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Laitinen, M. (2020). Empirical perspectives on English as a lingua franca (ELF) grammar. World Englishes, 1-16
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Empirical perspectives on English as a lingua franca (ELF) grammar
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: World Englishes, ISSN 0883-2919, E-ISSN 1467-971X, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article focuses on grammatical variation in English as a lingua franca (ELF). Calling for more systematic corpus studies, it presents three empirical perspectives that broaden and deepen the study of grammatical variability in ELF. These approaches focus on tracing how ongoing grammatical change in core and emergent modal auxiliaries is adopted in ELF. The empirical evidence is drawn from various ELF corpora that cover multiple genres. Utilizing the quantitative paradigm and building on corpus-based variationist methods, the three perspectives highlight and call for more studies (1) in which the object of study consist of broad grammatical categories and which compare quantitative patterns between ELF and other types of Englishes, (2) combine quantitative methods with close-up qualitative analyses, and (3) investigate probabilistic constraints in ELF grammar. The results show that ELF is shaped by the same natural evolutionary processes that affect the established varieties. The role of these natural processes needs to be taken into account in future ELF studies.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Emneord
English as a lingua franca, ELF, grammatical variation, variationist sociolinguistics, genre, quantitative paradigm
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93505 (URN)10.1111/weng.12482 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-16 Laget: 2020-04-16 Sist oppdatert: 2020-04-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Lundberg, J. & Laitinen, M. (2020). Twitter trolls: A linguistic profile of anti-democratic discourse. Language sciences (Oxford), 79, 1-14, Article ID 101268.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Twitter trolls: A linguistic profile of anti-democratic discourse
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 79, s. 1-14, artikkel-id 101268Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

ThisThis article focuses on anti-democratic discourse and investigates the linguistic profile of Twitter trolls. The troll data consist of some 3.5 million messages in English obtained through Twitter in late 2018. These data originate from potentially state-backed information operations aimed at sowing discord in Western societies. The baseline data, against which the troll data are compared, contain circa 4.4 million messages in English drawn from the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus. A machine learning application that enables us to select genuine personal messages in this corpus is used to prune the data. The empirical part investigates frequency-based characteristics of the two datasets. We utilize a set of automatically-extracted word-list information and the observed frequencies of personal pronouns. Our empirical findings show considerable quantitative differences so that the troll data are shorter, make use of a smaller number of lexical types and tokens, and resemble more formal registers, while the personal messages are more spoken-like. The results could be used to improve automated detection systems whose purpose is to identify troll accounts. article focuses on anti-democratic discourse and investigates the linguistic profile of Twitter trolls. The troll data consist of some 3.5 million messages in English obtained through Twitter in late 2018. These data originate from potentially state-backed information operations aimed at sowing discord in Western societies. The baseline data, against which the troll data are compared, contain circa 4.4 million messages in English drawn from the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus. A machine learning application that enables us to select genuine personal messages in this corpus is used to prune the data. The empirical part investigates frequency-based characteristics of the two datasets. We utilize a set of automatically-extracted word-list information and the observed frequencies of personal pronouns. Our empirical findings show considerable quantitative differences so that the troll data are shorter, make use of a smaller number of lexical types and tokens, and resemble more formal registers, while the personal messages are more spoken-like. The results could be used to improve automated detection systems whose purpose is to identify troll accounts.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Elsevier, 2020
Emneord
Social media trolls, Twitter, anti-democratization, discourse style, personal pronouns, English as a lingua franca
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93507 (URN)10.1016/j.langsci.2019.101268 (DOI)000534360300008 ()
Prosjekter
DISA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-04-16 Laget: 2020-04-16 Sist oppdatert: 2020-06-04bibliografisk kontrollert
Laitinen, M., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2019). Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach. In: Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen (Ed.), From Data to Evidence in English Language Research: (pp. 326-350). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, s. 326-350Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The article discusses research that charts new lingua franca English data and broadensthe scope of written elf corpora. We illustrate that, apart from the academic domain,there exist various written genres in non-native contexts in which English is used as asecond language resource alongside native languages. These uncharted data can provideus with new ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. The newapproach incorporates a broader perspective on elf than previously, seeing it as onestage in the long diachronic continuum of Englishes rather than as an entity emergingin interaction. The first part details a corpus project that produces written multi-genrecorpora suitable for real-time studies of how ongoing variability is reflected in linguafranca use. It is followed by three case studies investigating quantitative patterns ofongoing change in elf. The conclusions suggest that a diachronically-informed angleto lingua franca use offers a new vantage point not only to elf but also to ongoinggrammatical variability. It shows that the traditional and canonized way of seeing nonnativespeakers/writers is not sufficient, nor is the simplified view of norm dependency of non-native individuals.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019
Serie
Language and Computers - Studies in Digital Linguistics, ISSN 0921-5034 ; 83
Emneord
English as a lingua franca, second language use, ELF genres, ongoing change
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80522 (URN)10.1163/9789004390652_015 (DOI)978-90-04-39065-2 (ISBN)978-90-04-39064-5 (ISBN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-13 Laget: 2019-02-13 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Lundberg, J., Nordqvist, J. & Laitinen, M. (2019). Towards a language independent Twitter bot detector. In: Navarretta Costanza et al. (Ed.), Proceedings of 4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries: Copenhagen, March 6-8 2019. Paper presented at 4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, Copenhagen, March 6-8, 2019 (pp. 308-319). Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2364
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards a language independent Twitter bot detector
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of 4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries: Copenhagen, March 6-8 2019 / [ed] Navarretta Costanza et al., Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen , 2019, Vol. 2364, s. 308-319Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

This article describes our work in developing an application that recognizes automatically generated tweets. The objective of this machine learning application is to increase data accuracy in sociolinguistic studies that utilize Twitter by reducing skewed sampling and inaccuracies in linguistic data. Most previous machine learning attempts to exclude bot material have been language dependent since they make use of monolingual Twitter text in their training phase. In this paper, we present a language independent approach which classifies each single tweet to be either autogenerated (AGT) or human-generated (HGT). We define an AGT as a tweet where all or parts of the natural language content is generated automatically by a bot or other type of program. In other words, while AGT/HGT refer to an individual message, the term bot refers to non-personal and automated accounts that post content to online social networks. Our approach classifies a tweet using only metadata that comes with every tweet, and we utilize those metadata parameters that are both language and country independent. The empirical part shows good success rates. Using a bilingual training set of Finnish and Swedish tweets, we correctly classified about 98.2% of all tweets in a test set using a third language (English).

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, 2019
Serie
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, E-ISSN 1613-0073
Emneord
Twitter, bots, bot detection, supervised machine learning
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning; Data- och informationsvetenskap, Datavetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81663 (URN)2-s2.0-85066050393 (Scopus ID)
Konferanse
4th Conference of The Association Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, Copenhagen, March 6-8, 2019
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-04 Laget: 2019-04-04 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Alissandrakis, A., Reski, N., Laitinen, M., Tyrkkö, J., Lundberg, J. & Levin, M. (2019). Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality. Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, 20
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Visualizing rich corpus data using virtual reality
Vise andre…
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, ISSN 1797-4453, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate an approach that utilizes immersive virtual reality (VR) to explore and interact with corpus linguistics data. Our case study focuses on the language identification parameter in the Nordic Tweet Stream corpus, a dynamic corpus of Twitter data where each tweet originated within the Nordic countries. We demonstrate how VR can provide previously unexplored perspectives into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region and showcase its geospatial variation. We utilize a head-mounted display (HMD) for a room-scale VR scenario that allows 3D interaction by using hand gestures. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the interface enables exploration of the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), making it particularly useful for diachronic investigations.

In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity. Our empirical results detail students’ reactions to working in this environment. The discussion part examines the benefits, prospects and limitations of using VR in visualizing corpus data.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Helsinki: VARIENG, 2019
Emneord
virtual reality, Nordic Tweet Stream, digital humanities, immersive analytics
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Data- och informationsvetenskap; Data- och informationsvetenskap, Datavetenskap; Datavetenskap, Informations- och programvisualisering; Humaniora, Lingvistik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90516 (URN)
Prosjekter
DISA-DHOpen Data Exploration in Virtual Reality (ODxVR)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-12-12 Laget: 2019-12-12 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-25bibliografisk kontrollert
Nevalainen, T., Laitinen, M., Nevala, M. & Numi, A. (2018). Changes in different stages: From nearing completion to completed. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 251-256). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Changes in different stages: From nearing completion to completed
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 251-256Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Serie
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Emneord
Language change, historical sociolinguistics
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78278 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)9789027263834 (ISBN)
Prosjekter
DISA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-11 Laget: 2018-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Palander-Collin, M., Laitinen, M., Sairio, A. & Säily, T. (2018). From incipient to mid-range and beyond. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 246-252). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>From incipient to mid-range and beyond
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 246-252Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Serie
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Emneord
Language change, historical sociolinguistics
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78279 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)978 90 272 6383 4 (ISBN)
Prosjekter
DISA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-11 Laget: 2018-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Laitinen, M. & Säily, T. (2018). Google Books: A shortcut to studying language variability?. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 225-235). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Google Books: A shortcut to studying language variability?
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 225-235Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Serie
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Emneord
Google books, sociolinguistics, language change
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78276 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)978 90 272 6383 4 (ISBN)
Prosjekter
DISA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-11 Laget: 2018-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Laitinen, M. (2018). Indefinite pronouns with singular human reference: Recessive and ongoing. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 137-158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Indefinite pronouns with singular human reference: Recessive and ongoing
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, s. 137-158Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Serie
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Emneord
Language change, corpus linguistics, historicalsociolinguistics
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78275 (URN)10.1075/ahs.8.09lai (DOI)9789027201034 (ISBN)
Prosjekter
DISA
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-11 Laget: 2018-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2019-01-17bibliografisk kontrollert
Auer, A. & Laitinen, M. (2018). Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times (Preface) (119ed.). Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, 119(2), 13-20
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Mobility, Variability and Changing Literacies in Modern Times (Preface)
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: Neuphilologische Mitteilungen, ISSN 0028-3754, Vol. 119, nr 2, s. 172s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Helsinki: Modern Language Society, 2018. s. 172 Opplag: 119
Emneord
Mobility, variability, changing literacies
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Humaniora, Engelska med språkvetenskaplig inriktning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80600 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-02-18 Laget: 2019-02-18 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3123-6932