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de Moor, T., Farjam, M., Bravo, G., Dehkordi, M., Forsman, A., Ghorbani, A. & van Weeren, R. (2019). Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries. In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019: . Paper presented at XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Common paths in long-term institutional dynamics: An analysis of rule changes in British and Dutch commons over seven centuries
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2019 (English)In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89457 (URN)
Conference
XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Bravo, G., Forsman, A., de Moor, T., Ghorbani, A., Dehkordi, M. & van Weeren, R. (2019). Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources. In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019: . Paper presented at XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eco-evolutionary perspectives on institutional dynamics of historical commons advice about sustainable utilization of shared resources
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2019 (English)In: Presented at: XVII Biennial IASC Conference, Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89456 (URN)
Conference
XVII Biennial IASC Conference 'In Defense of the Commons: Challenges, Innovation, and Action', Lima, Peru, July 1-5, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M. & Loxbo, K. (2019). Experimental evidence of a bandwagon effect on voting. In: 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS): . Paper presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of a bandwagon effect on voting
2019 (English)In: 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Social influence and conformity have been thoroughly studied by social psychologists, leading political scientist to the postulation of the bandwagon effect. However, despite its relevance, the bandwagon effect, claiming that seeing pre-election polls makes votes for majority options more likely, has not been properly tested for political voting and evidence regarding this effect is mixed. Experiments either were ran in very abstract contexts only vaguely representing political voting, or only testing the effect of polls on opinions or hypothetical votes . We present an unique experimental design with more realism than previous designs, keeping the experimental control needed to make causal claims.

We tested in an online experiment with 1115 participants from the US how votes change when pre-election polls are shown. Our experimental design is unique in that the votes of the participants have real-world consequences within their electoral area (the US), empower actual political organizations falling on a left-right spectrum, and the votes are on issues currently debated in US politics (firearms, abortion, immigration, and environment). Per issue participants chose between three different charities, representing different positions within the political spectrum. As a result of the experiment 1200$ were distributed across these charities as suggested by the vote.

In line with the bandwagon-effect, we find clear evidence that seeing poll results makes votes for majority opinion more likely. After seeing the surveys, majority opinions received an extra ~7% of votes. In our experiment this effect did not depend on the electoral system and was robust against controlling for the gender and age of voters and the self-assessment on a left-right spectrum. However, we find evidence that under extreme-polarization (where moderate position are the least popular option) the bandwagon-effect is much weaker.

Keywords
Poll, bandwagon effect, conformity
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82573 (URN)
Conference
6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019.
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap for climate change mitigation in high cost conditions. In: Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019.: . Paper presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of an attitude-behaviour gap for climate change mitigation in high cost conditions
2019 (English)In: Presented at 6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019., 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

An established research result is that people's environmental attitudes only loosely translate into actions effectively reducing their environmental impact, something known as the attitude-behaviour gap. On the other hand, correct information and environmental education are often considered a key to promote sustainability, which raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives and, conversely, when other factors have a better chance to succeed. To answer these questions, we tested the effect of environmental attitudes in an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world climate mitigation consequences. We found that environmental attitudes mainly affected behaviour in a low cost situation, while their effect was reduced when the stakes were higher. This finding is consistent with the low cost hypothesis of environmental behaviour and has important consequences for the shaping of more effective climate policies in a democratic context.

Keywords
environmental behaviour, low-cost hypothesis, climate change, collective-risk social dilemma
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82569 (URN)
Conference
6th International Meeting on Experimental and Behavioral Social Sciences (IMEBESS), Utrecht, May 2-4, 2019.
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations. Ecological Economics, 166, 1-12, Article ID 106434.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of an environmental attitude-behavior gap in high-cost situations
2019 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 166, p. 1-12, article id 106434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

So far, there has been mixed evidence in the literature regarding the relationship between environmental attitudes and actual `green' actions, something known as the attitude-behavior gap. This raises the question of when attitudes can actually work as a lever to promote environmental objectives, such as climate change mitigation, and, conversely, when other factors would be more effective. This paper presents an online experiment with real money at stake and real-world consequences designed to test the effect of environmental attitudes on behavior under various conditions. We found that environmental attitudes affected behavior only in low-cost situations. This finding is consistent with the low-cost hypothesis of environmental behavior postulating that concerned individuals will undertake low-cost actions in order to reduce the cognitive dissonance  between their attitudes and rational realization of the environmental impact of their behavior but avoid higher-cost actions despite their greater potential as far as environmental protection. This finding has important consequences for the design of more effective climate policies in a democratic context as it puts limits on what can be achieved by raising environmental concern alone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Climate change mitigation, Low-cost hypothesis, Online experiment, Collective-risk social dilemma
National Category
Economics Climate Research
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88153 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2019.106434 (DOI)000488318100006 ()
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-10-18Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M. (2019). Experimental evidence of the bandwagon effect on voting. In: Presented at: 2019 European ESA Meeting, Dijon, France: . Paper presented at 2019 European Meeting of the Economic Science Association, Dijon, France, 5th to 7th Sept 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental evidence of the bandwagon effect on voting
2019 (English)In: Presented at: 2019 European ESA Meeting, Dijon, France, 2019Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics; Social Sciences, Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89458 (URN)
Conference
2019 European Meeting of the Economic Science Association, Dijon, France, 5th to 7th Sept 2019
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure. Climatic Change, 154(3-4), 453-460
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investing into climate change mitigation despite the risk of failure
2019 (English)In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480, Vol. 154, no 3-4, p. 453-460Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to convince both policy makers and the general public to engage in climate change mitigation activities, it is crucial to communicate the inherent risks in an effective way. Due to the complexity of the system, mitigation activities cannot completely rule out the possibility of the climate reaching a dangerous tipping point but can only reduce it to some unavoidable residual risk level. We present an online experiment based on a sample of US citizens and designed to improve our understanding of how the presence of such residual risk affects the willingness to invest into climate change mitigation. We found that, far from reducing them, the presence of residual risk actually increases investments into mitigation activities. This result suggests that scientists and policy makers should consider being more transparent about communicating the residual risks entailed by such initiatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82572 (URN)10.1007/s10584-019-02454-1 (DOI)000472894800010 ()2-s2.0-85065714889 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Ghorbani, A., Dehkordi, M., Bravo, G., Farjam, M., De Moor, T. & van Weeren, R. (2019). Long-term Dynamics of Institutions: An empirically tested model. In: : . Paper presented at Social Simulation Conference 2019, Mainz, Germany, 23-27 September, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term Dynamics of Institutions: An empirically tested model
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89401 (URN)
Conference
Social Simulation Conference 2019, Mainz, Germany, 23-27 September, 2019
Note

Ej belagd 20191120

Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M., Nikolaychuk, O. & Bravo, G. (2019). Nonetheless or all the more? Investing into climate change mitigation policies despitea risk of failure. In: : . Paper presented at 2019 ESA (Economic Science Association) World Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 4-7, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nonetheless or all the more? Investing into climate change mitigation policies despitea risk of failure
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Economics Sociology
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89459 (URN)
Conference
2019 ESA (Economic Science Association) World Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, July 4-7, 2019
Note

Ej belagd 20191120

Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-11-20Bibliographically approved
Farjam, M. (2019). On whom would I want to depend; humans or computers?. Journal of Economic Psychology, 72, 219-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On whom would I want to depend; humans or computers?
2019 (English)In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 72, p. 219-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We study in a laboratory experiment whether humans prefer to depend on decisions of others (Human-Driven Uncertainty) or states generated by a computer (Computerized Uncertainty). The experimental design introduced in this paper is unique in that it introduces Human-Driven Uncertainty such that it does not derive from a strategic context. In our experiment, Human-Driven Uncertainty derives from decisions, which were taken in a morally neutral context and in ignorance of externalities that the decisions may have on others. Our results indicate that even without strategic interaction and moral elements humans prefer Computerized to Human-Driven Uncertainty. This holds even when the distribution of outcomes under both types of uncertainty is identical. From a methodological point of view, the findings shed a critical light on behavioral research in which it is common practice to control for strategic uncertainty by comparing interaction with an artificial agent with a known strategy to interaction with humans. Outside the laboratory, our results suggest that whenever dependence on humans is changed to dependence on computers and other kinds of “artificial” decision makers, preferences with regard to these dependencies may change too.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Ambiguity aversion, Experiment, Risk, Human uncertainty
National Category
Other Social Sciences
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81815 (URN)10.1016/j.joep.2019.04.002 (DOI)000474323400018 ()2-s2.0-85064590214 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0882-4851

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