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Baladron, C. & Khrennikov, A. (2019). Bell inequality violation in the framework of a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 227(15-16), 2119-2132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bell inequality violation in the framework of a Darwinian approach to quantum mechanics
2019 (English)In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 227, no 15-16, p. 2119-2132Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fundamental particle in physical space subject to conservation of momentum and energy, and characterized by its average mass and its position is methodologically supplemented with an information processor - a classical Turing machine - and a randomizer both defined on an information space localized on every particle. In this way the particle can be considered a generalized Darwinian system on which natural selection could act steering the evolution on the information space of the algorithms that govern the behaviour of the particles, giving rise plausibly to emergent quantum behaviour from initial randomness. This theory is applied to an EPR-Bohm experiment for electrons in order to analyse Bell inequality violation. A model for the entanglement of two particles has been considered. The model includes shared randomness - each particle stores its own randomizer and that of its partner - and the mutual transfer of their algorithms - sharing programs - that contain their respective anticipation modules. This fact enables every particle to anticipate not only the possible future configurations of its surrounding systems, but also those of the surrounding systems of its entangled partner. Thus, while preserving locality and realism, this theory implies outcome dependence - through shared randomness - and parameter dependence - through shared anticipation - for entangled states and, as a consequence, the violation of the Bell inequality in an EPR-Bohm experiment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81846 (URN)10.1140/epjst/e2019-800061-1 (DOI)000462523100023 ()2-s2.0-85062772552 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Khrennikov, A. & Alodjants, A. (2019). Classical (Local and Contextual) Probability Model for Bohm-Bell Type Experiments: No-Signaling as Independence of Random Variables. Entropy, 21(2), 1-20, Article ID 157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classical (Local and Contextual) Probability Model for Bohm-Bell Type Experiments: No-Signaling as Independence of Random Variables
2019 (English)In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 1-20, article id 157Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We start with a review on classical probability representations of quantum states and observables. We show that the correlations of the observables involved in the Bohm-Bell type experiments can be expressed as correlations of classical random variables. The main part of the paper is devoted to the conditional probability model with conditioning on the selection of the pairs of experimental settings. From the viewpoint of quantum foundations, this is a local contextual hidden-variables model. Following the recent works of Dzhafarov and collaborators, we apply our conditional probability approach to characterize (no-)signaling. Consideration of the Bohm-Bell experimental scheme in the presence of signaling is important for applications outside quantum mechanics, e.g., in psychology and social science. The main message of this paper (rooted to Ballentine) is that quantum probabilities and more generally probabilities related to the Bohm-Bell type experiments (not only in physics, but also in psychology, sociology, game theory, economics, and finances) can be classically represented as conditional probabilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
quantum versus classical probability, Bohm-Bell type experiments in physics and psychology, localty, contextual hidden-variables models, (no-)signaling, random generators, selection of experimental settings, conditional probability
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81409 (URN)10.3390/e21020157 (DOI)000460742200058 ()2-s2.0-85061988569 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Khrennikov, A. (2019). Classical versus quantum probability: Comments on the paper "On universality of classical probability with contextually labeled random variables" by E. Dzhafarov and M. Kon. Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), 89, 87-92
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classical versus quantum probability: Comments on the paper "On universality of classical probability with contextually labeled random variables" by E. Dzhafarov and M. Kon
2019 (English)In: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 89, p. 87-92Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently Dzhafarov and Kon published the paper advertising the possibility to use the coupling technique of classical probability theory to model incompatible observables in quantum physics and quantum-like models of psychology. Here I present comments on this paper by stressing advantages and disadvantages. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Classical and quantum probability calculi, Incompatible observables, Joint probability distribution, Coupling, Bell-Dzhafarov-Kujala inequality, No-signaling, Contextuality
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81838 (URN)10.1016/j.jmp.2018.10.005 (DOI)000462805300006 ()
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Khrennikov, A., Toffano, Z. & Dubois, F. (2019). Concept of information laser: from quantum theory to behavioural dynamics. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 227(15-16), 2133-2153
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concept of information laser: from quantum theory to behavioural dynamics
2019 (English)In: The European Physical Journal Special Topics, ISSN 1951-6355, E-ISSN 1951-6401, Vol. 227, no 15-16, p. 2133-2153Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, the methods of quantum theory, especially quantum information, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social sciences, economics, finance, decision making and biology. We propose a quantum-like model: the information laser. The basic assumption is the discrete structure of state spaces related to the quantization of information. The information field acts in the form of indistinguishable quanta of social energy analogue to photons. The massive flow of information acts as a laser pump. In this framework, an information selection process by agents under constant pressure of massive repeated information leads to collective resonance effects in analogy with laser cavity and stimulated emission. In order to make operational parallels between physical lasers and the information laser we identify the essential features of laser operation. An application to the analysis of recent disruptive social events (colour revolutions) is discussed. Social analogues to the laser are also considered through the model of Echo Chambers induced by the Internet and Adam Smith's invisible hand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81847 (URN)10.1140/epjst/e2018-800027-6 (DOI)000462523100024 ()2-s2.0-85062700446 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Yurova, E. & Khrennikov, A. (2019). Description of (Fully) Homomorphic Cryptographic Primitives Within the p-Adic Model of Encryption. In: Karl‐Olof Lindahl, Torsten Lindström, Luigi G. Rodino, Joachim Toft, Patrik Wahlberg (Ed.), Analysis, Probability, Applications, and Computation: Proceedings of the 11th ISAAC Congress, Växjö (Sweden) 2017. Paper presented at 11th ISAAC Congress, Växjö, Sweden, 2017 (pp. 241-248). Cham: Birkhäuser Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Description of (Fully) Homomorphic Cryptographic Primitives Within the p-Adic Model of Encryption
2019 (English)In: Analysis, Probability, Applications, and Computation: Proceedings of the 11th ISAAC Congress, Växjö (Sweden) 2017 / [ed] Karl‐Olof Lindahl, Torsten Lindström, Luigi G. Rodino, Joachim Toft, Patrik Wahlberg, Cham: Birkhäuser Verlag, 2019, p. 241-248Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we consider a description of homomorphic and fully homomorphic cryptographic primitives in the p-adic model. This model describes a wide class of ciphers (including substitution ciphers, substitution ciphers streaming, keystream ciphers in the alphabet of p elements), but certainly not all. Homomorphic and fully homomorphic ciphers are used to ensure the credibility of remote computing, including cloud technology. Within considered p-adic model we describe all homomorphic cryptographic primitives with respect to arithmetic and coordinate-wise logical operations in the ring of p-adic integers ℤ p . We show that there are no fully homomorphic cryptographic primitives for each pair of the considered set of arithmetic and coordinate-wise logical operations on ℤ p.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Birkhäuser Verlag, 2019
Series
Trends in Mathematics, ISSN 2297-0215, E-ISSN 2297-024X
National Category
Mathematical Analysis
Research subject
Mathematics, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82771 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-04459-6_23 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065438988 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-04458-9 (ISBN)978-3-030-04459-6 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ISAAC Congress, Växjö, Sweden, 2017
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Rashkovskiy, S. & Khrennikov, A. (2019). Generalized Fock space and contextuality. Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, 377(2157), Article ID 20190096.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generalized Fock space and contextuality
2019 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 377, no 2157, article id 20190096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is devoted to linear space representations of contextual probabilities-in generalized Fock space. This gives the possibility to use the calculus of creation and annihilation operators to express probabilistic dynamics in the Fock space (in particular, the wide class of classical kinetic equations). In this way, we reproduce the Doi-Peliti formalism. The context-dependence of probabilities can be quantified with the aid of the generalized formula of total probability-by the magnitude of the interference term. This article is part of the theme issue 'Contextuality and probability in quantum mechanics and beyond'.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society, 2019
Keywords
Fock space, Doi-Peliti formalism, quantum probability, contextuality, interference of probabilities, calculi of creation-annihilation operators
National Category
Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89408 (URN)10.1098/rsta.2019.0096 (DOI)000486318400007 ()31522648 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Khrennikov, A. (2019). Get Rid of Nonlocality from Quantum Physics. Entropy, 21(8), 1-15, Article ID 806.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Get Rid of Nonlocality from Quantum Physics
2019 (English)In: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1-15, article id 806Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is aimed to dissociate nonlocality from quantum theory. We demonstrate that the tests on violation of the Bell type inequalities are simply statistical tests of local incompatibility of observables. In fact, these are tests on violation of the Bohr complementarity principle. Thus, the attempts to couple experimental violations of the Bell type inequalities with "quantum nonlocality" is really misleading. These violations are explained in the quantum theory as exhibitions of incompatibility of observables for a single quantum system, e.g., the spin projections for a single electron or the polarization projections for a single photon. Of course, one can go beyond quantum theory with the hidden variables models (as was suggested by Bell) and then discuss their possible nonlocal features. However, conventional quantum theory is local.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Bell type inequality, nonlocality, action at a distance, incompatibility, Landau identity, complementarity principle, Bell operator, squared Bell operator, Hertz-Boltzmann Bild methodology, prequantum classical statistical field theory
National Category
Mathematics Physical Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Physics; Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89285 (URN)10.3390/e21080806 (DOI)000483732700045 ()
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Melkikh, A. V., Khrennikov, A. & Yampolskiy, R. V. (2019). Quantum metalanguage and the new cognitive synthesis. NeuroQuantology, 17(1), 72-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantum metalanguage and the new cognitive synthesis
2019 (English)In: NeuroQuantology, ISSN 1303-5150, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 72-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Problems with mechanisms of thinking and cognition in many ways remain unresolved. Why are a priori inferences possible? Why can a human understand but a computer cannot? It has been shown that when creating new concepts, generalization is contradictory in the sense that to be created concepts must exist a priori, and therefore, they are not new. The process of knowledge acquisition is also contradictory, as it inevitably involves recognition, which can be realized only when there is an a priori standard. Known approaches of the framework of artificial intelligence (in particular, Bayesian) do not determine the origins of knowledge, as these approaches are effective only when “good” hypotheses are made. The formation of “good” hypotheses must occur a priori. To address these issues and paradoxes, a fundamentally new approach to problems of cognition that is based on completely innate behavioral programs is proposed. The process of cognition within the framework of the concept of a quantum metalanguage involves the selection of adequate a priori existing (innate) programs (logical variables and rules for working with them) that are most adequate to a given situation. The quantum properties of this metalanguage are necessary to implement such programs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AnKa Publisher, 2019
Keywords
Chinese room, Generalization, Knowledge acquisition, Metalanguage, Quantum decision making, Understanding, article, artificial intelligence, decision making, human, human experiment, learning, synthesis
National Category
Other Mathematics Software Engineering Neurosciences
Research subject
Mathematics, Applied Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82893 (URN)10.14704/nq.2019.17.1.1904 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062843701 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Basieva, I., Cervantes, V. H., Dzhafarov, E. N. & Khrennikov, A. (2019). True Contextuality Beats Direct Influences in Human Decision Making. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 148(11), 1925-1937
Open this publication in new window or tab >>True Contextuality Beats Direct Influences in Human Decision Making
2019 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, no 11, p. 1925-1937Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In quantum physics there are well-known situations when measurements of the same property in different contexts (under different conditions) have the same probability distribution but cannot be represented by one and the same random variable. Such systems of random variables are called contextual. More generally, true contextuality is observed when different contexts force measurements of the same property (in psychology, responses to the same question) to be more dissimilar random variables than warranted by the difference of their distributions. The difference in distributions is itself a form of context-dependence but of another nature: it is attributable to direct causal influences exerted by contexts upon the random variables. The Contextuality-by-Default theory allows one to separate true contextuality from direct influences in the overall context-dependence. The Contextuality-by-Default analysis of numerous previous attempts to demonstrate contextuality in human judgments shows that all context-dependence in them can be accounted for by direct influences, with no true contextuality present. However, contextual systems in human behavior can be found. In this paper we present a series of crowd-sourcing experiments that exhibit true contextuality in simple decision making. The design of these experiments is an elaboration of one introduced in the Snow Queen experiment (Decision 5, 193-204, 2018), in which contextuality was for the first time demonstrated unequivocally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2019
Keywords
concept combinations, context-dependence, contextuality, direct influences
National Category
Psychology Mathematics
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology; Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89965 (URN)10.1037/xge0000585 (DOI)000491284400005 ()31021152 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-11-08Bibliographically approved
Antoniouk, A. V., Oleschko, K., Kochubei, A. N. & Khrennikov, A. (2018). A stochastic p-adic model of the capillary flow in porous random medium. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 505, 763-777
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A stochastic p-adic model of the capillary flow in porous random medium
2018 (English)In: Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, ISSN 0378-4371, E-ISSN 1873-2119, Vol. 505, p. 763-777Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We develop the p-adic model of propagation of fluids (e.g., oil or water) in capillary networks in a porous random medium. The hierarchic structure of a system of capillaries is mathematically modeled by endowing trees of capillaries with the structure of an ultra metric space. Considerations are restricted to the case of idealized networks represented by homogeneous p-trees with p branches leaving each vertex, where p > 1 is a prime number. Such trees are realized as the fields of p-adic numbers. We introduce and study an inhomogeneous Markov process describing the penetration of fluid into a porous random medium. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
P-adic numbers, P-adic theoretical physics, Porous random medium, Capillary network, Penetration of fluid, Inhomogeneous Markov process
National Category
Physical Sciences Mathematics
Research subject
Natural Science, Mathematics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76948 (URN)10.1016/j.physa.2018.03.049 (DOI)000437061000067 ()2-s2.0-85045465283 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9857-0938

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