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Gonzalez-Gaya, B., Martinez-Varela, A., Vila-Costa, M., Casal, P., Cerro-Galvez, E., Berrojalbiz, N., . . . Dachs, J. (2019). Biodegradation as an important sink of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oceans. Nature Geoscience, 12(2), 119-125+2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodegradation as an important sink of aromatic hydrocarbons in the oceans
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2019 (English)In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 119-125+2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons accounts for an important input of organic matter to the surface ocean. Nevertheless, the biogeochemical cycling and sinks of semivolatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the ocean remain largely uncharacterized. Here we present measurements of 64 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in plankton and seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Southern Oceans, as well an assessment of their microbial degradation genes. Concentrations of the more hydrophobic compounds decreased when the plankton biomass was higher, consistent with the relevance of the biological pump. The mass balance for the global oceans showed that the settling fluxes of aromatic hydrocarbons in the water column were two orders of magnitude lower than the atmospheric deposition fluxes. This imbalance was high for low molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as phenanthrene and methylphenanthrenes, highly abundant in the dissolved phase. Parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were depleted to a higher degree than alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the degradation genes for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be ubiquitous in oceanic metagenomes. These observations point to a key role of biodegradation in depleting the bioavailable dissolved hydrocarbons and to the microbial degradation of atmospheric inputs of organic matter as a relevant process for the marine carbon cycle.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80560 (URN)10.1038/s41561-018-0285-3 (DOI)000457194900011 ()2-s2.0-85060093202 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, C. M. G., Cerro-Galvez, E., Lundin, D., Karlsson, C., Vila-Costa, M. & Pinhassi, J. (2019). Direct effects of organic pollutants on the growth and gene expression of the Baltic Sea model bacterium Rheinheimera sp. BAL341. Microbial Biotechnology, 12(5), 892-906
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct effects of organic pollutants on the growth and gene expression of the Baltic Sea model bacterium Rheinheimera sp. BAL341
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2019 (English)In: Microbial Biotechnology, ISSN 1751-7907, E-ISSN 1751-7915, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 892-906Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic pollutants (OPs) are critically toxic, bioaccumulative and globally widespread. Moreover, several OPs negatively influence aquatic wildlife. Although bacteria are major drivers of the ocean carbon cycle and the turnover of vital elements, there is limited knowledge of OP effects on heterotrophic bacterioplankton. We therefore investigated growth and gene expression responses of the Baltic Sea model bacterium Rheinheimera sp. BAL341 to environmentally relevant concentrations of distinct classes of OPs in 2-h incubation experiments. During exponential growth, exposure to a mix of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes and organophosphate esters (denoted MIX) resulted in a significant decrease (between 9% and 18%) in bacterial abundance and production compared with controls. In contrast, combined exposure to perfluorooctanesulfonic acids and perfluorooctanoic acids (denoted PFAS) had no significant effect on growth. Nevertheless, MIX and PFAS exposures both induced significant shifts in gene expression profiles compared with controls in exponential growth. This involved several functional metabolism categories (e.g. stress response and fatty acids metabolism), some of which were pollutant-specific (e.g. phosphate acquisition and alkane-1 monooxygenase genes). In stationary phase, only two genes in the MIX treatment were significantly differentially expressed. The substantial direct influence of OPs on metabolism during bacterial growth suggests that widespread OPs could severely alter biogeochemical processes governed by bacterioplankton.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86985 (URN)10.1111/1751-7915.13441 (DOI)000474143400001 ()31270938 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068617751 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-11-25Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, E., Li, K., Fridlund, J., Sulcius, S., Bunse, C., Karlsson, C. M. G., . . . Holmfeldt, K. (2019). Genomic and Seasonal Variations among Aquatic Phages Infecting the Baltic Sea Gammaproteobacterium Rheinheimera sp. Strain BAL341. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85(18), 1-19, Article ID e01003-19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomic and Seasonal Variations among Aquatic Phages Infecting the Baltic Sea Gammaproteobacterium Rheinheimera sp. Strain BAL341
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2019 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 85, no 18, p. 1-19, article id e01003-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge in aquatic virology has been greatly improved by culture-independent methods, yet there is still a critical need for isolating novel phages to identify the large proportion of "unknowns" that dominate metagenomes and for detailed analyses of phage-host interactions. Here, 54 phages infecting Rheinheimem sp. strain BAL341 (Gammaproteobacteria) were isolated from Baltic Sea seawater and characterized through genome content analysis and comparative genomics. The phages showed a myovirus-like morphology and belonged to a novel genus, for which we propose the name Barbavirus. All phages had similar genome sizes and numbers of genes (80 to 84 kb; 134 to 145 genes), and based on average nucleotide identity and genome BLAST distance phylogeny, the phages were divided into five species. The phages possessed several genes involved in metabolic processes and host signaling, such as genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase and thymidylate synthase, phoH, and rnazG. One species had additional metabolic genes involved in pyridine nucleotide salvage, possibly providing a fitness advantage by further increasing the phages' replication efficiency. Recruitment of viral metagenomic reads (25 Baltic Sea viral metagenomes from 2012 to 2015) to the phage genomes showed pronounced seasonal variations, with increased relative abundances of barba phages in August and September synchronized with peaks in host abundances, as shown by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Overall, this study provides detailed information regarding genetic diversity, phage-host interactions, and temporal dynamics of an ecologically important aquatic phage-host system. IMPORTANCE Phages are important in aquatic ecosystems as they influence their microbial hosts through lysis, gene transfer, transcriptional regulation, and expression of phage metabolic genes. Still, there is limited knowledge of how phages interact with their hosts, especially at fine scales. Here, a Rheinheimera phage-host system constituting highly similar phages infecting one host strain is presented. This relatively limited diversity has previously been seen only when smaller numbers of phages have been isolated and points toward ecological constraints affecting the Rheinheimera phage diversity. The variation of metabolic genes among the species points toward various fitness advantages, opening up possibilities for future hypothesis testing. Phage-host dynamics monitored over several years point toward recurring "kill-the-winner" oscillations and an ecological niche fulfilled by this system in the Baltic Sea. Identifying and quantifying ecological dynamics of such phage-host model systems in situ allow us to understand and study the influence of phages on aquatic ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society for Microbiology, 2019
Keywords
Baltic Sea, bacteriophage, genomics, temporal variation
National Category
Ecology Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology; Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89282 (URN)10.1128/AEM.01003-19 (DOI)000483596700008 ()31324626 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
Hogfors-Ronnholm, E., Lopez-Fernandez, M., Christel, S., Brambilla, D., Huntemann, M., Clum, A., . . . Dopson, M. (2019). Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from boreal potential and actual acid sulfate soil materials. Scientific Data, 6, 1-6, Article ID 207.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from boreal potential and actual acid sulfate soil materials
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 6, p. 1-6, article id 207Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Natural sulfide rich deposits are common in coastal areas worldwide, including along the Baltic Sea coast. When artificial drainage exposes these deposits to atmospheric oxygen, iron sulfide minerals in the soils are rapidly oxidized. This process turns the potential acid sulfate soils into actual acid sulfate soils and mobilizes large quantities of acidity and leachable toxic metals that cause severe environmental problems. It is known that acidophilic microorganisms living in acid sulfate soils catalyze iron sulfide mineral oxidation. However, only a few studies regarding these communities have been published. In this study, we sampled the oxidized actual acid sulfate soil, the transition zone where oxidation is actively taking place, and the deepest un-oxidized potential acid sulfate soil. Nucleic acids were extracted and 16S rRNA gene amplicons, metagenomes, and metatranscriptomes generated to gain a detailed insight into the communities and their activities. The project will be of great use to microbiologists, environmental biologists, geochemists, and geologists as there is hydrological and geochemical monitoring from the site stretching back for many years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89865 (URN)10.1038/s41597-019-0222-3 (DOI)000490560100003 ()31619684 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-31 Created: 2019-10-31 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Vila-Costa, M., Sebastian, M., Pizarro, M., Cerro-Galvez, E., Lundin, D., Gasol, J. M. & Dachs, J. (2019). Microbial consumption of organophosphate esters in seawater under phosphorus limited conditions. Scientific Reports, 9, Article ID 233.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial consumption of organophosphate esters in seawater under phosphorus limited conditions
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The anthropogenic perturbation of the phosphorus (P) marine biogeochemical cycle due to synthetic organophosphorus compounds remains unexplored. The objective of this work was to investigate the microbial degradation of organophosphate triesters (OPEs), widely used as plasticizers and flame retardants, in seawater and their effects on the physiology and composition of microbial communities. Experiments were performed in July 2014 using surface seawater from the Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory (NW Mediterranean) to which OPEs were added at environmentally relevant concentrations. The concentrations of OPEs in the dissolved-phase generally decreased after 24 hours of incubation at in situ conditions. The fitted first order reaction constants were significantly different than zero for the trihaloalkyl phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and trialyl phosphate tricresyl phosphate. In general, OPEs triggered an increase of the percentage of actively respiring bacteria, total bacterial activity, and the number of low-nucleic acid bacteria, and a decrease in the percentage of membrane-compromised bacteria. Members of some bacterial groups, in particular Flavobacteria, increased their specific activity, indicating that seawater contains bacteria with the potential to degrade OPEs. In aged seawater that was presumably depleted of labile dissolved organic carbon and inorganic P, alkaline phosphatase activities significantly decreased when OPEs were added, indicating a relief on P stress, consistent with the role of OPEs as potential P sources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Microbiology Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80149 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-36635-2 (DOI)000456008900031 ()30659251 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060157915 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-05 Created: 2019-02-05 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Cerro-Galvez, E., Casal, P., Lundin, D., Pina, B., Pinhassi, J., Dachs, J. & Vila-Costa, M. (2019). Microbial responses to anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon in the Arctic and Antarctic coastal seawaters. Environmental Microbiology, 21(4), 1466-1481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial responses to anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon in the Arctic and Antarctic coastal seawaters
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2019 (English)In: Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 1462-2912, E-ISSN 1462-2920, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 1466-1481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thousands of semi-volatile hydrophobic organic pollutants (OPs) reach open oceans through atmospheric deposition, causing a chronic and ubiquitous pollution by anthropogenic dissolved organic carbon (ADOC). Hydrophobic ADOC accumulates in cellular lipids, inducing harmful effects on marine biota, and can be partially prone to microbial degradation. Unfortunately, their possible effects on microorganisms, key drivers of global biogeochemical cycles, remain unknown. We challenged coastal microbial communities from Ny-angstrom lesund (Arctic) and Livingston Island (Antarctica) with ADOC concentrations within the range of oceanic concentrations in 24 h. ADOC addition elicited clear transcriptional responses in multiple microbial heterotrophic metabolisms in ubiquitous groups such as Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobacteria and SAR11. Importantly, a suite of cellular adaptations and detoxifying mechanisms, including remodelling of membrane lipids and transporters, was detected. ADOC exposure also changed the composition of microbial communities, through stimulation of rare biosphere taxa. Many of these taxa belong to recognized OPs degraders. This work shows that ADOC at environmentally relevant concentrations substantially influences marine microbial communities. Given that emissions of organic pollutants are growing during the Anthropocene, the results shown here suggest an increasing influence of ADOC on the structure of microbial communities and the biogeochemical cycles regulated by marine microbes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82417 (URN)10.1111/1462-2920.14580 (DOI)000464373000022 ()30838733 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063342177 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-03 Created: 2019-05-03 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Loderer, C., Holmfeldt, K. & Lundin, D. (2019). Non-host class II ribonucleotide reductase in Thermus viruses: sequence adaptation and host interaction. PeerJ, 7, 1-17, Article ID e6700.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-host class II ribonucleotide reductase in Thermus viruses: sequence adaptation and host interaction
2019 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 7, p. 1-17, article id e6700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ribonucleotide reductases (RNR) are essential enzymes for all known life forms. Their current taxonomic distribution suggests extensive horizontal gene transfer e.g., by processes involving viruses. To improve our understanding of the underlying processes, we characterized a monomeric class II RNR (NrdJm) enzyme from a Thermus virus, a subclass not present in any sequenced Thermus spp. genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a distant origin of the nrdJm gene with the most closely related sequences found in mesophiles or moderate thermophiles from the Firmicutes phylum. GC-content, codon usage and the ratio of coding to non-coding substitutions (dN/dS) suggest extensive adaptation of the gene in the virus in terms of nucleotide composition and amino acid sequence. The NrdJm enzyme is a monomeric B-12-dependent RNR with nucleoside triphosphate specificity. It exhibits a temperature optimum at 60-70 degrees C, which is in the range of the growth optimum of Thermus spp. Experiments in combination with the Thermus thermophilus thioredoxin system show that the enzyme is able to retrieve electrons from the host NADPH pool via host thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductases. This is different from other characterized viral RNRs such as T4 phage RNR, where a viral thioredoxin is present. We hence show that the monomeric class II RNR, present in Thermus viruses, was likely transferred from an organism phylogenetically distant from the one they were isolated from, and adapted to the new host in genetic signature and amino acids sequence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PeerJ Incorporation, 2019
Keywords
Ribonucleotide reductase, Horizontal gene transfer, Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, Thioredoxin, Transduction, Host-adaptation
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Biomedical Sciences, Virology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82037 (URN)10.7717/peerj.6700 (DOI)000463695300002 ()
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Grinberg, I. R., Lundin, D., Sahlin, M., Crona, M., Berggren, G., Hofer, A. & Sjöberg, B.-M. (2018). A glutaredoxin domain fused to the radical-generating subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) functions as an efficient RNR reductant. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 293(41), 15889-15900
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A glutaredoxin domain fused to the radical-generating subunit of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) functions as an efficient RNR reductant
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 293, no 41, p. 15889-15900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) consists of a catalytic subunit (NrdA) and a radical-generating subunit (NrdB) that together catalyze reduction of ribonucleotides to their corresponding deoxyribonucleotides. NrdB from the firmicute Facklamia ignava is a unique fusion protein with N-terminal add-ons of a glutaredoxin (Grx) domain followed by an ATP-binding domain, the ATP cone. Grx, usually encoded separately from the RNR operon, is a known RNR reductant. We show that the fused Grx domain functions as an efficient reductant of the F. ignava class I RNR via the common dithiol mechanism and, interestingly, also via a monothiol mechanism, although less efficiently. To our knowledge, a Grx that uses both of these two reaction mechanisms has not previously been observed with a native substrate. The ATP cone is in most RNRs an N-terminal domain of the catalytic subunit. It is an allosteric on/off switch promoting ribonucleotide reduction in the presence of ATP and inhibiting RNR activity in the presence of dATP. We found that dATP bound to the ATP cone of F. ignava NrdB promotes formation of tetramers that cannot form active complexes with NrdA. The ATP cone bound two dATP molecules but only one ATP molecule. F. ignava NrdB contains the recently identified radical-generating cofactor MnIII/MnIV. We show that NrdA from F. ignava can form a catalytically competent RNR with the MnIII/MnIV-containing NrdB from the flavobacterium Leeuwenhoekiella blandensis. In conclusion, F. ignava NrdB is fused with a Grx functioning as an RNR reductant and an ATP cone serving as an on/off switch.

National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Chemistry, Biochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80549 (URN)10.1074/jbc.RA118.004991 (DOI)000447256000013 ()30166338 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-02-15 Created: 2019-02-15 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Alneberg, J., Sundh, J., Bennke, C., Beier, S., Lundin, D., Hugerth, L. W., . . . Andersson, A. F. (2018). BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic Sea. Scientific Data, 5, Article ID 180146.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BARM and BalticMicrobeDB, a reference metagenome and interface to meta-omic data for the Baltic Sea
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Data, E-ISSN 2052-4463, Vol. 5, article id 180146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within, microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset. [GRAPHICS] .

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77392 (URN)10.1038/sdata.2018.146 (DOI)000440291200001 ()30063227 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051806706 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Salgado, M. G., van Velzen, R., Nguyen, T. V., Battenberg, K., Berry, A. M., Lundin, D. & Pawlowski, K. (2018). Comparative Analysis of the Nodule Transcriptomes of Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales) and Datisca glomerate (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales). Frontiers in Plant Science, 9, Article ID 1629.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Analysis of the Nodule Transcriptomes of Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales) and Datisca glomerate (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales)
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two types of nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses are known, rhizobial and actinorhizal symbioses. The latter involve plants of three orders, Fagales, Rosales, and Cucurbitales. To understand the diversity of plant symbiotic adaptation, we compared the nodule transcriptomes of Datisca glomerate (Datiscaceae, Cucurbitales) and Ceanothus thyrsiflorus (Rhamnaceae, Rosales); both species are nodulated by members of the uncultured Frankia Glade, cluster II. The analysis focused on various features. In both species, the expression of orthologs of legume Nod factor receptor genes was elevated in nodules compared to roots. Since arginine has been postulated as export form of fixed nitrogen from symbiotic Frankia in nodules of D. glomerate, the question was whether the nitrogen metabolism was similar in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus. Analysis of the expression levels of key genes encoding enzymes involved in arginine metabolism revealed up-regulation of arginine catabolism, but no up-regulation of arginine biosynthesis, in nodules compared to roots of D. glomerate, while arginine degradation was not upregulated in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus. This new information corroborated an arginine-based metabolic exchange between host and microsymbiont for D. glomerate, but not for C. thyrsiflorus. Oxygen protection systems for nitrogenase differ dramatically between both species. Analysis of the antioxidant system suggested that the system in the nodules of D. glomerate leads to greater oxidative stress than the one in the nodules of C. thyrsiflorus, while no differences were found for the defense against nitrosative stress. However, induction of nitrite reductase in nodules of C. thyrsiflorus indicated that here, nitrite produced from nitric oxide had to be detoxified. Additional shared features were identified: genes encoding enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis were found to be upregulated in the nodules of both species. Orthologous nodule-specific subtilisin-like proteases that have been linked to the infection process in actinorhizal Fagales, were also upregulated in the nodules of D. glomerate and C. thyrsiflorus. Nodule-specific defensin genes known from actinorhizal Fagales and Cucurbitales, were also found in C. thyrsiflorus. In summary, the results underline the variability of nodule metabolism in different groups of symbiotic plants while pointing at conserved features involved in the infection process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
nitrogen-fixing root nodules, actinorhiza, nitrogen metabolism, divergent evolution, subtilase defensin, Nod factor receptor
National Category
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79002 (URN)10.3389/fpls.2018.01629 (DOI)000450073400001 ()2-s2.0-85058824488 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2012-03061
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8779-6464

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