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Helin, A. S., Wille, M., Atterby, C., Jarhult, J. D., Waldenström, J. & Chapman, J. R. (2018). A rapid and transient innate immune response to avian influenza infection in mallards. Molecular Immunology, 95, 64-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A rapid and transient innate immune response to avian influenza infection in mallards
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2018 (English)In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 95, p. 64-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The vertebrate innate immune system provides hosts with a rapid, non-specific response to a wide range of invading pathogens. However, the speed and duration of innate responses will be influenced by the co-evolutionary dynamics of specific host-pathogen combinations. Here, we show that low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) subtype H1N1 elicits a strong but extremely transient innate immune response in its main wildlife reservoir, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Using a series of experimental and methodological improvements over previous studies, we followed the expression of retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG-I) and myxovirus resistance gene (Mx) in mallards semi-naturally infected with low pathogenic H1N1. One day post infection, both RIG-I and Mx were significantly upregulated in all investigated tissues. By two days post infection, the expression of both genes had generally returned to basal levels, and remained so for the remainder of the experiment. This is despite the fact that birds continued to actively shed viral particles throughout the study period. We additionally show that the spleen plays a particularly active role in the innate immune response to LPAI. Waterfowl and avian influenza viruses have a long co-evolutionary history, suggesting that the mallard innate immune response has evolved to provide a minimum effective response to LPAIs such that the viral infection is brought under control while minimising the damaging effects of a sustained immune response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Anas platyrhynchos, Zoonotic disease, Avian disease, Gene expression, Retinoic acid inducible gene 1 RIG-I, Myxovirus resistance gene Mx, Influenza A virus, LPAI, HPAI, Ecoimmunology, Tolerance
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72297 (URN)10.1016/j.molimm.2018.01.012 (DOI)000428096900008 ()29407578 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Helin, A. S., Aarts, L., Bususu, I., Andersson, H. S., Rosengren, J., Chapman, J. R. & Waldenström, J. (2018). Antimicrobial differences between AvBDs in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). In: : . Paper presented at IMAP 2018: 8th International Meeting on Antimicrobial Peptides, Sep 2-4, 2018. Edinburgh, Scotland..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antimicrobial differences between AvBDs in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77430 (URN)
Conference
IMAP 2018: 8th International Meeting on Antimicrobial Peptides, Sep 2-4, 2018. Edinburgh, Scotland.
Note

Ej belagd 20190222

Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
van Toor, M. L., Avril, A., Wu, G., Holan, S. H. & Waldenström, J. (2018). As the Duck Flies-Estimating the Dispersal of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses by Migrating Mallards. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 6, Article ID 208.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As the Duck Flies-Estimating the Dispersal of Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses by Migrating Mallards
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 6, article id 208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many pathogens rely on the mobility of their hosts for dispersal. In order to understand and predict how a disease can rapidly sweep across entire continents, illuminating the contributions of host movements to disease spread is pivotal. While elegant proposals have been made to elucidate the spread of human infectious diseases, the direct observation of long-distance dispersal events of animal pathogens is challenging. Pathogens like avian influenza A viruses, causing only short disease in their animal hosts, have proven exceptionally hard to study. Here, we integrate comprehensive data on population and disease dynamics for low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in one of their main hosts, the mallard, with a novel movement model trained from empirical, high-resolution tracks ofmallardmigrations. This allowed us to simulate individualmallard migrations from a key stopover site in the Baltic Sea for the entire population and link these movements to infection simulations. Using this novel approach, we were able to estimate the dispersal of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses by migrating mallards throughout several autumn migratory seasons and predicted areas that are at risk of importing these viruses. We found that mallards are competent vectors and on average dispersed viruses over distances of 160 km in just 3 h. Surprisingly, our simulations suggest that such dispersal events are rare even throughout the entire autumn migratory season. Our approach directly combines simulated population-level movements with local infection dynamics and offers a potential converging point for movement and disease ecology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
avian influenza virus, low pathogenic, migration, Ottenby, population-level, simulation, virus dispersal, wild bird
National Category
Microbiology Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79186 (URN)10.3389/fevo.2018.00208 (DOI)000451957700001 ()
Available from: 2018-12-13 Created: 2018-12-13 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, P., Lindskog, C., Engholm, E., Blixt, O., Waldenström, J., Munster, V., . . . Ellström, P. (2018). Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 12215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of avian influenza virus attachment patterns to human and pig tissues
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wild birds of Anseriformes and Charadriiformes are natural reservoirs of influenza A viruses (IAVs). Occasionally, IAVs transmit and adapt to mammalian hosts, and are maintained as epidemic strains in their new hosts. Viral adaptions to mammalian hosts include altered receptor preference of host epithelial sialylated oligosaccharides from terminal alpha 2,3-linked sialic acid (SA) towards alpha 2,6-linked SA. However, alpha 2,3-linked SA has been found in human respiratory tract epithelium, and human infections by avian IAVs (AIVs) have been reported. To further explore the attachment properties of AIVs, four AIVs of different subtypes were investigated on human and pig tissues using virus histochemistry. Additionally, glycan array analysis was performed for further characterization of IAVs' receptor structure tropism. Generally, AIV attachment was more abundant to human tissues than to pig tissues. The attachment pattern was very strong to human conjunctiva and upper respiratory tract, but variable to the lower respiratory tract. AIVs mainly attached to alpha 2,3-linked SA, but also to combinations of alpha 2,3-and alpha 2,6-linked SA. The low attachment of these AIV isolates to pig tissues, but high attachment to human tissues, addresses the question whether AIVs in general require passage through pigs to obtain adaptions towards mammalian receptor structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77490 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-29578-1 (DOI)000441625500038 ()30111851 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-31 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Johansson, H., Ellström, P., Artursson, K., Berg, C., Bonnedahl, J., Hansson, I., . . . Gonzalez-Acuna, D. (2018). Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic. PLoS ONE, 13(11), Article ID e0206502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Campylobacter spp. isolated from wild birds in the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0206502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A lack of knowledge of naturally occurring pathogens is limiting our ability to use the Antarctic to study the impact human-mediated introduction of infectious microorganisms have on this relatively uncontaminated environment. As no large-scale coordinated effort to remedy this lack of knowledge has taken place, we rely on smaller targeted efforts to both study present microorganisms and monitor the environment for introductions. In one such effort, we isolated Campylobacter species from fecal samples collected from wild birds in the Antarctic Peninsula and the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Indeed, in South Georgia, we found Campylobacter lari and the closely related Campylobacter peloridis, but also distantly related human-associated multilocus sequence types of Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast, in the Antarctic Peninsula, we found C. tart and two closely related species, Campylobacter subantarcticus and Campylobacter volucris, but no signs of human introduction. In fact, our finding of human-associated sequence types of C. jejuni in South Georgia, but not in the Antarctic Peninsula, suggests that efforts to limit the spread of infectious microorganisms to the Antarctic have so far been successful in preventing the introduction of C. jejuni. However, we do not know how it came to South Georgia and whether the same mode of introduction could spread it from there to the Antarctic Peninsula.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Libarary of Science, 2018
National Category
Infectious Medicine Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79096 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0206502 (DOI)000449772600017 ()30412585 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Helin, A. S., Wille, M., Atterby, C., Jarhult, J., Waldenström, J. & Chapman, J. R. (2018). Expression of immune genes RIG-I and Mx in mallard ducks infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI): A dataset. Data in Brief, 18, 1562-1566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of immune genes RIG-I and Mx in mallard ducks infected with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI): A dataset
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2018 (English)In: Data in Brief, E-ISSN 2352-3409, Vol. 18, p. 1562-1566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article provides data on primer sequences used to amplify the innate immune genes RIG-I and Mx and a set of normalizing reference genes in mallards (Anal platyrhynchos), and shows which reference genes are stable, per tissue, for our experimental settings. Data on the expressional changes of these two genes over a time-course of infection with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAI) are provided. Individual-level data are also presented, including LPAI infection load, and per tissue gene expression of RIG-I and Mx. Gene expression in two outlier individuals is explored in more depth. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79497 (URN)10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.061 (DOI)000449815400215 ()29904657 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
van Dijk, J. G. B., Verhagen, J. H., Wille, M. & Waldenström, J. (2018). Host and virus ecology as determinants of influenza A virus transmission in wild birds. Current Opinion in Virology, 28, 26-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Host and virus ecology as determinants of influenza A virus transmission in wild birds
2018 (English)In: Current Opinion in Virology, ISSN 1879-6257, E-ISSN 1879-6265, Vol. 28, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low pathogenic influenza A virus (LPIAV) prevalence and subtype distribution differs between and across bird taxa. A crucial factor in the epidemiology of these viruses and virus subtypes is the ability to transmit between and within different host taxa and individuals. Successful viral transmission depends on availability of susceptible hosts and exposure of host to virus. Exposure to viruses and susceptibility to virus infection and/or disease are shaped by both host and virus traits. In this review we have identified key host and virus traits that can affect LPIAV transmission, both in terms of exposure and susceptibility. Furthermore we highlight current challenges in assessment of these traits and identify methodological considerations for future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72299 (URN)10.1016/i.coviro.2017.10.006 (DOI)000427665300007 ()29121508 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-10 Created: 2018-04-10 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
Williams, R. A. J., Tolf, C. & Waldenström, J. (2018). Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 9096.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks
2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Papillomaviruses infect many vertebrates, including birds. Persistent infections by some strains can cause malignant proliferation of cells (i.e. cancer), though more typically infections cause benign tumours, or may be completely subclinical. Sometimes extensive, persistent tumours are recorded-notably in chaffinches and humans. In 2016, a novel papillomavirus genotype was characterized from a duck faecal microbiome, in Bhopal, India; the sixth papillomavirus genotype from birds. Prompted by this finding, we screened 160 cloacal swabs and 968 faecal samples collected from 299 ducks sampled at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden in 2015, using a newly designed real-time PCR. Twenty one samples (1.9%) from six individuals (2%) were positive. Eighteen sequences were identical to the published genotype, duck papillomavirus 1. One additional novel genotype was recovered from three samples. Both genotypes were recovered from a wild strain domestic mallard that was infected for more than 60 days with each genotype. All positive individuals were adult (P = 0.004). Significantly more positive samples were detected from swabs than faecal samples (P < 0.0001). Sample type data suggests transmission may be via direct contact, and only infrequently, via the oral-faecal route. Infection in only adult birds supports the hypothesis that this virus is sexually transmitted, though more work is required to verify this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76872 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-27373-6 (DOI)000435338100011 ()29904122 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M. O., Tolf, C., Tamba, P., Stefanache, M., Radbea, G., Frangoulidis, D., . . . Chitimia-Dobler, L. (2018). Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania. Parasites & Vectors, 11, Article ID 144.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular survey of neglected bacterial pathogens reveals an abundant diversity of species and genotypes in ticks collected from animal hosts across Romania
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2018 (English)In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 11, article id 144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Ticks are transmitting a wide range of bacterial pathogens that cause substantial morbidity and mortality in domestic animals. The full pathogen burden transmitted by tick vectors is incompletely studied in many geographical areas, and extensive studies are required to fully understand the diversity and distribution of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Results: We sampled 824 ticks of 11 species collected in 19 counties in Romania. Ticks were collected mainly from dogs, but also from other domestic and wild animals, and were subjected to molecular screening for pathogens. Rickettsia spp. was the most commonly detected pathogen, occurring in 10.6% (87/824) of ticks. Several species were detected: Rickettsia helvetica, R. raoultii, R. massiliae, R. monacensis, R. slovaca and R. aeschlimannii. A single occurrence of the zoonotic bacterium Bartonella vinsonii berkhoffii was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Anaplasma phagocytophilum occurred in four samples, and sequences similar to Anaplasma marginale/ovis were abundant in ticks from ruminants. In addition, molecular screening showed that ticks from dogs were carrying an Ehrlichia species identical to the HF strain as well as the enigmatic zoonotic pathogen "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". An organism similar to E. chaffeensis or E. muris was detected in an Ixodes ricinus collected from a fox. Conclusions: We describe an abundant diversity of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from animal hosts in Romania, both on the level of species and genotypes/strains within these species. Several findings were novel for Romania, including Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii that causes bacteremia and endocarditis in dogs. "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" was detected in a tick collected from a dog. Previously, a single case of infection in a dog was diagnosed in Germany. The results warrant further studies on the consequences of tick-borne pathogens in domestic animals in Romania.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2018
Keywords
Ticks, Neglected bacterial pathogens, Animal hosts, Romania
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72690 (URN)10.1186/s13071-018-2756-1 (DOI)000428286800001 ()29554947 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Atterby, C., Mourkas, E., Meric, G., Pascoe, B., Wang, H., Waldenström, J., . . . Ellström, P. (2018). The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9, Article ID 591.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Potential of Isolation Source to Predict Colonization in Avian Hosts: A Case Study in Campylobacter jejuni Strains From Three Bird Species
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, article id 591Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Campylobacter jejuni is the primary cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, infecting humans mostly through consumption of contaminated poultry. C. jejuni is common in the gut of wild birds, and shows distinct strain-specific association to particular bird species. This contrasts with farm animals, in which several genotypes co-exist. It is unclear if the barriers restricting transmission between host species of such specialist strains are related to environmental factors such as contact between host species, bacterial survival in the environment, etc., or rather to strain specific adaptation to the intestinal environment of specific hosts. We compared colonization dynamics in vivo between two host-specific C. jejuni from a song thrush (ST-1304 complex) and a mallard (ST-995), and a generalist strain from chicken (ST-21 complex) in a wild host, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). In 18-days infection experiments, the song thrush strain showed only weak colonization and was cleared from all birds after 10 days, whereas both mallard and chicken strains remained stable. When the chicken strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection of the same birds with a mallard strain, it was rapidly outcompeted by the latter. In contrast, when the mallard strain was given 4 days prior to co-infection with the chicken strain, the mallard strain remained and expansion of the chicken strain was delayed. Our results suggest strain-specific differences in the ability of C. jejuni to colonize mallards, likely associated with host origin. This difference might explain observed host association patterns in C. jejuni from wild birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
Campylobacter, interspecies transmission, colonization, wild bird, mallard, chicken
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72688 (URN)10.3389/fmicb.2018.00591 (DOI)000428625300002 ()
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1152-4235

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