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Nilsson, D., Nilsson, B., Thörnqvist, T. & Bergh, J. (2018). Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(5), 437-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nutrient removal has been one of the key issues since the harvesting of logging residues started in Sweden. This study examined the actual removal of nutrients by measuring the amounts of biomass removed (from a forest products perspective) combined with their respective nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, K and Mg), from a clear-felled area when using the dried-stacked and fresh-stacked methods. The most important finding is that the two methods were very similar regarding nutrients remaining at the clear-felled area. Of the nutrients remaining there, most were found to be well distributed between the harvester heaps. Both methods fulfilled the requirements of the Swedish Forest Agency. A sensitivity analysis showed that even if the dried-stacked method left more needles, or the fresh-stacked method extracted more logging residues, there would only be a small impact on the levels of nutrients removed. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the amount of logging residues remaining between the harvester heaps seems to be much more important for nutrients left behind, regardless of extraction method. With this in mind, it is highly probable that improvements to the extraction of logging residues, without increasing nutrient removal, can be made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; nitrogen; Norway spruce
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72344 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2018.1427786 (DOI)000433155900004 ()
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-07-12Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B. (2016). Extraction of logging residues for bioenergy: effects of operational methods on fuel quality and biomass losses in the forest. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extraction of logging residues for bioenergy: effects of operational methods on fuel quality and biomass losses in the forest
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Uttag av skogsbränsle : hanteringens och lagringens inverkan på grotens bränslekvalitet samt biomassaförluster i skogen
Abstract [en]

Wood products play a key role in the transformation to a more sustainable society based on renewable bio-based resources, together with the positive effects on climate mitigation by replacing fossil fuels. However, to increase the use of forest fuel in practice it is important to understand the effects of handling and storage on its quality and removal of nutrients from the forest. This thesis addresses these effects with special focus on a comparative evaluation of the traditional dried-stacked with “new” and to some extent more controversial fresh-stacked methods for extraction of logging residues from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst).

The results indicate that a normal extraction of logging residues will leave at least 20% of logging residues at the clear-felled area, in accordance with Swedish Forest Agency recommendations. However, the results also indicate that the ambition of the dried-stacked method to leave the majority of the needles well spread over the clear-felled area does not meet these recommendations. In fact, the harvesting operation is more important than the extraction method, with respect to how much logging residues (nutrients) being left in the forest. The results also show that the quality of fuel yielded by the two handling methods differs only to minor extent, indicating that other factors have stronger effects, where “dried-stacked” and “fresh-stacked” logging residues from different clear-felling areas is often similar. Generally, logging residues stored over summer (regardless method), seem to provide sufficiently dry forest fuel, with a needle content of about 5–10%. There is a clear correlation between drying and effective loss of needles from twigs, but the loss does not necessarily mean that the needles will remain in the forest.  However, needle color (green or brown) is not a strong indicator for a reduction in needle content.

Acceptance of the fresh-stacked method would provide opportunities for the development of new technologies, more efficient use of machinery throughout the whole year, reduced costs, shorter lead times and increased amounts of logging residues extracted from each clear-felled area. This is mainly because it would enable extraction at optimal times from a logistical, financial and/or forestry perspectives.

Written in English with summary and conclusion in Swedish.

Abstract [sv]

Skogen och dess produkter har en nyckelroll i omställningen till ett framtida hållbart samhälle eftersom användande av träråvara har en positiv effekt på klimatet, t.ex. genom träbyggande eller att fossila bränslen ersätts med bioenergi. Men för att kunna ta tillvara mer skogsbränsle i form av grenar och toppar (grot) från bestånd dominerade av gran (Picea abies (L.) Karst) är det viktigt att förstå hur hanteringen påverkar såväl bränslekvalitet som bortförsel av näringsämnen från skogen. Denna avhandling belyser hanteringens effekter på bränslekvalitet och näringsförluster genom att jämföra den traditionella metoden (skotning av torkad grot, ”brunrisskotning”), med den ”nya” och till viss del ifrågasatta skotningen av färsk grot (”grönrisskotning”).

Resultatet visar att ett normalt grot-uttag kommer att lämna minst 20 % av groten kvar på hygget, helt i linje med Skogsstyrelsens rekommendationer. Däremot uppfylls inte rekommendationerna med avseende på att lämna merparten av barren väl spridda på hygget, detta trots att det är ambitionen med den traditionella hyggestorkningen av grot. Hur mycket grot (och således näringsämne) som lämnas kvar på hygget påverkas i själva verket mer av hur avverkningen utförs, än när groten skotas ihop. Resultatet visar också en skillnad i bränslekvalitet mellan de båda beskrivna hanteringsmetoderna. Denna skillnad är dock så liten att andra faktorer sannolikt påverkar mer än hanteringsmetoden. Hyggestorkad grot från ett enskilt hygge i södra Sverige, kan i verkligheten ofta vara ganska likt färskskotad grot från ett annat hygge. Grot som har lagrats över sommaren kan alltså förväntas ha torkat tillräckligt, samt ha en barrandel på ca 5–10 % oavsett hanteringsmetod. Det verkar också finnas ett klart samband mellan torkning och att barren släpper från kvisten, men det betyder inte nödvändigtvis att barren blir kvar i skogen. Hur som helst, barrens färg (gröna eller bruna) är inte en rättvisande indikator på avbarrning.

Om skotning av färsk grot accepteras ger det möjligheter för utveckling av ny teknik, effektivare användning av maskinresurser över hela året, minskade kostnader, kortare ledtider, samt möjligt ökat grot-uttag från enskilda hyggen. Detta beror främst på att det skulle vara möjligt att utföra grot-uttaget när det passar bäst ur ett logistiskt, ekonomiskt och/eller skogligt perspektiv.

Skriven på engelska, men med sammanfattning och slutsatser på svenska

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2016. p. 200
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 270/2016
Keywords
Forest fuel, Storage, Fraction composition, Needles, Defoliation, Moisture content, Nutrients, Nitrogen, Norway spruce, Picea abies, Skogsbränsle, Lagring, Fraktionsfördelning, Barr, Avbarrning, Fukthalt, Näringsämnen, Kväve, Gran, Picea abies
National Category
Forest Science Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58307 (URN)978-91-88357-50-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, Wickesell, Hus K, Linnéuniversitetet, Universitetsplatsen, Växjö, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Tidigare handledare har också varit:

Thomas Thörnqvist, Professor, Linnéuniversitetet

Dick Dandberg, Professor, Linnéuniversitetet

Åsa Blom, Docent, Linnéuniversitetet

Sammanläggningsavhandlingen består av totalt fyra Paper:

Paper I

Nilsson, B., Blom, Å., Thörnqvist, T. 2013. The influence of two different handling methods on the moisture content and composition of logging residues. Biomass and Bioenergy, 52, 34–42.

Paper II

Nilsson, B., Nilsson, D., Thörnqvist, T. 2015. Distributions and losses of logging residues at clear-felled areas during extraction for bioenergy: Comparing dried- and fresh-stacked method. Forests, 6, 4212–4227.

Paper III

Nilsson, D., Nilsson, B., Thörnqvist, T., Bergh, J. 2016. Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at the clear-felled area using the fresh- and dried-stacked method of logging residue extraction. Submitted to Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research (2016-11-01).

Paper IV

Nilsson, B., Lerman, P. 2016. Experimental study of relations between defoliation, moisture content and color change in logging residues. Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden. Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-25 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B., Nilsson, D. & Thörnqvist, T. (2015). Distribution of logging residues at the clear-felled site after fuel adapted logging operations. In: Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P (Ed.), Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015. Paper presented at 23rd European Biomass Conference 1-4 June 2015, Vienna Asutria (pp. 270-272). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of logging residues at the clear-felled site after fuel adapted logging operations
2015 (English)In: Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015 / [ed] Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 270-272Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

During extraction of logging residues previous studies in Sweden have shown that up to 50% of the available logging residues will not reach the energy-conversion site. The remaining potential of the logging residues are therefore lost by handling either at the clear-felled site, during transportation or due to decomposition. An outtake of 100% is not possible or desired, since the Swedish Forest Agency recommends that at least 20% of the logging residues should be left at the clear-felled site after a fuel adapted logging operation. In this study the losses at the clear-felled area is examined by studying the distribution of the remaining logging residues under and between the harvester heaps as well amount of logging residues that are left at the roadside landing after comminution. The results show that most of the reaming logging residues are well distributed at the clear-felled area between the harvester heaps. Additional logging residues are left at the clear-felled area since the forwarder cannot gather all logging residues from under the harvester heaps. In addition to this a not insignificant amount of logging residues are left at the roadside landing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2015
Series
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, ISSN 2282-5819
Keywords
forest residues, forestry, harvesting
National Category
Energy Systems Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering); Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49476 (URN)10.5071/23rdEUBCE2015-1CV.3.19 (DOI)978-88-89407-516 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd European Biomass Conference 1-4 June 2015, Vienna Asutria
Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2016-08-22Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B., Nilsson, D. & Thörnqvist, T. (2015). Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method. Forests, 6(11), 4212-4227
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method
2015 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 6, no 11, p. 4212-4227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method) to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%-15% under these heaps and approximately 2%-3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines) was slightly higher following dried-stacking.

Keywords
forest fuel, storage, quality, needles, moisture content, Norway spruce
National Category
Forest Science Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-48816 (URN)10.3390/f6114212 (DOI)000365704000022 ()2-s2.0-84949516879 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Eliasson, L. & Nilsson, B. (2015). Hyggeslagring av grot. Skogforsk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyggeslagring av grot
2015 (Swedish)Other (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, pages
Skogforsk, 2015. p. 2
Series
Skogens energi - en källa till hållbar framtid
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51715 (URN)978-91-979694-7-5 (ISBN)
Projects
Skogforsk - Effektivare Skogsbränslesystem
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Kapitel i rapport. "Skogens energi - en källa till hållbar framtid : sammanfattande rapport från Effektivare Skogsbränslesystem 2011-2015"

Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, D., Nilsson, B. & Thörnqvist, T. (2015). Nutrient removal after whole-tree harvesting with the traditional Swedish dried-stacked method for removal of logging residues. In: Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P (Ed.), Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015. Paper presented at 23rd European Biomass Conference 1-4 June 2015, Vienna Asutria (pp. 9-13). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nutrient removal after whole-tree harvesting with the traditional Swedish dried-stacked method for removal of logging residues
2015 (English)In: Papers of the 23rd European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economyExtracted from the Proceedings of the International Conference held in Viennna, Asutria1-4 June 2015 / [ed] Obernberger I, Baxter D, Grassi A, Helm P, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 9-13Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Bioenergy from logging residues is an important contributor to Swedish energy supplies. Logging residues where long defined and regarded as the unmerchantable aboveground biomass left behind in the clear-felled area, consisting of branches, tops and small trees that are gathered after the round wood harvest, but logging residues are nowadays regarded as a third assortment next to timber and pulpwood with high economic value. However long-term experiments on removal of logging residues from Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.)Karst) stands have shown both growth reductions and growth increase in the next generation, because of decreasing amounts of nutrients. So an increased removal of logging residues requires some sort of compensation of nutrients. Therefore it is of importance to investigate how much nutrients that is removed from the stand after whole-tree harvesting.

In this study the removal of the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) have been investigated by laboratory analysis of the nutrients together with the actual removal of stemwood, bark and logging residues. The study has also investigated the distribution of nutrients at the clear-felled area.

The results show that approximately half of the total nutrient removed in whole tree harvesting is done with the removal of stemwood and bark. The results also show that approximately 30% of the total amount of nutrients is left at the clear-felled area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2015
Series
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ISSN 2282-5819
Keywords
forest residues, forestry, harvesting
National Category
Forest Science Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering); Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45865 (URN)10.5071/23rdEUBCE2015-1AO.1.2 (DOI)978-88-89407-516 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd European Biomass Conference 1-4 June 2015, Vienna Asutria
Available from: 2016-02-01 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2016-08-22Bibliographically approved
Lars, E. & Nilsson, B. (2015). Skotning av grot direkt efteravverkning eller efter hyggeslagring: Effekter på näringsuttag, barravfall och fukthalt. Uppsala: Skogforsk
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skotning av grot direkt efteravverkning eller efter hyggeslagring: Effekter på näringsuttag, barravfall och fukthalt
2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Forwarding of logging residueimmediately after felling or afterstorage on the clear-cut. : Effects on nutrient extraction,needle shedding, andmoisture content.
Abstract [sv]

Sedan 1980-talet har rekommendationen varit att grot ska hyggeslagras under en sommar för att torka och ”barra av”. Torkningen ökar det effektiva värmevärdet och därigenom det ekonomiska värdet för den levererade mängden grot samt minskar uttaget av näringsämnen, vilket kan påverka skogsproduktionen. Hyggeslagring innebär samtidigt att grotskotningen måste utföras av en annan maskin än den som skotade rundvirket, vilket medför en extra maskinflytt som i sin tur ökar kostnaden för grotuttaget. Att grotskotningen koncentreras till barmarksperioden innebär att markberedning inte kan utföras under sommaren efter avverkningen, eftersom grothögarna finns kvar på hygget. Intresset för att skota groten direkt efter avverkning och torka den i en välta vid väg har ökat, då det ses som ett sätt att undvika dessa nackdelar.

En genomgång av befintlig litteratur har genomförts för att ge en översikt av effekterna av dessa två uttagsstrategier för grot:

- Skotning av grot till välta vid väg direkt efter avverkning.

- Hyggeslagring av grot under en sommar innan grotskotning till välta vid väg.

 Litteraturstudien visar att:

- Oavsett uttagsstrategi så blir mer än 20 procent av groten kvar på hygget.

- Hyggeslagring av groten är ingen garant för att barren faller av och näring utlakas.

- Hyggeslagrad grot är inte torrare än vältlagrad vid leverans.

- De eventuella effekter som valet av uttagstrategi har på den framtida tillväxten bör vara mindre än det man kan se i försöken med helträdsuttag.

- Skotning av färsk grot frigör hygget för markberedning och återplantering redan första sommaren efter avverkning, d.v.s. minst ett år tidigare än om groten skall hyggeslagras.

Abstract [en]

Tops and branches from final felling (logging residues) have been harvested for use as a fuel in heating and combined heat and power plants since the 1970s. It has been recommended that the residues be stored in small piles on the clear-cut for a summer to facilitate drying and shedding of needles. Drying increases the effective heating value of the biomass and thereby the economic value as a fuel. Another perception is that future forest growth is positively affected by nutrients that are released from the biomass through leaching and as needles and fi ne twigs loosen from the residues during the storage period.

However, there are also drawbacks when residues are stored on the clear-cut. Costs are increased, as the same forwarder that extracted the roundwood cannot be used to extract the logging residues, so another forwarder has to be transported to the area. Furthermore, extraction of residues becomes a seasonal work concentrated to late summer and autumn, so areas with soft soil harvested during frozen winter conditions have to be trafficked in unfrozen conditions, thereby increasing the risk of ruts. Finally, the establishment of new forest is delayed, as the clear-cut is filled with residue piles and not available for scarification and planting the first summer after the harvest.

 To avoid these drawbacks, interest is growing in extracting the residues at the same time as the other assortments and drying them in a stack on the landing instead. A literature survey was carried out to obtain an overview of the effects of these two strategies for residue extraction.

 The survey showed that:

- More than 20 per cent of the top and branch biomass is left on the clear-cut, regardless of extraction strategy.

- Storing residues on the clear-cut does not necessarily lead to nutrient release and shedding of needles in residue piles.

- The moisture content of the biomass at time of delivery to the customers is not affected by the extraction strategy.

- The possible effects on future forest yield should be smaller than the relatively small effects found in studies of full-tree extraction, as biomass is left on the clear-cut.

- The economic effect on the future yield is reduced, as replanting can be done at least one year earlier if the residues are extracted at the time of roundwood extraction, thereby reducing the time to next harvest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Skogforsk, 2015. p. 10
Series
Arbetsrapport Skogforsk, ISSN 1404-305X ; 878-2015
Keywords
Grönrisskotning, kvarlämnat ris, fukthalt, näringsförluster
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51676 (URN)
Projects
Skogforsk - Effektivare skogsbränslesystem
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-04-21Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B., Trublins, R., Sallnäs, O. & Dahlin, B. (2014). Estimating potential stump harvest from multiple data sources: an example from a county in southern Sweden. In: Proceedings of the Precision Forestry Symposium 2014: The anchor of your value chain. Paper presented at Precision Forestry Symposium 2014: The anchor of your value chain, Stellenbosch, South Africa, March 3 - 5, 2014 (pp. 33-34). Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating potential stump harvest from multiple data sources: an example from a county in southern Sweden
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Precision Forestry Symposium 2014: The anchor of your value chain, Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University , 2014, p. 33-34Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University, 2014
Keywords
Stubbar
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51701 (URN)978-0-7972-1472-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Precision Forestry Symposium 2014: The anchor of your value chain, Stellenbosch, South Africa, March 3 - 5, 2014
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2018-08-17Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B., Blom, Å. & Thörnqvist, T. (2013). The influence of two different handling methods on the moisture content and composition of logging residuals. Biomass and Bioenergy, 52, 34-42
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of two different handling methods on the moisture content and composition of logging residuals
2013 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 52, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The most frequently used handling method in Sweden for the extraction of forest fuels is one in which logging residues are piled in harvester heaps to dry within the clear-cutting area before stacking into larger windrows. This handling method, however, requires multiple stages and the amount of handling involved results in a significant loss of biomass that could have been used for energy. This study compares two handling methods for the extraction of logging residues in stands dominated by Norway spruce. The traditional “dried-stacked” method was compared to the “fresh-stacked” method in which logging residues are collected simultaneously during normal logging operations and stacked in windrows at or near the roadside to dry. Determination of fraction composition and moisture content was carried out on the biomass provided to the energy-converting industry shortly after comminuting the logging residues. The results show that the fresh-stacked logging residues contained a higher amount of needles (8%), compared to 4% for the dried-stacked logging residues. However, the amount of needles was considered to be low in both handling methods. Both handling methods were proven to provide adequate drying with moisture content levels at approximately 36% for fresh-stacked and 31% for dried-stacked logging residues. These results indicate that weather and forest conditions have a greater impact on the moisture content than handling method. An acceptance of fresh-stacked logging residues, preferably connected to ash recycling, would afford the energy-converting industries the opportunity to use new technologies, reduce costs and extract a greater biomass total.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-19005 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.02.026 (DOI)000319645400005 ()2-s2.0-84875787176 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-05-29 Created: 2012-05-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, B. & Thörnqvist, T. (2012). Potential of forest fuel in the county of Småland: the woodshed of Sweden. In: World Bioenergy 2012, 29-31 May, Jönköping, Sweden: . Paper presented at World Bioenergy 2012, 29-31 May, Jönköping, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Potential of forest fuel in the county of Småland: the woodshed of Sweden
2012 (English)In: World Bioenergy 2012, 29-31 May, Jönköping, Sweden, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The county of Småland in southern Sweden is often labeled the woodshed of Sweden. The largest potential to increase has forest fuel from final fellings, in the form of logging residuals (branches and tops) and stumps. This study shows that logging residuals, stumps and by-products from sawmills have the potential to contribute with 5.9 TWh per year, equivalent to 88% of the total use of wood fuel in Småland today. The results also show distribution of forest fuel on municipality level.

National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51736 (URN)
Conference
World Bioenergy 2012, 29-31 May, Jönköping, Sweden
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2017-01-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2990-3559

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