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Gerdin, G. (2023). Aesthetics of Existence Post-elite Sport Performances: Negotiating the Critic and the Complicit Elite Athlete Self. In: Jones L.;Avner, Z.;Denison, J. (Ed.), Exercise and Well-Being after High-Performance Sport: Post-Retirement Perspectives (pp. 21-33). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aesthetics of Existence Post-elite Sport Performances: Negotiating the Critic and the Complicit Elite Athlete Self
2023 (English)In: Exercise and Well-Being after High-Performance Sport: Post-Retirement Perspectives / [ed] Jones L.;Avner, Z.;Denison, J., London: Routledge, 2023, p. 21-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Both becoming and unbecoming an elite athlete is a complex endeavour filled with mixed feelings and emotions some of which are related to certain moral and ethical dilemmas. Drawing on the Ancient Greeks’ emphasis on the aesthetics of existence, Foucault (1985), invited us to focus on the production or shaping of an ethical self through a restrained and stylised engagement with problematized activities. In this chapter I present a narrative that delves into my creation of a post elite athlete self as a work of art (Foucault, 2000) in relation to (elite) sporting practices. The narrative covers the period from my last years of playing tennis at an elite level, first years of playing the game socially and being a coach to reinterpreting my athlete self as a critical scholar, and negotiating my critic and complicit elite athlete self when engaged in my own kids’ sport and everyday leisure time activities. The narrative reveals how I am engaged in a protracted process of ethical self-creation involving extended periods of ambiguity and uncertainty. Through my narrative I further highlight how problematizing normalised practices that are tied to pleasure, success, reward and power are difficult even when these practices are known to create various problems. In negotiating disciplinary technologies and discourses of performance, competition and winning I argue that I will to some extent always have a desire to adhere to these notions. In my post elite sporting life, they are still and will probably always be tied to the pleasures and displeasure I derive from participation in sport and other leisure time activities. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how Foucauldian analyses of athlete narratives can help provide a moderate critique of elite sport practices and some final thoughts on my ongoing negotiation of the critic and complicit elite sporting self.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2023
National Category
Sociology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123925 (URN)10.4324/9781003276531-3 (DOI)9781032232720 (ISBN)9781003276531 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-08-26 Created: 2023-08-26 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Gonzalez-Calvo, G., Garcia-Monge, A., Gerdin, G. & Pringle, R. (2023). Making the familiar strange: a narrative about Spanish children's experiences of physical (in)activity to reconsider the ability of physical education to produce healthy citizens. Sport, Education and Society, 28(3), 227-238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making the familiar strange: a narrative about Spanish children's experiences of physical (in)activity to reconsider the ability of physical education to produce healthy citizens
2023 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 227-238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is now a wealth of research on obesity both from biomedical and socially critical perspectives. However, less research has focused on the lived experiences of young children and particularly those who are perceived as 'sedentary'. This paper critically examines the issue of obesity as related to children's experiences of physical (in)activity, via a focus on the circulation of socio-cultural and economic discourses in the context of Spain. We report on data obtained from interviews with 13 children identified as 'sedentary'. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis and based on the analysis a collective story was constructed to represent and give voice to the children's experiences. The collective story sketches a day in the life of 'Diego' to indirectly reveal the limitations associated with assuming that sport and school physical education (PE) are pragmatic 'answers' to the presumed issue of childhood obesity. In our analysis we draw on Foucauldian notions of bio-power and governmentality to highlight how neoliberal and capitalist logics shape and constrain children's experiences and opportunities. By presenting a narrative that delves into the various domains of these children's lives, their families, friends, peers and lifestyles, we argue there is still a need to reformulate and rethink how we understand childhood wellbeing and the role of PE. We conclude by suggesting that the conflation of PE with sport and health can subtly undermine some children's views of self.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Obesity 'crisis', physical education, childhood, health, narrative
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-109466 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2021.2014803 (DOI)000734263900001 ()2-s2.0-85121753664 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-18 Created: 2022-01-18 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Gerdin, G. & Pringle, R. (2023). Masculinities, Sexualities, and Physical Education. In: L. Allen & M. L. Rasmussen (Ed.), The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Sexuality Education: (pp. 1-10). Champaign: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Masculinities, Sexualities, and Physical Education
2023 (English)In: The Palgrave Encyclopedia of Sexuality Education / [ed] L. Allen & M. L. Rasmussen, Champaign: Palgrave Macmillan, 2023, p. 1-10Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Understandings of genders and sexualities are rapidly changing in most Western countries due to increasingly mobile and diverse populations, new digital technologies and a growing acceptance of, and backlash to, multiple and diverse sexualities and genders. In this changing context, the delivery of quality relationship and sexuality education is important. Within Aotearoa New Zealand, sexuality education is a key learning area within the Health and Physical Education (HPE) Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 2007). The broad aims within this learning area are to help students develop a healthy range of relationships, promote positive self-understandings, encourage support for diversity and respect for others, and critically examine sexualities and genders. Ellis and Bentham (2021) revealed, however, that sexuality education is not taught at all schools and when taught, the broad focus remains narrowly on heterosexuality, biological function, pregnancy and STIs. Topics such as consent, respect for others, sexual pleasure, diverse sexualities/genders and online pornography are rarely discussed. Moreover, sexuality education was almost exclusively located within the classroom-based ‘health education’ part of HPE (Ellis & Bentham, 2021). In other words, sexuality education does not often form part of the ‘formal' learning within the more practical ‘physical education’ (PE) classes. Yet this does not mean that students are not learning about sexualities in PE. Indeed, the visibility of the body in PE, combined with close bodily interactions, and the requirement to get changed in locker rooms results in students learning about sexualities and genders. Yet this learning is not structured in a coordinated manner or with concern about promoting respect, wellbeing and healthy relationships. So what do students learn about gender and sexuality in school PE?This entry presents an overview of current understandings of boys, masculinities, sexualities and school PE. In particular, it highlights PE as a prime space where heteronormativity and heterosexual masculinities are (re)produced as the norm. The entry is informed by research drawing on Connell’s (1987; 1995) concept of hegemonic masculinity and the poststructural works of Foucault (1980; 1995) and Butler (1990; 1993) that demonstrates how power and the workings of discourse through boys’ bodies and the spaces of PE shape performances of masculinities and sexualities. The entry concludes with a discussion of what the implications are for schooling boys, masculinities and sexualities and offers some suggestions for how PE can become a site of transformation that destabilises dominant understandings of masculinities and sexualities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Champaign: Palgrave Macmillan, 2023
National Category
Gender Studies
Research subject
Social Sciences, Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-125715 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-95352-2_113-1 (DOI)9783030953522 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-11-19 Created: 2023-11-19 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Gonzalez-Calvo, G. & Gerdin, G. (2023). 'The good, the bad and the ugly': primary school children's visual representations and interpretations of PE teacher embodiments. Sport, Education and Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'The good, the bad and the ugly': primary school children's visual representations and interpretations of PE teacher embodiments
2023 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Physicality has been, and still is, an important part of the embodied identity of many physical education (PE) teachers. PE teachers' understanding and representation of their bodies influence both their teaching and act as role models for their students. PE is therefore an important site for exploring how ideals of the body shape both understandings and practices within this school subject. In this study we employed participatory visual methodologies in the form of participant-produced drawings to explore primary school children's experiences of PE teacher bodies and subjectivities. By drawing on poststructural and Foucauldian understandings of the body, we in this paper explore the construction and embodiment of PE teacher bodies as inextricably linked to students' understandings and experiences of this school subject. The findings demonstrate how dominant discourses of fitness, health, sport and even consumerism shape expectations around PE teacher bodies. They also draw attention to how those bodies enable and restrict certain educational purposes and practices. We argue that the ongoing reproduction and perpetuation of idealized PE teacher bodies is responsible for (re)producing meanings around the normal versus the abnormal PE teacher body with significant impact on students' bodily understandings and experiences in PE. We conclude by reasserting the need to challenge how dominant discourses of PE teacher bodies has the cumulative effect of restricting the possibilities for a multiplicity of bodies and physicalities to co-exist in PE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Physical education, teacher, body, student, visual methodology
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119819 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2023.2177985 (DOI)000935542400001 ()2-s2.0-85148437304 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-17 Created: 2023-03-17 Last updated: 2023-06-08
Gonzalez-Calvo, G., Gallego-Lema, V., Gerdin, G. & Bores-Garcia, D. (2022). Body image(s): Problematizing future physical education teachers' beliefs about the body and physical activity through visual imagery. European Physical Education Review, 28(2), 552-572
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body image(s): Problematizing future physical education teachers' beliefs about the body and physical activity through visual imagery
2022 (English)In: European Physical Education Review, ISSN 1356-336X, E-ISSN 1741-2749, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 552-572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Visual culture affects the way people understand the world and themselves, contributing to the creation of certain roles and stereotypes, some of which are related to body image. This study focused on interrogating future physical education teachers' beliefs about the body and physical activity to understand the construction of bodily subjectivities and their perceptions of how these are influenced by visual (physical) culture. Data were collected through the use of visual methods consisting of photo-elicitation and individual interviews with 23 students from a Primary Education Degree with a specialization in physical education at a Spanish university. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. The results of the study show that these future physical education teachers are aware of both the great influence of gender stereotypes and the values of consumerism in the field of physical activity stemming largely from the media, which inevitably will shape their future professional practice. However, the results also highlight how these future physical education teachers consider and position the subject of physical education as an important space where they could help students problematize and challenge these beliefs. We suggest that a focus on visual (physical) literacy is needed for future physical education teachers (and their students) to understand the world from a socially critical perspective and transform it in the interest of equity and social justice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
Body, physical activity, subjectivities of bodies, stereotypes, gender, photo-elicitation
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-108664 (URN)10.1177/1356336X211056214 (DOI)000726961900001 ()2-s2.0-85120445616 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-12-17 Created: 2021-12-17 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Modell, N. & Gerdin, G. (2022). ‘But in PEH it still feels extra unfair’: students’ experiences of equitable assessment and grading practices in physical education and health (PEH). Sport, Education and Society, 27(9), 1047-1060
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘But in PEH it still feels extra unfair’: students’ experiences of equitable assessment and grading practices in physical education and health (PEH)
2022 (English)In: Sport, Education and Society, ISSN 1357-3322, E-ISSN 1470-1243, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1047-1060Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Assessment has been identified as an ongoing problem in physical education (PE). Since the student perspective on assessment is often neglected in research, in this paper, we will report on a study that explored students’ experiences of assessment in the Swedish school subject physical education and health (PEH). In particular, the aim of this study was to examine the students’ experiences of having equal opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge and skills when being assessed in PEH. Data was collected by conducting focus group interviews with a total of 38 students from four different upper secondary schools in southern Sweden. Data analysis was conducted by drawing on Scott’s (2008) institutional theory in order to demonstrate how regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive conditions shape assessment practices and students’ experiences of these in PEH. The results show that both teaching and assessment/grading practices in PEH are shaped more by cultural-cognitive conditions as associated with the norms and values of competitive and club sports rather than the regulative and normative conditions outlined in the Swedish Education Act and PEH curriculum that put emphasis on equal opportunities, equitable learning outcomes and explicit assessment criteria. The results also demonstrate how both teachers and students are actively involved in reproducing such teaching and assessment practices in PEH. To conclude, we therefore call for further work to be done with students, teachers and teacher educators of PEH to draw more attention to and more successfully implement the learning and achievement objectives of the curriculum. In addressing the ongoing problem of assessment in PEH we in particular need to better align assessment processes with the curriculum intentions of an equal quality education and teaching for equity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Physical education, assessment, equity, institutional theory, vignettes
National Category
Educational Sciences Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Education, Didactics; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-106247 (URN)10.1080/13573322.2021.1965565 (DOI)000685013300001 ()2-s2.0-85112531816 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-25 Last updated: 2023-03-21Bibliographically approved
Gerdin, G. (2022). EDUHEALTH 2.0 – (re)examining social justice pedagogies across different contexts and from different perspectives. In: Presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022: . Paper presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EDUHEALTH 2.0 – (re)examining social justice pedagogies across different contexts and from different perspectives
2022 (English)In: Presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a compulsory school subject, Health and Physical Education (HPE) has a mandate, responsibility, and potential to contribute to lifelong physical activity, health and well-being. The World Summit on HPE (1999) proposed that HPE is potentially the most effective educative forum for providing the skills, attitudes, knowledge, and understanding for lifelong health and well-being (Doll-Tepper & Scoretz, 2001). However, we need to go beyond assuming that educating individuals to take responsibility for their own health is sufficient. Complex and layered forces have an impact on the health and well-being of individuals and we must address these forces at societal level. In a world of increasing diversity, with many established democracies consumed by capitalist individualism and protectionist ideals, a focus on equity and social justice is relevant (Azzarito et al., 2017). Increasing levels of ethnic, religious, cultural and sexual diversity, require us in the teaching profession to develop responses to inequality and injustice. For instance, with the recent increase in immigrants and refugees the EU is currently facing one of its biggest challenges. Conflicts in countries such as Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan have meant that in 2015 160,000 people applied for asylum in Sweden, of which 70,000 were children (in Norway, 32,000 people including 5,000 children). A key concern for Sweden, Norway and the EU is how best to promote and ensure positive health outcomes for its increasingly multi-cultural population. The pandemic of Covid-19 is also a shared global concern, and highlights the urgency for a solid knowledge base among citizens, a well-equipped health care system, reduced socio-economic differences and thereby increased social justice, better to meet similar future threats.EDUHEALTH 2.0 is a collaborative research project that will examine the role school HPE can play in contributing to better and more equitable health outcomes for the people of the EU and beyond. To facilitate this process, the project will build on the solid foundation of the recently completed project on social justice teaching practices in HPE across Sweden, Norway and New Zealand, EDUHEALTH (Gerdin et al., 2019, 2020; Linnér et al., 2020; Mordal Moen et al., 2019; Philpot et al., 2020, 2021; Schenker et al., 2019; Smith et al., 2020) which will inform the theoretical and methodological base underpinning this new iteration of the project. However, this new project will expand on the previous project by including two new contexts (South Africa and Australia) and added data collection methods: analysis of HPE curriculum documents; students’ experiences of inclusion and social justice; and doing action research with teachers on further developing teaching practices for social justice. In this paper will outline and discuss these new contexts and data collection methods as well as present some initial findings.

For long, there has been extensive advocacy for social justice pedagogies in HPE but few articulations and concrete examples of the enactment of such pedagogies in HPE teaching practice. The EDUHEALTH 2.0 project will therefore employ an innovative ‘bottom-up’ approach to understand how HPE teachers teach for equity and social justice in their classrooms and how the students experience and perceive such teaching practices. Data collected from HPE teaching practices and teachers’ and students’ experiences/perceptions of these will draw on the principles of Critical Incident Technique (CIT) methodology (Tripp, 2012).However, an important part of understanding these practices involves an analysis of broader political and societal factors that shape those practices, and in particular how the HPE curriculum, as being the product of those political and societal agendas, dictates what HPE teaching practice should involve. Thus, this proposed project will also conduct an analysis of HPE curricula in each country. Analysis of the HPE curriculum documents will consist of two parts. The first part is to analyse and understand the framing and potential HPE practice; characteristics of the HPE concepts are defined, the semantic relations between the concepts are sorted out, and systems of concepts are created (Zimmermann & Sternefeld 2013).  The second part is to analyse the curricula documents by using linguistic tools from systemic-functional grammar (Butt et al 2012). Findings from the linguistic and grammar analysis will be framed by the broader political and societal factors in each country.Our ‘three-pronged’ approach in this project will additionally involve doing action-research with HPE teachers to better our understanding of how social justice pedagogies can be further developed and implemented in practice across different contexts. The action-research with the HPE teachers will involve us as researchers actively working with the participant teachers in further developing and refining social justice pedagogies in HPE practice. To do so, we will draw on ‘Participatory Action-Research’ (PAR) (Alfrey & O’Connor, 2020).The knowledge generated through this action-research will, together with the data collected from the teachers and students as well as the HPE curriculum analyses, provide a form of triangulation of the data and hence not only represents different sets of data but also strengthens the validity, credibility, trustworthiness and generalisability of the findings (Bryman, 2016). Data from HPE curriculum analyses, CIT observations and interviews and action-research will be analysed through thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2013).

The findings and outcomes of this research project will inform educational policy, curriculum makers and the creation of intervention strategies intended to assist HPE teachers in the EU and beyond to further refine and develop their practices to become more inclusive and engaging, thus helping to contribute to healthier citizens and societies.

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123929 (URN)
Conference
ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022
Available from: 2023-08-26 Created: 2023-08-26 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gerdin, G., Schenker, K., Linnér, S., Petter Erik, L., Amanda, M. & Rod, P. (2022). EDUHEALTH 2.0: (Re)examining and developing pedagogies for social justice in Health and Physical Education. In: Presented at BERA (British Educational Research Association), Liverpool, UK, September 6-9, 2022: . Paper presented at BERA (British Educational Research Association), Liverpool, UK, 6-9/9.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EDUHEALTH 2.0: (Re)examining and developing pedagogies for social justice in Health and Physical Education
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Presented at BERA (British Educational Research Association), Liverpool, UK, September 6-9, 2022, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Research and policy statements suggest that school Health and Physical Education (HPE) can make a unique contribution to the physical, cognitive, emotional and social development of young people (Opstoel et al., 2020; UNESCO, 2015). It can also provide opportunities for young people to develop the knowledge and skills needed to navigate and respond to the inequities and precarity (Kirk, 2020) that have been amplified in our post COVID-19 world. Despite the aforementioned potential of HPE, it does not always provide equitable opportunities for all students, and often excludes on the basis of gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion and social class (see e.g., Gerdin & Larsson, 2018; Landi, 2019).The aim of the EDUHEALTH 2.0 project, which brings together researchers from Sweden, Norway, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand, is to identify, compare, co-design and support the enactment of social justice pedagogies in HPE that promote equitable learning experiences and outcomes. This project builds on the findings and outcomes of our previous EDUHEALTH project that called on HPE teacher observations and post observation critical incident interviews (Philpot et al, 2020), and identified how broader curricular and school policy interact to facilitate theenactment of social justice pedagogies in HPE. These pedagogies include building good relationships, teaching for social cohesion and explicitly teaching about and acting on social inequities (Gerdin et al., 2020).  EDUHEALTH 2.0 will build on this previous research by exploring how HPE curricula serves to enable pedagogies for social justice and the students’ perspectives and experiences of such pedagogical practices as well as further developing and supporting the enactment of social justice pedagogies across different contexts through action-research with teachers.This proposed symposium will outline the methodological framework for EDUHEALTH 2.0 and report on some initial findings of the project to date.

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123930 (URN)
Conference
BERA (British Educational Research Association), Liverpool, UK, 6-9/9
Available from: 2023-08-26 Created: 2023-08-26 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gerdin, G. & Rod, P. (2022). Narrative(s) from a cross-cultural research project on social justice in HPE. In: Presented at AARE (Australian Association for Research in Education), Adelaide, Australien, December 1, 2022: . Paper presented at AARE (Australian Association for Research in Education), Adelaide, Australien, 1/12.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narrative(s) from a cross-cultural research project on social justice in HPE
2022 (English)In: Presented at AARE (Australian Association for Research in Education), Adelaide, Australien, December 1, 2022, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Education for Equitable Health Outcomes - The Promise of School Health and Physical Education (EDUHEALTH), was a three-year international, collaborative research project that sought to identify school HPE teaching practices that promote social justice and more equitable outcomes. Data was generated through 20 HPE lesson observations and interviews with 13 HPE teachers across schools in Sweden, Norway and New Zealand as informed by critical incident technique methodology (Tripp, 2012). The thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2013) revealed three main themes as associated with pedagogies for social justice: (i) building relationships, (ii) teaching for social cohesion, (iii) and explicit teaching about, and acting on, social inequities.The EDUHEALTH project provided us with unique opportunities to broaden our horizons both as researchers and people. In this paper, we present our reflections about being involved in the EDUHEALTH project. Rather than presentingthese reflections separately, we do this as a shared narrative, or what Willis (2019) calls a ‘composite narrative’ where our individual reflections are combined and presented as a story from a single individual around a number of central themes. Composite narratives ‘allow research to be presented in a way that acknowledges the complexities of individual motivations and outlooks, whilst drawing out more generalised learning and understanding’ (Willis, 2019, p. 476). The themes involve: embodied learning; making connections with new people and places; developing as a teacher educator and an academic; the challenges of EDUHEALTH; productive tensions and constructive debates; similarities and differences between contexts; making the familiar (context) strange; the importance of contexts; and reaffirmed belief in social justice pedagogies and that HPE can make a difference. We hope that the narrative(s) can provide some insights for other researchers who may (want to) be embarking on international research projects.

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123932 (URN)
Conference
AARE (Australian Association for Research in Education), Adelaide, Australien, 1/12
Available from: 2023-08-26 Created: 2023-08-26 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Gerdin, G. (2022). Pupils’ experiences of inclusion and social justice in physical education and health. In: Presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022: . Paper presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupils’ experiences of inclusion and social justice in physical education and health
2022 (English)In: Presented at ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022, 2022Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Since the 1980s, research advocacy for inclusion and social justice in school PEH and physical education teacher education (PETE) has continued to thrive in many countries including the United States (Bain, 1990), Canada (Robinson & Randall, 2016), Australia (Tinning, 2012), New Zealand (Ovens & Tinning, 2009) and also in Sweden (Larsson, et al, 2018). Unfortunately, the increased advocacy for inclusion and social justice in PEH related to issues such as gender, ethnicity and (dis)ability has not been matched with examples of how PEH teachers could actually teach for inclusion and social justice, that is, what teachers could do in their classrooms, and for whom social justice is sought (Gerdin et al., 2018). Amongst the extant literature base of advocacy for social justice pedagogies in PEH, there is far less literature that specifically addresses the ways in which teachers enact social justice pedagogies in their own practice (Tinning, 2016). In one of the few PEH classroom accounts, Oliver and Kirk (2015) identified four critical elements that they believe need to be present in order to assist girls to identify, name and negotiate barriers to their engagements with PEH and participation in physically active lifestyles. They suggest that the development of a pedagogical model for working with girls in PEH built on the four critical elements of activist research as a way of breaking the reproduction cycle and improve the current situation for girls in PEH. One other example is Fitzpatrick’s (2013) study of life at a high school in South Auckland, New Zealand. Using critical ethnography as an analytic, she shadowed one of the participating PE teachers, Dan, who was ‘passionate about critical pedagogy’ (p. 80). Dan’s “classes provided a rare example of critical pedagogy in practice” (p. 99). Fitzpatrick (2013) described the key tenets of Dan’s critical approach and success as; “building the environment, deconstructing power, playfulness, studying critical topics, and embodying criticality” (pp. 193-206). Finally, the findings and outcomes of an international research project on social justice in PEH across New Zealand, Sweden and Norway named EDUHEALTH that called on PEH teacher observations and post observation critical incident interviews, identified how broader curricular and school policy interact to facilitate the enactment of social justice pedagogies in PEH. These pedagogies include building good relationships, teaching for social cohesion and explicitly teaching about and acting on social inequities (Gerdin et al., 2021). Notwithstanding the importance of these research findings, there still exists a paucity of studies that focuses on the pupils’ perspectives of these issues. This study therefore aims to explore the pupils’ experiences of inclusion and social justice in Swedish PEH by addressing the following research questions: (i) How do PEH practices address inclusion and social justice? (ii) How may PEH practices contribute to greater inclusion and social justice for all pupils? Knowledge generated through this study can help assist PEH teachers in Sweden and beyond to refine and develop their practices to become more inclusive and engaging for all pupils, thus helping contribute to social justice outcomes and more pupils maintaining sport and physical activity as an important part of well-being and health for the rest of their lives. This paper will present some findings from the pilot study carried out in 2021 and initial findings from the main data collection conducted so far in 2022.

The data collection is based on critical incident technique (CIT) methodology (Tripp, 2012). ‘Critical incidents’ in the context of this study will focus on PEH practices that foregrounded issues of inclusion and social justice.  Observations: The CIT classroom observations will focus on identifying critical incidents that appear to be addressing issues of social justice based on an observational template generated from previous research on teaching for social justice. Although this observational template help guide the observation, the template focuses on rich descriptions of practice rather than having observations being overly dictated by observational categories (Tripp, 2012). Interviews: The interviews are semi-structured (Bryman, 2016) and also guided by principles of CIT methodology (Tripp, 2012) as well as stimulated-recall interviews (Lyle, 2003). To interrogate the pupils’ experiences of the critical incidents identified during the observations individual interviews are also conducted using an interview guide which involves a combination of open-ended questions designed to enable the pupils to suggest incidents for inclusion and social justice and specific questions designed to afford the pupils an opportunity to explicate their experiences of inclusive and socially just PEH practice. Reflective texts: The reflective texts consist of an open, written questionnaire that has been designed to encourage pupils to reflect on their experiences of inclusion (exclusion) and (in) equality during PEH lessons. The reflective texts are used to explore critical incidents that pupils perceived as significant in their PEH lessons and to examine their perceptions of inclusion and socially just teaching methods. The participants include pupils from three different upper-secondary schools (age 16-19) located in the south of Sweden with diversity when it comes geographical location, school demographics and socio-economic status. In total, data in the form of observations and reflective texts is currently being collected from three different PEH classes at each school (total of nine PEH classes). Furthermore, it is estimated that 5-6 pupils from each class will participate in the individual interviews (total of 30-36 pupils) later in the year. In order to analyse the data generated from the observations, interviews and reflective texts, a six-phase thematic analysis approach (Braun and Clarke, 2013) consisting of familiarisation with the data, initial and advanced coding, identifying and naming themes and reporting findings will be used to seek out central themes that are important to the research questions. The analysis will draw on theories of pedagogies for social justice (Freire, 1970) and transformative pedagogy (Tinning, 2016).

The initial findings will report on the participating pupils’ experiences of pedagogies for social justice in HPE as generated through questionnaires, observations, interviews and reflective texts. Tentative themes suggest that the pupils perceive pedagogies for social justice as related to: the use of non-traditional spaces and content; a focus on building relationships, and lessons that are framed by clear aims and purposes. In addition, some pupils talk about the positive aspects of online / Zoom teaching caused by effects of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic where either themselves and/or other pupils are more engaged and participating in the lessons than before. They believe that this is because they can participate in PEH in / from their “own places” and that teachers seem to be clearer about the purpose and learning objectives of these online / Zoom lessons compared to regular lessons in the gym or on the sports field.

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123928 (URN)
Conference
ECER (European Conference on Educational Research), Yerevan, Armenia, September 1-10, 2022
Funder
Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports, D2020-0059
Available from: 2023-08-26 Created: 2023-08-26 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2922-1993

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