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Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap forclimate change mitigation in high cost conditions. In: : . Paper presented at Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap forclimate change mitigation in high cost conditions
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An established research result is that people's environmental attitudes only loosely translate into actions effectively reducing their environmental impact, something known as the attitude-behaviour gap. On the other hand, correct information and environmental education are often considered a key to promote sustainability, which raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives and, conversely, when other factors have a better chance to succeed. To answer these questions, we tested the effect of environmental attitudes in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world climate mitigation consequences. We found that environmental attitudes mainly affected behaviour in a low cost situation, while their effect was reduced when the stakes were higher. This finding is consistent with the low cost hypothesis of environmental behaviour and has important consequences for the shaping of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.

Keywords
environmental behaviour, low-cost hypothesis, climate change, collective-risk social dilemma
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82569 (URN)
Conference
Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019.
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-06-26
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations. Ecological Economics, 166, 1-12, Article ID 106434.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations
2019 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, p. 1-12, article id 106434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between environmental attitudes and actual `green' actions, something known as the attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. This paper presents an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences designed to test the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior under various conditions. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior only in low-cost situations. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior postulating that concerned individuals will undertake low-cost actions in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance  between their attitudes and rational realization of the environmental impact of their behavior but avoid higher-cost actions despite their greater potential as far as environmental protection. This finding has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context as it puts limits on what can be achieved by raising environmental concern alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Climate change mitigation, Low-cost hypothesis, Online experiment, Collective-risk social dilemma
National Category
Economics Climate Research
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88153 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106434 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Natalini, D., Bravo, G. & Jones, A. W. (2019). Global food security and food riots: an agent-based modelling approach. Food Security, 11(5), 1153-1173
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global food security and food riots: an agent-based modelling approach
2019 (English)In: Food Security, ISSN 1876-4517, E-ISSN 1876-4525, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 1153-1173Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to negative consequences of climate change for agriculture and food production shocks affecting different areas of the world, the past two decades saw the conditions of global food security increasingly worsen. This has resulted in negative consequences for the world economy, partly causing international food price spikes and social upheavals. In this paper we present statistical findings along with a preliminary version of an original agent-based model called the Dawe Global Security Model that simulates the global food market and the political fragility of countries. The model simulates the effects of food insecurity on international food prices and how these, coupled with national political fragility and international food trade can, in turn, increase the probability of food riots in countries. The agents in the model are the 213 countries of the world whose characteristics reflect empirical data and the international trade of food is also simulated based on real trade partnerships and data. The model has been informed, calibrated and validated using real data and the results of these procedures are presented in the paper. To further test the model we also present the model’s forecasts for the near future in terms of food prices and incidence of food riots. The Dawe Global Security Model can be used to test scenarios on the evolution of shocks to global food production and analyse consequences for food riots. Further developments of the model can include national responses to food crises to investigate how countries can influence the spread of global food crises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
food security, agent-based model, food riots, fragility, forecast, international trade
National Category
Globalisation Studies
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68587 (URN)10.1007/s12571-017-0693-z (DOI)000486234500011 ()
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure. Climatic Change, 154(3-4), 453-460
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure
2019 (English)In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, no 3-4, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82572 (URN)10.1007/s10584-019-02454-1 (DOI)000472894800010 ()2-s2.0-85065714889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Bravo, G., Pardalis, G., Mahapatra, K. & Mainali, B. (2019). Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners. Buildings, 9(1), Article ID 12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical vs. Aesthetic Renovations: Learning from Swedish House Owners
2019 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we identify the socio-economic attributes and attitudes that have influencedhouse owners in renovating their homes in the past. Our study is based on responses to an onlinequestionnaire survey of 971 house owners living in Kronoberg County in Sweden. Results showedthat the interest and willingness of the house owners to perform a renovation varied dependingon their demographic background and the age of the house. The latter positively affected pastrenovations, only when combined with the residence time. Furthermore, the age of house ownersstrongly and positively affected the probability of performing aesthetic type of renovations, becauseof a long time of residence in the house. Younger, town living, and highly educated house ownersseem to be more concerned regarding saving energy, which motivated them to perform physicalrenovations on their house. Our results also suggest that income, level of education, and place ofresidence have an effect on renovation decisions only through their effect on the energy concern ofhouse owners, and a varied effect on renovation decisions, when combined with the time of residencein the house.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
house owners, renovations, physical renovations, aesthetic renovations, decision-making
National Category
Energy Systems Environmental Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79411 (URN)10.3390/buildings9010012 (DOI)000457159600017 ()2-s2.0-85059532629 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Pardalis, G., Mahapatra, K., Bravo, G. & Mainali, B. (2019). Swedish House Owners’ Intentions Towards Renovations: Is there a Market for One-Stop-Shop?. Buildings, 9(7), 1-16, Article ID 164.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish House Owners’ Intentions Towards Renovations: Is there a Market for One-Stop-Shop?
2019 (English)In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 1-16, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we examine factors aecting owners’ intention for renovation of their detached houses. Furthermore, we analyze their interest in choosing a one-stop-shop (OSS) service for the renovation, even though such a concept is not yet established in Sweden, but emerging in other parts of Europe. Our study is based on responses to an online questionnaire survey of 971 house owners residing in Kronoberg Region in Sweden. About 76% of the respondents intend to renovate in the near future, with approximately 71% of them preferring to renovate individual components of their dwelling and 5% to renovate their whole house in steps. House owners of younger age, higher income, higher education, and those with an interest for environmental issues, were the ones most interested in physical renovations, which improves energy efficiency of the building. For those house owners, one-stop-shop can facilitate the decision-making process, and help them to choose those measures that will improve their quality of life. Approximately 20% of the respondents had a positive view towards an one-stop-shop, which is an indicator that market for such a service exists. Parameters such as quality of work, cost and energy savings and specification of measures to be adopted are the key for the promotion of one-stop-shop. Additionally, house owners want to have a certain level of involvement in the selection of actors performing the renovation. Moreover, financial incentives, e.g., loans, do not play a significant role for the selection of one-stop-shop, but act as complementary motive for house owners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
house owners, detached house, renovation, retrofit, energy efficiency, one-stop-shop
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Environmental Engineering Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment; Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86255 (URN)10.3390/buildings9070164 (DOI)000478645000009 ()2-s2.0-85070101538 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Smarthousing Småland
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 68110021
Available from: 2019-07-09 Created: 2019-07-09 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Bravo, G., Grimaldo, F., Lopez-Inesta, E., Mehmani, B. & Squazzoni, F. (2019). The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 322.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To increase transparency in science, some scholarly journals are publishing peer review reports. But it is unclear how this practice affects the peer review process. Here, we examine the effect of publishing peer review reports on referee behavior in five scholarly journals involved in a pilot study at Elsevier. By considering 9,220 submissions and 18,525 reviews from 2010 to 2017, we measured changes both before and during the pilot and found that publishing reports did not significantly compromise referees' willingness to review, recommendations, or turn-around times. Younger and non-academic scholars were more willing to accept to review and provided more positive and objective recommendations. Male referees tended to write more constructive reports during the pilot. Only 8.1% of referees agreed to reveal their identity in the published report. These findings suggest that open peer review does not compromise the process, at least when referees are able to protect their anonymity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80148 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-08250-2 (DOI)000456011000003 ()30659186 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060132626 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-05 Created: 2019-02-05 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Bravo, G. & Yantseva, V. (2018). Cooperation and conflict in segregated populations. Social science computer review, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperation and conflict in segregated populations
2018 (English)In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Humans behavior often varies depending on the opponent’s group membership, with both positive consequences (e.g., cooperation or mutual help) and negative ones (e.g., stereotyping, oppression, or even genocide). An influential model developed by Hammond and Axelrod (HA) highlighted the emergence of macrolevel “ethnocentric cooperation” from the aggregation of microlevel interactions based on arbitrary tags signaling group membership. We extended this model to include a wider set of agents’ behaviors including the possibility of harming others. This allowed to check whether and under which conditions xenophobia can emerge beside or in alternative to ethnocentric cooperation. The model was compared to Swedish data documenting social unrest and proxies of cooperative behaviors at the municipal level. The validation results supported the model predictions on conflict but not the ones on cooperation, casting doubts on HA’s original argument.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
cooperation, conflict, simulation, group membership, social unrest, ethnocentric cooperation
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79076 (URN)10.1177/0894439318821687 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-05-06
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2018). Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?. Climatic Change, 149(2), 147-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does risk communication really decrease cooperation in climate change mitigation?
2018 (English)In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 147-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effective communication of risks involved in the climate change discussion is crucial and despite ambitious protection policies, the possibility of irreversible consequences actually occurring can only be diminished but never ruled out completely. We present a laboratory experiment that studies how residual risk of failure of climate change policies affects willingness to contribute to such policies. Despite prevailing views on people's risk aversion, we found that contributions were higher at least in the final part of treatments including a residual risk. We interpret this as the product of a psychological process where residual risk puts participants into an "alarm mode," keeping their contributions high. We discuss the broad practical implications this might have on the real-world communication of climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
collective risk social dilemma, climate change mitigation, voluntary contribution, experiment, risk
National Category
Climate Research Social Psychology
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77400 (URN)10.1007/s10584-018-2228-9 (DOI)000439940200003 ()2-s2.0-85048093332 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Bravo, G., Farjam, M., Moreno, F. G., Birukou, A. & Squazzoni, F. (2018). Hidden connections: Network effects on editorial decisions in four computer science journals. Journal of Informetrics, 12(1), 101-112
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hidden connections: Network effects on editorial decisions in four computer science journals
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper aims to examine the influence of authors’ reputation on editorial bias in scholarly journals. By looking at eight years of editorial decisions in four computer science journals, including 7179 observations on 2913 submissions, we reconstructed author/referee-submission networks. For each submission, we looked at reviewer scores and estimated the reputation of submission authors by means of their network degree. By training a Bayesian network, we estimated the potential effect of scientist reputation on editorial decisions. Results showed that more reputed authors were less likely to be rejected by editors when they submitted papers receiving negative reviews. Although these four journals were comparable for scope and areas, we found certain journal specificities in their editorial process. Our findings suggest ways to examine the editorial process in relatively similar journals without recurring to in-depth individual data, which are rarely available from scholarly journals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69194 (URN)10.1016/j.joi.2017.12.002 (DOI)000427479800008 ()2-s2.0-85037810919 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2837-0137

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