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Aldén, L. & Neuman, E. (2019). Culture and the gender gap in major choice: an analysis using sibling comparisons. Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture and the gender gap in major choice: an analysis using sibling comparisons
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we study the importance of culture on gender roles – preferences and beliefs about the appropriate role of women in society – for the gender gap in choice of major, using the epidemiological approach. We focus on second-generation immigrants in Sweden and compare the major choices at high school and college among opposite-sex siblings. By incorporating sibling fixed effects we can more convincingly than in previous literature control for factors apart from culture on gender roles that may affect educational choices. We use the female relative share in traditionally male fields to proxy for culture on gendered beliefs about educational choices in the source country. We find a negative gender gap in the probability of having majored in a STEM or male-dominated field, and that this gender gap varies with the proxy for culture on gender roles. We observe the same pattern when we study the probability to have majored in a female-dominated field. Our results clearly indicate that policies aimed at changing stereotypical gendered beliefs about educational choices have the potential to decrease the gender gap in major choice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies, 2019. p. 57
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2019:3
Keywords
Culture, Sibling fixed effects, Second-generation immigrants, Gender gap, Major choice, STEM
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90494 (URN)
Available from: 2019-12-12 Created: 2019-12-12 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Neuman, E. (2019). Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden. Small Business Economics, 1-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper uses individual-level panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant- and native-owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. We use an individual fixed-effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with self-employment experience. The advantage of our approach is that it enables estimations of the returns to self-employment experience while controlling for unobservable time-constant individual factors. The results show that profits increase with self-employment experience and at a faster rate among immigrant men and women than for their native counterparts. Turnover and the likelihood of having employees both increase with experience and in a similar magnitude for immigrants and natives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Immigrant businesses, Job creation, Performance, Self-employment, Self-employment experience
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86021 (URN)10.1007/s11187-019-00223-z (DOI)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2020-05-07
Neuman, E. (2018). Source country culture and labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden: evidence from longitudinal data. Review of Economics of the Household, 16(3), 585-627
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Source country culture and labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden: evidence from longitudinal data
2018 (English)In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 585-627Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes the role of source country culture on gender roles for labor market assimilation of immigrant women in Sweden. Sweden ranks as one of the world's most gender-equal countries and at the same time a recipient of many immigrants from countries with more traditional views on gender roles and gender equality. I find that the labor force participation of immigrant women in Sweden is related to their source country culture, in the sense that women from countries where women's labor market participation is low (high) also have low (high) participation in the Swedish labor market. However, all immigrant women assimilate towards, but do not reach parity with, the participation rate of native women, and the difference between women from high- and low-participation countries diminishes with length of residence in Sweden. This indicates that source country culture on gender roles does not have a persistent effect on immigrant women's labor market participation in Sweden. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of taking into account unobservable time-constant individual and source country factors when estimating the relationship between source country culture and immigrants' labor market outcomes. Neglecting to control for these factors could lead researchers to misrepresent the rate of assimilation and overstate the effect of source country culture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Source country culture, Gender norms, Immigrant assimilation, Labor market participation
National Category
Work Sciences International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Research subject
Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77371 (URN)10.1007/s11150-018-9420-6 (DOI)000440718900002 ()2-s2.0-85048875961 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Aldén, L., Hammarstedt, M. & Neuman, E. (2017). All about balance?: A test of the jack-of-all-trades theory using military enlistment data. Labour Economics, 49, 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All about balance?: A test of the jack-of-all-trades theory using military enlistment data
2017 (English)In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 49, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to the Jack-of-all-trades theory, people with a balanced set of skills are more suitable for self-employment than are those without. In this paper we test this theory using Swedish Military Enlistment data. This data enables us to construct a measure of balance in abilities that, in comparison to measures used in previous research, is less contaminated by endogeneity problems. We find clear support for the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that the likelihood of being self-employed is higher for individuals whose skills are balanced. In addition, their earnings from self-employment tend to be higher.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Ability balance, Cognitive and non-cognitive ability, Earnings, Jack-of-all-trades theory, Occupational choice, Self-employment
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-67862 (URN)10.1016/j.labeco.2017.09.001 (DOI)000419415900001 ()2-s2.0-85034084730 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Neuman, E. (2016). Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants. International journal of manpower, 37(1), 157-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic concentration and economic outcomes of natives and second-generation immigrants
2016 (English)In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 157-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between childhood neighbourhood ethnic composition and short- and long-run economic outcomes of second-generation immigrants and natives in Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

We use Swedish longitudinal register data and apply regression analysis methods to investigate the correlation between three ethnic neighbourhood variables(share of immigrants, share of immigrants with the same ethnic background and share of immigrants with other descent) in childhood with short- and long-run economic outcomes (earnings, unemployment, reliance on social assistance and educational attainment).

Findings

The results show that second-generation immigrants raised in immigrant-dense neighbourhoods have a lower probability to continue to higher education, whereas, their earnings, unemployment and social assistance tendencies are unaffected. On the contrary, natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Moreover, the social assistance and unemployment of non-Nordic second-generation immigrants appears to be negatively correlated with the neighbourhood share of co-ethnics and positively correlated with the neighbourhood proportion of other ethnic groups. Overall, we find that the results are very similar in the short- and long-run.

Originality/value

This paper expands the literature on children and ethnic segregation and in contrast to earlier research in this context, it focuses on second-generation immigrants and their performance in comparison to natives. This study contributes to this research area by investigating a large variety of outcomes, looking at both immigrant, own-ethnic group and other-ethnic group concentration and including both short- and long-run correlations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keywords
Ethnic concentration, natives, neighbourhood, labour market outcomes, second-generation immigrants, segregation.
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45928 (URN)10.1108/IJM-06-2014-0136 (DOI)000374147200008 ()2-s2.0-84961655034 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2015-08-27 Created: 2015-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Neuman, E. (2016). Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden. Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance and job creation among self-employed immigrants and natives in Sweden
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper uses individual panel data for all self-employed in the retail and service sectors to study how immigrant and native owned firms perform and contribute to job creation in Sweden. In particular, we use an individual-fixed effects model to explore how self-employment outcomes among immigrants and natives evolve with years in self-employment. The results show that native men have higher earnings and profit level from selfemployment activities than immigrant men. Immigrant men converge towards the earnings and profit levels of native men as self-employment experience increase, but do not reach parity. On the contrary, immigrant women catch up with the earnings and profit levels of native women after between 3 to 5 years in business. Turnover is highest for men, and in firms owned by non-European immigrants, independently of length of business experience. Immigrant firms, and in particular those owned by non-European immigrants, contribute more to job creation than firms owned by natives. As length of business experience increases immigrants’ hire additional persons to their firms to a higher extent than natives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, 2016. p. 22
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies ; 2016:11
Keywords
Immigrants, Job creation, Performance, Self-employment
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60587 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-08 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Aldén, L., Hammarstedt, M. & Neuman, E. (2016). Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata. Ekonomisk Debatt, 44(2), 44-52
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Är det bra att "kunna lite om mycket?": En studie av egenföretagare baserad på mönstringsdata
2016 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 44-52Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Vi presenterar ett empiriskt test av Edward Lazears Jack-of-All Trades teori med hjälp av de tester av kognitiva och icke-kognitiva förmågor som män genomförde vid mönstring inför militärtjänsten. Vi finner stöd för Lazears teori då män vars kunskaper är jämnt fördelade över olika områden är mer benägna att vara företagare än andra. Dessutom är deras företag mer framgångsrika än företag som drivs av människor med specialistkunskaper. En policyslutsats är att utbildningar som ger breda kunskaper stimulerar framgångsrikt företagande. Ett bredare innehåll i utbildningar på varierande nivåer kan därför vara ett medel i syfte att stimulera till fler nya framgångsrika företag.

National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47313 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-17 Created: 2015-11-17 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Aldén, L., Hammarstedt, M. & Neuman, E. (2015). "Breda utbildningar bäst för entreprenörer". Dagens Nyheter, 27 dec
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Breda utbildningar bäst för entreprenörer"
2015 (Swedish)In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, Vol. 27 decArticle in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-48612 (URN)
Note

Specialister lyckas sämre. Personer med kunskaper inom många olika områden är mer benägna att starta företag än specialister. De överlever dessutom som företagare på längre sikt. Därför bör utbildningar inom entreprenörskap och egenföretagande främja en bred kunskapsinhämtning, skriver forskare vid Linnéuniversitetet i Växjö.

Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Neuman, E. (2015). Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essays on Segregation, Gender Economics, and Self-employment
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis consists of four empirical essays on the topics of ethnic segregation, gender economics, and self-employment.

   Essay I investigates how the residential mobility of Sweden's native population contributes to ethnic segregation, by applying regression discontinuity methods. The results show that the growth in the native population in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops as the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the tipping point. Tipping is driven by the departure of natives and their avoidance of tipped neighbourhoods. Tipping behaviour is selective in the sense that highly educated and high earning natives are more likely to leave neighbourhoods that have tipped.

   Essay II studies the relationship between the childhood neighbourhood's ethnic composition and economic outcomes in adulthood for second-generation immigrant sand natives. The results reveal that a high concentration of immigrants in aneighbourhood is associated with a lower probability of second-generation immigrants continuing to higher education. Natives' earnings and educational attainment are negatively correlated with, and the probability of social assistance and unemployment are positively associated with a high immigrant concentration. Among non-Nordic second-generation immigrants, reliance on social assistance and unemployment are negatively correlated with the share of co-ethnics and positively associated with the proportion of other ethnic groups.

   Essay III explores the role of social norms and attitudes about gender for labour market outcomes of immigrant men and women in Sweden. The results show that immigrants originating from countries with large gender disparities in labour force participation also have large gender gaps in labour force participation within their immigrant group on the Swedish labour market. In contrast, source country gender differences in earnings are not correlated with gender gaps in earnings within immigrant groups in Sweden. In addition, gender gaps in labour force participation among immigrants assimilate towards the corresponding gap among natives as time inSweden increases.

   Essay IV empirically tests the Jack-of-all-trades theory, which states that individuals who are more balanced in their abilities are more suitable for self-employment. Using Swedish Military Enlistment data, a measure of balance in endowed abilities is constructed and this balance measure is, in relation to previous research, less likely tobe endogenous. The results support the Jack-of-all-trades theory, in the sense that propensity for being or becoming self-employed is greater for individuals with abalanced set of abilities. In addition, earnings from self-employment tend to be higher among individuals with a balanced set of skills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2015. p. 180
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 223
Keywords
Ability balance; Earnings; Economic outcomes; Ethnic segregation; Gender gaps; Immigrants; Jack-of-all-trades theory; Labour force participation; Native flight; Native avoidance; Occupational choice; Self-employment; Tipping behaviour.
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-44556 (URN)978-91-87925-63-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2015-06-05, Sal Wicksell, Växjö, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-06-17 Created: 2015-06-16 Last updated: 2019-09-17Bibliographically approved
Aldén, L., Hammarstedt, M. & Neuman, E. (2015). Ethnic segregation, tipping behaviour, and native residential mobility. The international migration review, 49(1), 36-69
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic segregation, tipping behaviour, and native residential mobility
2015 (English)In: The international migration review, ISSN 0197-9183, E-ISSN 1747-7379, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 36-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study tipping behaviour in residential mobility of the native population in Sweden between 1990 and 2007. Using regression discontinuity methods, we find that the native population growth in a neighbourhood discontinuously drops once the share of non-European immigrants exceeds the identified tipping point. Native tipping behaviour can be ascribed to both native flight and native avoidance. Natives with a high level of educational attainment and the highest labour earnings are more likely to move from neighbourhoods that have tipped. We conclude that tipping behaviour is likely to be associated with ethnic as well as to socio-economic segregation in Sweden.  

Keywords
Ethnic segregation, tipping behaviour, native flight, native avoidance
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-28636 (URN)10.1111/imre.12066 (DOI)000351774400002 ()2-s2.0-84925804164 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-09-03 Created: 2013-09-03 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4068-2985

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