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Farjam, M., de Moor, T., van Weeren, R., Forsman, A., Dehkordi, M. A., Ghorbani, A. & Bravo, G. (2020). Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action. International Journal of the Commons, 14(1), 78-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shared Patterns in Long-Term Dynamics of Commons as Institutions for Collective Action
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2020 (English)In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present an analysis of regulatory activities in historical commons offering a unique picture of their long-term institutional dynamics. The analysis took into account almost 3,800 regulatory activities in eighteen European commons in two countries across seven centuries. Despite differences in time and space, we found a shared pattern where an initial, highly-dynamic institutional-definition phase was followed by a relatively long period of stability and a final burst of activities, possibly in an attempt to respond to new challenges. In addition, most of the initial regulatory activities focused on resource use, while towards the end other activities prevailed. Our approach allows for a better understanding of institutional dynamics and our findings also provide important insights about how to regulate the use of current natural resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ubiquity Press, 2020
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-92238 (URN)10.5334/ijc.959 (DOI)000514818200006 ()
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-03-12Bibliographically approved
Forsman, A., Polic, D., Sunde, J., Betzholtz, P.-E. & Franzén, M. (2020). Variable colour patterns indicate multidimensional, intraspecific trait variation and ecological generalization in moths. Ecography, 43, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variable colour patterns indicate multidimensional, intraspecific trait variation and ecological generalization in moths
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2020 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 43, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Animal colour patterns long have provided information about key processes that drive the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of biological diversity. Theory and empirical evidence indicate that variation in colour patterns and other traits among individuals generally improves the performance of populations and species, for example by reducing predation risk, increasing establishment success, improving resilience to environmental change, and decreasing risk of extinction. However, little is known about whether and how variation in colour pattern among species is associated with variation in other phenotypic dimensions. To address this issue, we analysed associations of colour pattern with morphological, behavioural and life-history traits on the basis of data for nearly 400 species of noctuid moths. We found that moths with more variable colour patterns had longer flight activity periods, more diverse habitats and a greater number of host plant species than species with less variable colour patterns. Variable coloration in adult noctuid moths therefore can be considered as indicative of broader niches and generalist diets. Colour pattern variability was not significantly associated with overwintering stage or body size (wing span), and it was independent of whether the colour pattern of the larvae was non-variable, variable or highly variable. Colour pattern variation during the larval stage tended to increase as the duration of the flight activity period increased, but was independent of the length of the larval period, diet breadth and habitat use. The realization that information on colour pattern variation in adult moths, and possibly other organisms, offers a proxy for niche breadth and dietary generalization can inform management and conservation biology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
biodiversity, ecology, evolution, generalization, macroecology, niche
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-92462 (URN)10.1111/ecog.04923 (DOI)000513021700001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-02846
Available from: 2020-03-02 Created: 2020-03-02 Last updated: 2020-03-11
Sunde, J., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2019). Adaptations of early development to local spawning temperature in anadromous populations of pike (Esox lucius). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 1-13, Article ID 148.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptations of early development to local spawning temperature in anadromous populations of pike (Esox lucius)
2019 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 19, p. 1-13, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the wake of climate change many environments will be exposed to increased and more variable temperatures. Knowledge about how species and populations respond to altered temperature regimes is therefore important to improve projections of how ecosystems will be affected by global warming, and to aid management. We conducted a common garden, split-brood temperature gradient (4.5 degrees C, 9.7 degrees C and 12.3 degrees C) experiment to study the effects of temperature in two populations (10 families from each population) of anadromous pike (Esox lucius) that normally experience different temperatures during spawning. Four offspring performance measures (hatching success, day degrees until hatching, fry survival, and fry body length) were compared between populations and among families. Results: Temperature affected all performance measures in a population-specific manner. Low temperature had a positive effect on the Harfjarden population and a negative effect on the Lervik population. Further, the effects of temperature differed among families within populations. Conclusions: The population-specific responses to temperature indicate genetic differentiation in developmental plasticity between populations, and may reflect an adaptation to low temperature during early fry development in Harfjarden, where the stream leading up to the wetland dries out relatively early in the spring, forcing individuals to spawn early. The family-specific responses to temperature treatment indicate presence of genetic variation for developmental plasticity (G x E) within both populations. Protecting between- and within-population genetic variation for developmental plasticity and high temperature-related adaptive potential of early life history traits will be key to long-term viability and persistence in the face of continued climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adaptation, Climate change, Esox lucius, Pike, Temperature
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88774 (URN)10.1186/s12862-019-1475-3 (DOI)000476717300001 ()31331267 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
de Moor, T., Farjam, M., Bravo, G., Dehkordi, M., Forsman, A., Ghorbani, A. & van Weeren, R. (2019). Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries. In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019: . Paper presented at XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries
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2019 (English)In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89457 (URN)
Conference
XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Bravo, G., Forsman, A., de Moor, T., Ghorbani, A., Dehkordi, M. & van Weeren, R. (2019). Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources. In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019: . Paper presented at XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources
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2019 (English)In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89456 (URN)
Conference
XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Tamario, C., Sunde, J., Petersson, E., Tibblin, P. & Forsman, A. (2019). Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Environmental Change and Management Actions for Migrating Fish. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 7, 1-24, Article ID 271.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Environmental Change and Management Actions for Migrating Fish
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, p. 1-24, article id 271Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Migration strategies in fishes comprise a rich, ecologically important, and socioeconomically valuable example of biological diversity. The variation and flexibility in migration is evident between and within individuals, populations, and species, and thereby provides a useful model system that continues to inform how ecological and evolutionary processes mold biodiversity and how biological systems respond to environmental heterogeneity and change. Migrating fishes are targeted by commercial and recreational fishing and impact the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Sadly, many species of migrating fish are under increasing threat by exploitation, pollution, habitat destruction, dispersal barriers, overfishing, and ongoing climate change that brings modified, novel, more variable and extreme conditions and selection regimes. All this calls for protection, sustainable utilization and adaptive management. However, the situation for migrating fishes is complicated further by actions aimed at mitigating the devastating effects of such threats. Changes in river connectivity associated with removal of dispersal barriers such as dams and construction of fishways, together with compensatory breeding, and supplemental stocking can impact on gene flow and selection. How this in turn affects the dynamics, genetic structure, genetic diversity, evolutionary potential, and viability of spawning migrating fish populations remains largely unknown. In this narrative review we describe and discuss patterns, causes, and consequences of variation and flexibility in fish migration that are scientifically interesting and concern key issues within the framework of evolution and maintenance of biological diversity. We showcase how the evolutionary solutions to key questions that define migrating fish-whether or not to migrate, why to migrate, where to migrate, and when to migrate-may depend on individual characteristics and ecological conditions. We explore links between environmental change and migration strategies, and discuss whether and how threats associated with overexploitation, environmental makeovers, and management actions may differently influence vulnerability of individuals, populations, and species depending on the variation and flexibility of their migration strategies. Our goal is to provide a broad overview of knowledge in this emerging area, spur future research, and development of informed management, and ultimately promote sustainable utilization and protection of migrating fish and their ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
biodiversity, climate change, developmental plasticity, evolution, fish migration, fishway, phenotypic flexibility, spawning migration
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology; Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88369 (URN)10.3389/fevo.2019.00271 (DOI)000474916900001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Nordahl, O., Koch-Schmidt, P., Sunde, J., Yildirim, Y., Tibblin, P., Forsman, A. & Larsson, P. (2019). Genetic differentiation between and within ecotypes of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea. Aquatic conservation, 29(11), 1923-1935
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic differentiation between and within ecotypes of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea
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2019 (English)In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 29, no 11, p. 1923-1935Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aquatic systems often lack physical boundaries for gene flow, but ecological and behavioural barriers can form surprisingly fine spatial scale genetic patterns that challenge traditional, large scale management. To detect fine spatial scale structures, understand sources of intraspecific diversity, and design appropriate management plans requires identification of reproductively isolated units. This study reports on genetic differentiation in pike (Esox lucius) within a coastal area stretching 55 km from south to north in the central Baltic Sea. Pike is here an economically and ecologically important top predator that has declined in abundance. However, population structures have mostly been studied on large spatial scales, and without considering the potential for genetic divergence between the sympatric anadromous fresh water and the resident brackish water spawning ecotypes. To this end, 487 individuals from the east coast of Sweden and the island of oland, representing sympatric anadromous and resident spawning individuals, categorized to ecotype based on spawning location or otolith microchemistry, were genotyped for 10 microsatellites and used to test for divergence between ecotypes. Furthermore, divergence between regions (island/mainland), neighbouring spawning locations (n = 13) and isolation by distance within and between regions were evaluated for the anadromous ecotype. The results revealed strong genetic differences between regions, between spawning locations separated by as little as 5 km and the first evidence of genetic differentiation between resident and anadromous ecotypes; despite a high dispersal capacity of pike and a high connectivity within the study area. The signatures of isolation by distance indicated that connectivity among populations differed between regions, probably reflecting availability of spawning habitats. To safeguard against the challenges and uncertainties associated with environmental change, adaptive conservation management should aim to promote high intra-population functional genetic diversity without compromising the continued integrity and coexistence of the different ecotypes and of locally adapted sub-populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
biodiversity, brackish, climate, coastal, fish, fishing, genetics, migration, wetland
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88825 (URN)10.1002/aqc.3196 (DOI)000481341300001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-11-21Bibliographically approved
Betzholtz, P.-E., Forsman, A. & Franzén, M. (2019). Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests. Journal of applied entomology, 143(9), 992-999
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inter-individual variation in colour patterns in noctuid moths characterizes long-distance dispersers and agricultural pests
2019 (English)In: Journal of applied entomology, ISSN 0931-2048, E-ISSN 1439-0418, Vol. 143, no 9, p. 992-999Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A high capacity for long‐distance dispersal is a key to success for species confronted with environmental heterogeneity, habitat modification, fragmentation and loss. However, dispersal capacity is difficult to quantify and therefore poorly known in most taxa. Here, we report on a test for an association of variation in dispersal capacity with variable colouration of noctuid moths. First, using data from 12 experienced lepidopterologists, we showed that despite variation among experts in average assessments, different species are consistently classified as having non‐variable, variable or highly variable colour patterns when assessed by different experts. We then compared the incidence of non‐resident species with high inter‐individual variation in colour patterns recorded on the isolated island Utklippan (n = 47), with that in a species pool of potential long‐distance dispersers from the nearest mainland (n = 295). Species with high inter‐individual colour pattern variation were over‐represented on the island compared with species having non‐variable colouration. This finding constitutes rare evidence from the wild of long‐distance dispersal, measured on a spatial scale relevant for moths when tracking habitats in fragmented and changing landscapes or when keeping pace with environmental challenges associated with climate change. Finally, we showed that Swedish noctuid moths classified as agricultural pests (n = 28) had more variable colour patterns compared with non‐pests (n = 368). The majority of agricultural pests were also recorded on the isolated island, an outcome that is indicative of pest species having high dispersal capacity. Data on colour pattern variation may thus offer a simple and cost‐effective proxy to estimate dispersal capacity and can also help identify potential pest species. Our findings are potentially useful when modelling and predicting population and range dynamics of species in spatiotemporally heterogeneous environments, with direct implications for conservation biology and pest management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88584 (URN)10.1111/jen.12670 (DOI)000494886900010 ()
Available from: 2019-08-23 Created: 2019-08-23 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Zvereva, E. L., Castagneyrol, B., Cornelissen, T., Forsman, A., Hernandez-Agueero, J. A., Klemola, T., . . . Kozlov, M. V. (2019). Opposite latitudinal patterns for bird and arthropod predation revealed in experiments with differently colored artificial prey. Ecology and Evolution, 9(24), 14273-14285
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opposite latitudinal patterns for bird and arthropod predation revealed in experiments with differently colored artificial prey
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2019 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 9, no 24, p. 14273-14285Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The strength of biotic interactions is generally thought to increase toward the equator, but support for this hypothesis is contradictory. We explored whether predator attacks on artificial prey of eight different colors vary among climates and whether this variation affects the detection of latitudinal patterns in predation. Bird attack rates negatively correlated with model luminance in cold and temperate environments, but not in tropical environments. Bird predation on black and on white (extremes in luminance) models demonstrated different latitudinal patterns, presumably due to differences in prey conspicuousness between habitats with different light regimes. When attacks on models of all colors were combined, arthropod predation decreased, whereas bird predation increased with increasing latitude. We conclude that selection for prey coloration may vary geographically and according to predator identity, and that the importance of different predators may show contrasting patterns, thus weakening the overall latitudinal trend in top-down control of herbivorous insects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
arthropod predators, artificial prey, avian predators, biotic interactions, color preference, latitudinal pattern, plasticine models, predation rate
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90544 (URN)10.1002/ece3.5862 (DOI)000499265800001 ()
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Franzén, M., Forsman, A. & Betzholtz, P.-E. (2019). Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands. Ecosphere, 10(1), 1-11, Article ID e02577.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variable color patterns influence continental range size and species-area relationships on islands
2019 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-11, article id e02577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been hypothesized that species with more variable color patterns should have higher establishment success and be less sensitive to environmental changes and local extinction compared with species that do not vary in color. This difference in colonization/extinction balance should manifest as larger continental range distributions and modulate the species-area relationship on true islands. We evaluated these predictions using data for 1216 species of butterflies and moths that differed with regard to inter-individual variation in color pattern. We show that species with more variable color patterns have larger continental range sizes in Europe compared with non-variable species. We also provide rare evidence that the slope of the species-area relationship on islands is steeper for species having non-variable color patterns, suggesting that to preserve 60% of non-variable species would require an area twice as large compared to what would be needed to preserve 60% of variable species. Our findings suggest that combining information on ecological characteristics with presence/absence data from small and medium sized islands can help identify traits that drive species range patterns at the continental scale, and that individual variation in color pattern can be used as a proxy for ecological generalization and the ability to cope with environmental change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Keywords
butterflies, colonization, color pattern variation, extinction, insects, island biogeography, life history, moths, polymorphism, range expansion, species-area relationship, trait
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80281 (URN)10.1002/ecs2.2577 (DOI)000456857400033 ()2-s2.0-85061078047 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9598-7618

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