in the midst of Violence: A Case Study of Colombia
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: ISA's 57th Annual Convention: Exploring Peace, 2016Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Fagfellevurdert)
Emneord
conflict, peace, Colombia, land restitution
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Samhällsvetenskap, Freds- och utvecklingsstudier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81858 (URN)
Konferanse
Presented at ISA's 57th Annual Convention: Exploring Peace, Atlanta, March 16-19, 2016.
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-11 Laget: 2019-04-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-05-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5272-9301