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Gikonyo, J., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2024). Beam-on-Foundation modelling of dowel-type single fastener connections in cross laminated timber. Engineering structures, 303, Article ID 117519.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beam-on-Foundation modelling of dowel-type single fastener connections in cross laminated timber
2024 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 303, article id 117519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, a numerical model that aimed to predict the strength and stiffness, of a single laterally loaded mechanical fastener in steel-to-cross laminated timber (CLT) connections using a Beam-on-Foundation (BoF) model, is presented. The BoF model was used to predict the ductile failure modes of steel-to-CLT connections and considered the layered structure of CLT. When compared to the European Yield Model (EYM), the BoF model was found to be advantageous as it not only predicted the strength but also the stiffness of the connections. A comparison of the slip modulus and strength from BoF model simulations of experimental tests carried out on steel-to-CLT connections showed good agreement with the experimental results. Using the BoF model, the influence of; (i) density, (ii) deck layer orientation, (iii) embedment behaviour, (iv) dowel diameter, (v) steel plate thickness, and (vi) embedment length, on steel-to-CLT connections was investigated in a parameter study. The results presented herein highlight the benefit of the BoF model that considers CLT layer specific embedment behaviour in determining the shear capacity and stiffness of steel-to-CLT connections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
CLT dowel-type fastener shear connections, Beam-on-Foundation model, Non-linear analysis, Shear capacity, Slip modulus, Parameter study
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-126917 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2024.117519 (DOI)
Available from: 2024-01-18 Created: 2024-01-18 Last updated: 2024-01-23Bibliographically approved
Bader, T. K., Oscarsson, J., Olsson, A., Schweigler, M., Dorn, M. & Dodoo, A. (2024). Competitive CLT - Improving the competitive advantage of CLT-based building systems through engineering design andreduced carbon footprint: Final report. Thomas Bader
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Competitive CLT - Improving the competitive advantage of CLT-based building systems through engineering design andreduced carbon footprint: Final report
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2024 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thomas Bader, 2024. p. 20
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-127781 (URN)978-91-8082-139-1 (ISBN)
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190026
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14
Olsson, A. & Bader, T. K. (2023). A design model for out of plane bending of CLT with consideration of properties of lamellas and finger joints. In: Rainer Görlacher (Ed.), International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Meeting fifty-sixBiel/Bienne, SwitzerlandAugust 2023. Paper presented at INTER (pp. 191-210). Karlsruhe, Germany, Article ID 56-12-1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A design model for out of plane bending of CLT with consideration of properties of lamellas and finger joints
2023 (English)In: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Meeting fifty-sixBiel/Bienne, SwitzerlandAugust 2023 / [ed] Rainer Görlacher, Karlsruhe, Germany, 2023, p. 191-210, article id 56-12-1Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlsruhe, Germany: , 2023
Keywords
Cross laminated timber, CLT, out of plane bending, design model
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-127801 (URN)
Conference
INTER
Available from: 2024-02-15 Created: 2024-02-15 Last updated: 2024-02-15
Bader, T. K., Schweigler, M., Anderson, D., Karlsson, H., Eriksson, G., Sabaa, S. & Larsson, C. (2023). Engineering design for anefficient assembly of multi-storycross-laminated timber structures: A survey conducted between November 2020 and November 2021. Växjö
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering design for anefficient assembly of multi-storycross-laminated timber structures: A survey conducted between November 2020 and November 2021
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Design for efficient assembly is essential to further enhance the competitiveness of cross-laminated timber building systems for multi-story timber structures. This requires a holistic view from the design of the load bearing structures by structural engineers, over the production, pre-fabrication, and transport to the assembly of the structural elements on-site, which often is done by different companies with input from different stakeholders in the construction process. Especially the design of connections between CLT elements, and CLT and other construction materials and products, as well as the size of CLT elements and possibilities for pre-fabrication are crucial for an efficient assembly process. The paper summarizes findings from expert interviews with a focus on Sweden along the before-mentioned value chain, with the aim to identify current practice and potentials for further improvements. Design for efficient assembly starts at the early-stage design and involves all stakeholders in the design construction process. The reduction of uncertainties in the design and assembly process of multi-storey CLT structures as well as knowledge and experience transfer could lead to more efficient design. The identified requirements for efficient assembly should be combined with a life cycle analysis to quantify the potential for a reduction of the carbon footprint of CLT-based building systems, which is the aim of the ongoing research project ‘Improving the competitive advantage of CLT-based building systems through engineering design and reduced carbon footprint’.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: , 2023. p. 11
Keywords
survey, cross-laminated timber, multi-story structures, design, assembly, efficiency
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-125257 (URN)9789180820905 (ISBN)
Projects
KK Synergi: Större konkurrenskraft för KL-träbaserade byggsystem genom effektiv konstruktion och reducerat kolavtryck
Funder
Knowledge Foundation, 20190026
Available from: 2023-10-21 Created: 2023-10-21 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M., Bader, T. K., Abrahamsson, J. & la Fleur, F. (2023). Experimental Investigation of Moment Capacity and Rotational Stiffness of Wall-to-Floor Connections in Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Buildings. In: J.F. Silva Gomes (Ed.), Experimental Mechanics in Engineering and Biomechanics - Proceedings ICEM2020th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Porto 2-7 July 2023: . Paper presented at ICEM20 - 20th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Porto 2-7 July 2023. Porto, Portugal: INEGI-Instituto de Engenbaria Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, Article ID 19924.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Investigation of Moment Capacity and Rotational Stiffness of Wall-to-Floor Connections in Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Buildings
2023 (English)In: Experimental Mechanics in Engineering and Biomechanics - Proceedings ICEM2020th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Porto 2-7 July 2023 / [ed] J.F. Silva Gomes, Porto, Portugal: INEGI-Instituto de Engenbaria Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, 2023, article id 19924Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The rotational stiffness and moment capacity of wall-to-floor connections in platform type CLT structures, as influenced by the connection type, wall and floor thicknesses, and the load level in the CLT wall, were experimentally investigated. For determination of the nonlinear moment-rotation behavior of the connection, a novel test setup with simultaneous loading of the connection by two hydraulic actuators, in combination with digital image correlation (DIC), was used. Findings from this study allow for enhanced engineering design of CLT structures by considering the connection stiffness and its dependence on the investigated influence factors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Porto, Portugal: INEGI-Instituto de Engenbaria Mecanica e Gestao Industrial, 2023
Keywords
CLT, wall-to-floor connection, rotational stiffness, moment capacity, DIC
National Category
Wood Science Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123352 (URN)9789895475674 (ISBN)9789895475667 (ISBN)
Conference
ICEM20 - 20th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics, Porto 2-7 July 2023
Available from: 2023-07-24 Created: 2023-07-24 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Bader, T. K. & Ormarsson, S. (2023). Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Wood Materials and Timber Structures. In: Niemz, P., Teischinger, A., Sandberg, D. (Ed.), Springer Handbook of Wood Science and Technology: (pp. 507-568). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling the Mechanical Behavior of Wood Materials and Timber Structures
2023 (English)In: Springer Handbook of Wood Science and Technology / [ed] Niemz, P., Teischinger, A., Sandberg, D., Springer, 2023, p. 507-568Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter aims at highlighting the benefit of numerical methods and their broad application in the field of wood, engineered wood-based products (EWPs), structural elements including glued-laminated and cross-laminated timber, and engineered timber structures. It focuses on the hygrothermo- viscoelastic material behavior of these elements and structures as a consequence of the behavior of wood materials. After motivating the need for models of wood, different types of numerical models and their application for determination of mechanical properties and dimensional stability of wooden boards, strand- and veneer-based engineered woodbased products, including glued-laminated and crosslaminated timber, as well as of connections in EWPs are reviewed and application examples are given. Methods and application examples are furthermore provided for moisturerelated stresses and deformations in timber structures, the influence of connections on the structural response, instability of structural systems, and modeling of prefabricated frame structures, before modeling of historical structures of wood is discussed. The chapter ends with discussing bottlenecks in modeling of wood materials and timber structures, which might be a starting point for further improvements and novel modeling strategies. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Series
Springer Handbooks, ISSN 2522-8692, E-ISSN 2522-8706
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123753 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-81315-4_10 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152929646 (Scopus ID)9783030813147 (ISBN)9783030813154 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Schweigler, M., Lemaitre, R., Shehadeh, Z. & Bader, T. K. (2023). Moisture and Assembly History Effects on Embedment Properties of Steel Dowels in Spruce and Birch Loaded in Grain Direction. In: Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore (Ed.), Proceedings from the 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023), 19-22 June, Oslo (pp. 1146-1153). World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture and Assembly History Effects on Embedment Properties of Steel Dowels in Spruce and Birch Loaded in Grain Direction
2023 (English)In: Proceedings from the 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 / [ed] Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2023, p. 1146-1153Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Embedment strength and stiffness of steel dowels in spruce and birch solid wood were investigated in an experimental study, taking into account the moisture and connection assembly history. Thus, in addition to the effect of different mechanical properties of wood at different moisture contents, the effect of changes in the moisture content between the steps of: drilling the dowel hole, assembly of the dowel, and testing of the specimen on the embedment strength and stiffness was studied. Full-hole embedment tests with 12 mm steel dowels showed a decrease in embedment strength with increasing wood moisture content, while the elastic embedment stiffness was not influenced. Drying the wood specimens after the dowel was inserted yielded up to 50% higher elastic embedment stiffness compared with connections drilled and assembled when the equilibrium moisture content was reached. Application of an artificial crack showed only a moderate effect on embedment strength and stiffness, while the ductile embedment behavior was maintained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), 2023
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123348 (URN)10.52202/069179-0157 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171612550 (Scopus ID)9781713873297 (ISBN)9781713873273 (ISBN)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023), 19-22 June, Oslo
Available from: 2023-07-24 Created: 2023-07-24 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Akter, S. T., Binder, E. & Bader, T. K. (2023). Moisture and short-term time-dependent behavior of Norway spruce clear wood under compression perpendicular to the grain and rolling shear. Wood Material Science & Engineering, 18(2), 580-593
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Moisture and short-term time-dependent behavior of Norway spruce clear wood under compression perpendicular to the grain and rolling shear
2023 (English)In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 580-593Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Material properties of wood under compression perpendicular to the grain and rolling shear are important for the engineering design of timber structures. This regards the short-term stiffness and strength, their dependence on the moisture content of wood, as well as the time-dependent behavior. Norway spruce clear wood properties in the transverse plane of wood were studied inan experimental campaign exploiting an earlier developed biaxial test setup. The moisture dependence of the stiffness and strength and the short-term time-dependent creep deformations under compression in the radial direction and under rolling shear were characterized. Loading and unloading stiffness, as well as the strength, were determined in quasi-static tests at five different moisture contents from 4% to 29%. The elastic and viscous stiffnesses were identified in creep tests at three compressive stress levels of 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 N/mm2, and at two rolling shear stress levels of 0.33 and 0.50 N/mm2. The test data complements the existing experimental database, especially with novel data regarding the moisture dependence of the rolling shear strength, which showed less moisture dependence than the compressive strength perpendicular to the grain. The results of the creep tests revealed different material properties for the different loading and material directions of wood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-111337 (URN)10.1080/17480272.2022.2056715 (DOI)000777908800001 ()2-s2.0-85125040071 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-04-14 Created: 2022-04-14 Last updated: 2023-05-10Bibliographically approved
Gikonyo, J., Binder, E., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2023). Numerical Modelling of a Cross-Laminated Timber-to-Concrete Dowel-Type Connection Using the Beam-on-Foundation Model. In: Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore (Ed.), Proceedings from the 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023), 19-11 June, Oslo (pp. 3101-3110). Oslo, Norway: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Modelling of a Cross-Laminated Timber-to-Concrete Dowel-Type Connection Using the Beam-on-Foundation Model
2023 (English)In: Proceedings from the 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 / [ed] Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore, Oslo, Norway: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2023, p. 3101-3110Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the research presented herein is to investigate the mechanical behaviour of cross-laminated timber (CLT)-to-concrete dowel-type connections. For reliable timber-concrete-composite structures, mechanical connections between the two construction materials are of great importance. This paper investigates the nonlinear load-displacement behaviour, giving access to the stiffness and strength, as well as ductile connection failure modes, of a CLT-to-concrete composite connection using a Beam-on-Foundation (BoF) model. The latter is a numerical model that utilizes non-linear springs for the interaction between the fastener and the surrounding CLT and concrete materials. The influence of: (i) fastener diameter, (ii) initial slip, (iii) concrete embedment properties, and (iv) axial fastener resistance due to friction, on the connection shear capacity and slip modulus, was investigated in a parameter study. The nonlinear load-displacement response, connection stiffness and strength predicted by the BoF model were moreover compared to laboratory tests and the European Yield Model (EYM), which supported the validity of the BoF model. In addition, it was shown that the BoF model could enhance the prediction of the slip modulus compared to the current design regulations in Eurocode 5.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo, Norway: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE), 2023
National Category
Wood Science Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123349 (URN)10.52202/069179-0404 (DOI)2-s2.0-85171788117 (Scopus ID)9781713873297 (ISBN)9781713873273 (ISBN)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023), 19-11 June, Oslo
Available from: 2023-07-24 Created: 2023-07-24 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Basterrechea-Arevalo, M., Schweigler, M., Lemaitre, R. & Bader, T. K. (2023). Numerical modelling of moment-transmitting timber connections. Engineering structures, 297, Article ID 116923.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modelling of moment-transmitting timber connections
2023 (English)In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 297, article id 116923Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In recent years, the use of timber in construction substantially increased due to the material's renewable nature, lower climate impact and increased economic competitiveness. Another driving factor is great improvements in modelling techniques for the design of timber structures. Suitable prediction of the connection behaviour, as a fundamental part of the structural behaviour of timber structures, is crucial for a more economic and reliable design. However, the more realistic and complete connection models, the more complex and difficult to handle they are, which might hinder their practical application. A good trade-off between complexity and computational efficiency can be achieved with the so-called Beam-On-Foundation (BOF) method, which is applied herein in a 2-step hierarchical model to analyse and predict the rotational stiffness, ductile capacity and load distribution among fasteners of four different configurations of moment transmitting beam-to-column timber-to-timber connections. The connection model is validated with experiments on the global response of the connection as well as with a 3-D solid FEM model. The herein proposed connection model well predicted the overall connection response and provided insight into the local fastener behaviour. As compared to the 3-D solid model, which additionally gives access to more realistic local stresses in the timber, the 2-step model is however much more efficient with a great reduction of computation time. This makes the approach suitable for parametric studies and the analysis and engineering design of timber structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Dowel, Moment, Connection, Timber, Beam-on-foundation, Finite element modeling, Non-linear behavior, Stiffness, Capacity
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-125911 (URN)10.1016/j.engstruct.2023.116923 (DOI)001097870500001 ()2-s2.0-85174214851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-08 Created: 2023-12-08 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
Projects
Hardwood_joint: Innovative joints in hardwoods [2018-04980]; Linnaeus University; Publications
Schweigler, M., Lemaitre, R., Shehadeh, Z. & Bader, T. K. (2023). Moisture and Assembly History Effects on Embedment Properties of Steel Dowels in Spruce and Birch Loaded in Grain Direction. In: Anders Q. Nyrud, Kjell Arne Malo, Kristine Nore (Ed.), Proceedings from the 13th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering 2023 (WCTE 2023), 19-22 June, Oslo (pp. 1146-1153). World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE)Lemaitre, R., Bocquet, J.-F., Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Beam-on-Foundation Modelling as an Alternative Design Method for Timber Joints with Dowel-Type Fasteners: Part 2: Modelling Techniques for Multiple Fastener Connections. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-9. Schweigler, M., Bader, T. K., Bocquet, J.-F., Lemaitre, R. & Sandhaas, C. (2019). Embedment test analysis and data in the context of phenomenological modeling for dowelled timber joint design. In: INTER: International Network on Timber Engineering Research: Proceedings, Meeting 52, 26-29 August 2019, Tacoma, USA. Paper presented at 6th meeting of INTER (International Network on Timber Engineering Research), Tacoma, USA, August 26-29, 2019. Karlsruhe, Germany: Timber Scientific Publishing, KIT Holzbau und Baukonstruktionen, Article ID 52-7-8. Schweigler, M. & Bader, T. K. (2019). Numerical modeling of dowel-type connections in soft- and hardwoods including the rope effect. In: CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures: . Paper presented at CompWood 2019 - International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics - from Material Properties to Timber Structures, 17-19 June, 2019, Växjö (pp. 10-10). Växjö, Sweden: Lnu Press
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7829-4630

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