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Holt, K., Ustad Figenschou, T. & Frischlich, L. (2019). Key Dimensions of Alternative News Media. Digital Journalism, 7(7), 860-869
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key Dimensions of Alternative News Media
2019 (English)In: Digital Journalism, ISSN 2167-0811, E-ISSN 2167-082X, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 860-869Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article proposes a definition of alternative news media and suggests routes for further research. It complements and extends previous conceptualizations in research on alternative media and outlines an umbrella definition of this phenomenon aimed to inspire contemporary research and scholarly debate. Previous research has been guided by a “progressive” perspective as a form of resistance against “bourgeois” hegemonic discourse. Such normative evaluations have in turn limited how the phenomenon has been studied empirically, by limiting the scope of research so that important contemporary phenomena fall outside the theoretical map. Conceptualizing alternative news media in the present hybrid and polarized media environment, we first propose a non-normative, multilevel relational definition: Alternative news media position themselves as correctives of the mainstream news media, as expressed in editorial agendas or statements and/or are perceived as such by their audiences or third-parties. This counter-hegemonic alternativeness can emerge on the macro-level of societal function, the meso-level of organizations and/or the micro-level of news content and producers. Second, demonstrating why this umbrella definition is fruitful in the changing media environment characterized by boundary struggles, crisis in legacy news media and mushrooming of alternative news outlets, we highlight research gaps and propose future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Alternative media, mainstream media, definition, counter-publics, digital journalism, news media
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85697 (URN)10.1080/21670811.2019.1625715 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
de la Brosse, R. & Holt, K. (Eds.). (2019). Media and Journalism in an Age of Terrorism (1ed.). Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media and Journalism in an Age of Terrorism
2019 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book is not a litany of the many terrorist attacks that have occurred over the last five years, nor is it a value judgement on how the media have reported on these events. Its ambition is to question the issues at stake in emerging journalistic practices and to raise a number of subsequent ethical questions. In 2017 Linnaeus University took the initiative to organize an international conference focusing on journalism in a world of terrorism – terrorism in the world of journalism. Our aim was to understand what it means in 2018 to report on terrorism in different national contexts. The conference (held 9-10 May, Kalmar) offered a unique opportunity for academics and journalists to come together in order to share experiences, discuss and reflect on the numerous dilemmas journalism in the world of terrorism has to cope with. Accordingly, this book depicts the wide diversity of approaches as well as reports the richness of the dialogue between practitioners and researchers – which constitutes the overall originality of this joint venture project between the Department of Media and Journalism and the Media Institute Fojo. Indeed, conflicts and terrorism nowadays constitute a field of study particularly conducive to assessing the role of media in contemporary democratic societies. The same also applies for societies engaged in transition and democratic consolidation processes, which are simultaneously facing the threat of terrorism (as is, for example, the case of Tunisia, Niger, Algeria and Morocco – countries from which some of the participants came). Some key issues were particularly under scrutiny: How does terrorism affect the media and their coverage of these events? Are the media an integral part of the strategy of terror deployed by the main actors (lately almost exclusively from Islamist extremist groups)? To answer these crucial questions, academics and professionals certainly had to examine all facets of the existing links and interrelations between the terrorist phenomenon and the media. A common experience articulated by researchers and journalists alike is that conflicting crises, as well as terrorist attacks, will necessarily affect reporting because of their sensational manifestations – it is impossible to not tell the story even if it might add to the pain of victim countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019. p. 201 Edition: 1
Keywords
media; terrorism: journalism
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism, Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-83857 (URN)1-5275-3312-3 (ISBN)978-1-5275-3312-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-05-28 Created: 2019-05-28 Last updated: 2019-06-03Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. (2019). Right-wing alternative media (1ed.). London; New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Right-wing alternative media
2019 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book offers a fresh perspective on central questions related to right-wing alternative media: Can right-wing media be alternative? Why do they exist? Are they a threat to the existing order and what have the reactions been from mainstream politicians and media actors?

The rise and success of right-wing populism in the political life of many western countries, along with several new and apparently successful alternative media operations on the right, has caused surprise and confusion among researchers and debaters. How should this challenge to mainstream politics and media be understood? Journalistic, political and academic discourse has struggled to explain these tendencies and tend to focus on sensational and extreme examples, with little attention directed towards other aspects. This book critically discusses existing theoretical frameworks related to alternative media in general, analysing a wide scope of cases to illustrate the diversity of voices in alternative media on the right and highlighting the importance of intellectual coolness and common sense in discussions about this important but ideologically and politically charged area.

An important addition to the current discourse of contemporary media, Right-Wing Alternative Mediais ideal for researchers, students and anyone interested in politics and public discourse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London; New York: Routledge, 2019. p. 97 Edition: 1
Keywords
alternative media, right-wing, populism, media distrust, media skepticism, conservatism, alt-right
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88158 (URN)978-1-138-31830-4 (ISBN)978-0-429-45469-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Haller, A., Holt, K. & de la Brosse, R. (2019). The 'other' alternatives:: Political right-wing alternative media. Journal of alternative and community media, 4(1), 1-6
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The 'other' alternatives:: Political right-wing alternative media
2019 (English)In: Journal of alternative and community media, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This special issue of the Journal of Alternative and Community Media presents five articles that examine right-wing alternative media from different countries and contexts: Brazil, the United States, Germany and Finland. They focus on different aspects of a phenomenon that has come to the forefront of public debate in recent years, due to the many apparently successful alternative media enterprises that can be characterised as conservative, libertarian, populist or far to extreme right wing on a political scale. While there has been much (and often heated) public debate about this, researchers tend to lag behind when it comes to new trends, and a transient and rapidly changing media landscape. The articles in this special issue are therefore especially valuable, since they all provide empirically grounded perspectives on specific cases that illustrate different parts of a large puzzle that is in much need of illumination. This special issue is of use not just to communication research, but also to the public debate on disinformation on the internet.

Keywords
alternative media, media criticism, populism
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81994 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. (2018). Alternative Media and the Notion of Anti-Systemness: Towards an Analytical Framework. Media and Communication, 6(4), 49-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternative Media and the Notion of Anti-Systemness: Towards an Analytical Framework
2018 (English)In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 49-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A range of alternative media outlets focusing on criticizing immigration politics and mainstream media have emerged in Sweden in recent years. Although they have quite different ideological profiles, they share a clear and critical focus on immigration and mainstream journalistic representations of reality. Their message is that mainstream media conceal or distort information about negative societal and cultural consequences of immigration and that mainstream journalists have teamed up with the political elites and engage in witch-hunts of critics, while ignoring abuses by those in power. Such media outlets (especially online participatory media) need to be analyzed in the light of their position as self-perceived correctives of traditional media. There has been a remarkable surge of alternative media in Sweden with these traits in common during the past few years, and it is important to be able to discuss these media together as a phenomenon, while at the same time taking their differences into account. In relation to this, I argue that the notion of anti-systemness is useful in discussions of the impact these alternative media may (or may not) have on public discourse. In the article, I present a matrix that distinguishes between different types of anti-systemness: ideological anti-systemness and relational anti-systemness. The article therefore mainly presents a theoretical argument, rather than empirical findings, with the aim of pointing to a way forward for research about alternative media.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisboa: Cogitatio, 2018
Keywords
alternative media, anti-systemness, counter-publics, ICAM, immigration, journalism, media distrust, polarization
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78852 (URN)10.17645/mac.v6i4.1467 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. (2018). Medierna som inte vann valet. In: Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca (Ed.), Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare (pp. 90-90). Sundsvall: DEMICOM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medierna som inte vann valet
2018 (Swedish)In: Snabbtänkt: Reflektioner från valet 2018 av ledande forskare / [ed] Lars Nord, Marie Grusell, Niklas Bolin, Kajsa Falasca, Sundsvall: DEMICOM , 2018, p. 90-90Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: DEMICOM, 2018
Keywords
Val, alternativmedier
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78853 (URN)978-91-88025-99-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Haller, A. & Holt, K. (2018). Paradoxical populism: how PEGIDA relates to mainstream and alternative media. Information, Communication and Society, 22(12), 1665-1680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paradoxical populism: how PEGIDA relates to mainstream and alternative media
2018 (English)In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 1665-1680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The distrust of mainstream media expressed in the slogan ‘the liar press’ (‘Lügenpresse’) is often used as an example of a populist, anti-establishment attitude that is currently winning terrain throughout the Western world. In combination with the rise of alternative media (especially online), it poses a serious challenge for ‘old media’. But how do those who are most suspicious and critical relate to the mainstream media in their own media channels? In this article, we have compared the official Facebook pages of the PEGIDA movement in Germany and Austria, in order to describe their use of references to traditional/mainstream and alternative media. The results indicate that references to mainstream and alternative media are distributed almost equally. Furthermore, when there are references to mainstream media, they are generally of an affirmative nature. These findings are relevant for the debate about cyberbalcanization, echo chambers, filter bubbles and the impact of alternative media on public discourse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Populism, PEGIDA, media distrust, alternative media, media criticism, filter bubbles, immigration critical alternative media
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71532 (URN)10.1080/1369118X.2018.1449882 (DOI)
Projects
Immigration critical alternative media
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. (2017). Completely Different or Versions of the Same?: A comparison of mainstream media (MSM) and immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden. In: The 67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association: Communication Research and Practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017. Paper presented at 67th Annual ICA conference INTERVENTIONS: Communication research and practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017. International communication association (ICA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Completely Different or Versions of the Same?: A comparison of mainstream media (MSM) and immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) in Sweden
2017 (English)In: The 67th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association: Communication Research and Practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017, International communication association (ICA) , 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, as in many other european countries, alternative media with immigration-critical profiles have managed to establish themselves as new players in the media landscape in a way that challenges mainstream media (MSM) because their message is that MSM, seen as an integrated part of the political system, conceal or distort information that does not fit the “politically correct” agenda and/or that media discourse is constrained due to taboos upheld by journalists, especially in relation to anything related to immigration. Research on these immigration-critical alternative media (ICAM) is scarce and this paper presents results of a comparative quantitative content analysis, where articles from the most important ICAM is compared to articles from MSM. Through this comparison it is possible to characterize ICAM through the key points where they differ from MSM. The results suggest that they have a much narrower scope of topics (mainly politics, social issues, crime, war and conflicts) compared to MSM. They are also characterized by a much more negative tonality and critical perspective. Furthermore, the relationship between ICAM and MSM is studied through an analysis of how often ICAM refers and links to content in MSM. Over sixty precent of the ICAM articles contained references to MSM, suggesting a relationship of dependence, rather than just one of opposition. The results are discussed in relation to notions of filter bubbles, echo-chambers and cyberbalkanization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International communication association (ICA), 2017
Keywords
media distrust, media skepticism, alternative media
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65225 (URN)
Conference
67th Annual ICA conference INTERVENTIONS: Communication research and practice, San Diego, 25-29 May, 2017
Projects
Immigration critical alternative media and public discourse. Comparing Sweden, France and Germany
Note

Ej belagd 170627

Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-06-28Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. & Berggren, L. (2017). Ivar Harrie, 1899–1973. In: Lars Kleberg (Ed.), Svenskt Översättarlexikon: . Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ivar Harrie, 1899–1973
2017 (Swedish)In: Svenskt Översättarlexikon / [ed] Lars Kleberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017
Keywords
Ivar Harrie
National Category
General Literature Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism, Journalism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65931 (URN)
Available from: 2017-06-28 Created: 2017-06-28 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Holt, K. (2017). Media distrust : A left-wing or right-wing specialty?: Historical perspectives on today’s debate about populism and the media. In: Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany: . Paper presented at Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media distrust : A left-wing or right-wing specialty?: Historical perspectives on today’s debate about populism and the media
2017 (English)In: Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany, 2017Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A common denominator among politicians who tend be called right wing populists is that their narratives often contain a high dose of criticism against the “mainstream media” (MSM), often described as biased in favour of leftist perspectives, uncritical of those in power and out of touch with ordinary people. Parallelly, a host of new “alternative media”, often with a focus on criticism of liberal immigartion politics and a harsh tone against MSM, has become an important factor in public discourse in many western countries. But is this sort of criticism really a new phenomenon? Historically, the phrase “mainstream media” has been used mostly by left-wing debaters, such as Noam Chomsky and by media scholars, “alternative media” has long been considered one of the dearest embodiments of the dream about giving ordinary citizens a way of “speaking back to power”. When looking into the rhetoric of anti MSM messages in alternative media today, it is striking how much the discourse resembles a Gramscian analysis of society and the media’s role in it. In this paper, I argue that it is crucial to distinguish between “media distrust” and “media criticism” in order to distinguish between ideological culture struggle or metapolitics on the one hand, and the sincere question if the MSM are really doing a good job in describing relevant problems.

Keywords
media distrust; media criticism; populism; alternative media; GRamsci; identitarianism; hegemony
National Category
Media Studies
Research subject
Media Studies and Journalism, Media and Communication Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68382 (URN)
Conference
Perspectives on Right-Wing Populism and the Media: Scholarship, Journalism, Civil Society. 11 and 12 September 2017 Center for Advanced Studies (CAS), LMU Munich, Germany
Available from: 2017-10-17 Created: 2017-10-17 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2017-1117

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