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Carlsson, M. & Eriksson, S. (2019). Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market. Paper presented at 30th Annual Conference of the European-Association-of-Labour-Economists (EALE), Lyon, FRANCE, SEP 13-15, 2018. Labour Economics, 59, 173-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age Discrimination in Hiring Decisions: Evidence from a Field Experiment in the Labor Market
2019 (English)In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 59, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper shows the results of a field experiment in which over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (35-70 years) were sent to Swedish employers with vacancies in low- and medium-skilled occupations. We find that the callback rate begins to fall substantially for workers in their early 40s and becomes very low for workers close to the retirement age. The decline in callback rate by age is steeper for women than for men. Employer stereotypes about the ability to learn new tasks, flexibility, and ambition seem to be an important explanation for age discrimination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Demographic challenge, Age, Gender, Discrimination, Field experiment, Hiring
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81652 (URN)10.1016/j.labeco.2019.03.002 (DOI)000484654300013 ()2-s2.0-85063758590 (Scopus ID)
Conference
30th Annual Conference of the European-Association-of-Labour-Economists (EALE), Lyon, FRANCE, SEP 13-15, 2018
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, dnr 2013-2482
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Dahl, G. B. & Rooth, D.-O. (2018). Backlash in attitudes after the election of extreme political parties. Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Backlash in attitudes after the election of extreme political parties
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Far-right and far-left parties by definition occupy the fringes of politics, with policy proposals outside the mainstream. This paper asks how public attitudes about such policies respond once an extreme party increases their political representation at the local level. We study attitudes towards the signature policies of two radical populist parties in Sweden, one from the right and one from the left, using panel data from 290 municipal election districts. To identify causal effects, we take advantage of large nonlinearities in the function which assigns council seats, comparing otherwise similar elections where a party either barely wins or loses an additional seat. We estimate that a one seat increase for the far-right, anti-immigration party decreases negative attitudes towards immigration by 4.1 percentage points, in opposition to the party’s policy position. Likewise, when a far-left, anti-capitalist party politician gets elected, support for a six hour workday falls by 2.7 percentage points. Mirroring these attitudinal changes, the far-right and far-left parties have no incumbency advantage in the next election. Exploring possible mechanisms, we find evidence that when the anti-immigrant party wins a marginal seat, they experience higher levels of politician turnover before the next election and receive negative coverage in local newspapers. These findings demonstrate that political representation can cause an attitudinal backlash as fringe parties and their ideas are placed under closer scrutiny.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies, 2018. p. 27
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2018:6
Keywords
Political Backlash, Far-Right and Far-Left Parties, Public Attitudes
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80830 (URN)
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Fumarco, L. & Rooth, D.-O. (2018). Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments. Applied Economics, 50(24), 2652-2663
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic discrimination in hiring, labour market tightness and the business cycle: evidence from field experiments
2018 (English)In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 50, no 24, p. 2652-2663Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies using observational data suggest that ethnic discrimination increases in downturns of the economy. We investigate whether ethnic discrimination depends on labour market tightness using data from correspondence studies. We utilize three correspondence studies of the Swedish labour market and two different measures of labour market tightness. These two measures produce qualitatively similar results, and, opposite to the observational studies, suggest that ethnic discrimination in hiring decreases in downturns of the economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Hiring discrimination, Ethnic discrimination, Labour market tightness, The business cycle, Correspondence studies, Field experiments, Ranking models, Screening models
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69179 (URN)10.1080/00036846.2017.1406653 (DOI)000427658800002 ()2-s2.0-85034824412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Stefan, E. & Rooth, D.-O. (2018). Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?. Manchester School, 86(2), 219-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Job search methods and wages: are natives and immigrants different?
2018 (English)In: Manchester School, ISSN 1463-6786, E-ISSN 1467-9957, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 219-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We conduct a survey of newly hired workers in the Swedish labour market to analyse if there are differences between natives and immigrants in the choice of search intensity/methods and in the search method getting the job. We further investigate if the wage and other characteristics of the new job differ depending on the successful search method. We find that immigrants use all search methods more than natives, but they especially rely on informal search. Immigrants are more likely than natives to find a job using informal search through friends and relatives, and these jobs are associated with lower wages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69317 (URN)10.1111/manc.12202 (DOI)000424941200005 ()2-s2.0-85029470769 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-15 Created: 2017-12-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Reshid, A. & Rooth, D.-O. (2018). Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment. International journal of manpower, 39(4), 534-549
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment
2018 (English)In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 534-549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

We investigate whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signals living in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood.

Design/methodology/approach

We conducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with an advertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either a bad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a job interview (the callback rate).

Findings

We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects. However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lower if they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, we find that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, and this is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labor market outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant. We provide such evidence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69178 (URN)10.1108/IJM-09-2017-0234 (DOI)000438870200003 ()2-s2.0-85049943130 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M. & Eriksson, S. (2017). Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 40(10), 1739-1757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do attitudes expressed in surveys predict ethnic discrimination?
2017 (English)In: Ethnic and Racial Studies, ISSN 0141-9870, E-ISSN 1466-4356, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1739-1757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Survey data on people’s reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is weak empirical evidence of a link between reported attitudes and discrimination. In this article, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards ethnic minorities combined with a direct measure of ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this policy-relevant issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards ethnic minorities and the extent of ethnic discrimination: in regions where attitudes are more negative, there is more discrimination, and vice versa. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful predictor of ethnic discrimination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Attitudes, Ethnic discrimination, Housing market, Field experiments, Surveys, Racial prejudice
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59041 (URN)10.1080/01419870.2016.1201580 (DOI)000404348500008 ()2-s2.0-84979085242 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M., Reshid, A. & Rooth, D.-O. (2017). Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment. Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighborhood signaling effects, commuting time, and employment: evidence from a field experiment
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The question of whether and how living in a deprived neighborhood affects the labormarket outcomes of its residents has been a subject of great interest for both policy makers andresearchers. Despite this interest, empirical evidence of causal neighborhood effects on labormarket outcomes is scant, and causal evidence on the mechanisms involved is even more scant.The mechanism that this study investigates is neighborhood signaling effects. Specifically, weask whether there is unequal treatment in hiring depending on whether a job applicant signalsliving in a bad (deprived) neighborhood or in a good (affluent) neighborhood. To this end, weconducted a field experiment where fictitious job applications were sent to employers with anadvertised vacancy. Each job application was randomly assigned a residential address in either abad or a good neighborhood. The measured outcome is the fraction of invitations for a jobinterview (the callback rate). We find no evidence of general neighborhood signaling effects.However, job applicants with a foreign background have callback rates that are 42 percent lowerif they signal living in a bad neighborhood rather than in a good neighborhood. In addition, wefind that applicants with commuting times longer than 90 minutes have lower callback rates, andthis is unrelated to the neighborhood signaling effect. Apparently, employers view informationabout residential addresses as important for employment decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2017. p. 33
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2017:3
Keywords
Neighborhood signaling effects, Neighborhood stigma, Commuting time, Discrimination, Field experiment, Correspondence study
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-70084 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M. & Eriksson, S. (2017). The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment. Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of age and gender on labor demand: evidence from a field experiment
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In most countries, there are systematic age and gender differences in labor market outcomes. Older workers and women often have lower employment rates, and the duration of unemployment increases with age. These patterns may reflect age and gender differences in either labor demand (i.e. discrimination) or labor supply. In this study, we investigate the importance of demand effects by analyzing whether employers use information about a job applicant’s age and gender in their hiring decisions. To do this, we conducted a field experiment, where over 6,000 fictitious resumes with randomly assigned information about age (in the interval 35-70) and gender were sent to employers with a vacancy and the employers’ responses (callbacks) were recorded. We find that the callback rate starts to fall substantially early in the age interval we consider. This decline is steeper for women than for men. The negative age effect prevails in all seven occupations we include. These results indicate that age discrimination is a widespread phenomenon affecting workers already in their early 40s. Ageism and occupational skill loss due to aging are unlikely explanations of these effects. Instead, our employer survey suggests that employer stereotypes about other worker characteristics – ability to learn new tasks, flexibility/adaptability, and ambition – are important. We find no evidence of gender discrimination against women on average, but the gender effect is heterogeneous across occupations and firms. Women have a higher callback rate in female-dominated occupations and firms, and when the recruiter is a woman. These results suggest that an in-group bias affects hiring patterns, which may reinforce the existing gender segregation in the labor market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2017. p. 34
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2017:4
Keywords
Age, Gender, Discrimination, Field experiment, Labor market
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-70087 (URN)
Available from: 2018-01-23 Created: 2018-01-23 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, M. & Rooth, D.-O. (2016). Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap. Industrial & labor relations review, 69(1), 227-252
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Employer Attitudes, the Marginal Employer, and the Ethnic Wage Gap
2016 (English)In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 227-252Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In most EU countries, ethnic minorities have lower wages than does the ethnic majority. To what extent these wage gaps are the result of prejudice toward ethnic minority workers is virtually unknown. The authors examine the role that prejudice plays in the creation of the ethnic wage gap in one of Europe’s most egalitarian countries, Sweden. The analysis takes into account the important distinction between average employer attitudes and the attitude of the marginal employer (the attitude of the most prejudiced employer hiring the ethnic minority). Results confirm that the attitudes of the marginal employer—but not those of the average employer—are important for explaining the ethnic wage gap.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38251 (URN)10.1177/0019793915601630 (DOI)000366191800009 ()2-s2.0-84961710221 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-17 Created: 2014-11-17 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R., Agerström, J., Björklund, F., Carlsson, M. & Rooth, D.-O. (2015). Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender. In: : . Paper presented at 16th Annual convention of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, February 26-28, 2015, Long Beach, USA.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Backlash and hiring: A field experiment on agency, communion, and gender
Show others...
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gender stereotypes describe women as communal and men asagentic. Laboratory based research (Rudman & Glick 1999; 2001)suggests that trying to disconfirm such descriptive genderstereotypes (e.g., women self-promoting their agency), entails therisk of hiring discrimination due to violation of prescriptive genderstereotypes: a backlash. To examine whether backlash occurs whenapplying for real jobs, we conducted a field experiment. Gender,agency and communion were manipulated in the personal profile of5,562 applications sent to 3,342 job openings on the Swedish labormarket. The dependent variable was whether the applicationresulted in an invitation to a job interview or not. The results do notoffer any support for the backlash hypothesis at this stage in therecruitment process.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Applied Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50904 (URN)
Conference
16th Annual convention of The Society for Personality and Social Psychology, February 26-28, 2015, Long Beach, USA
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2016-11-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5620-4745

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