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Sunde, J., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2019). Adaptations of early development to local spawning temperature in anadromous populations of pike (Esox lucius). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 19, 1-13, Article ID 148.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptations of early development to local spawning temperature in anadromous populations of pike (Esox lucius)
2019 (English)In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 19, p. 1-13, article id 148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: In the wake of climate change many environments will be exposed to increased and more variable temperatures. Knowledge about how species and populations respond to altered temperature regimes is therefore important to improve projections of how ecosystems will be affected by global warming, and to aid management. We conducted a common garden, split-brood temperature gradient (4.5 degrees C, 9.7 degrees C and 12.3 degrees C) experiment to study the effects of temperature in two populations (10 families from each population) of anadromous pike (Esox lucius) that normally experience different temperatures during spawning. Four offspring performance measures (hatching success, day degrees until hatching, fry survival, and fry body length) were compared between populations and among families. Results: Temperature affected all performance measures in a population-specific manner. Low temperature had a positive effect on the Harfjarden population and a negative effect on the Lervik population. Further, the effects of temperature differed among families within populations. Conclusions: The population-specific responses to temperature indicate genetic differentiation in developmental plasticity between populations, and may reflect an adaptation to low temperature during early fry development in Harfjarden, where the stream leading up to the wetland dries out relatively early in the spring, forcing individuals to spawn early. The family-specific responses to temperature treatment indicate presence of genetic variation for developmental plasticity (G x E) within both populations. Protecting between- and within-population genetic variation for developmental plasticity and high temperature-related adaptive potential of early life history traits will be key to long-term viability and persistence in the face of continued climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Adaptation, Climate change, Esox lucius, Pike, Temperature
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88774 (URN)10.1186/s12862-019-1475-3 (DOI)000476717300001 ()31331267 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-28 Created: 2019-08-28 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Nordahl, O., Koch-Schmidt, P., Sunde, J., Yildirim, Y., Tibblin, P., Forsman, A. & Larsson, P. (2019). Genetic differentiation between and within ecotypes of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea. Aquatic conservation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic differentiation between and within ecotypes of pike (Esox lucius) in the Baltic Sea
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2019 (English)In: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Aquatic systems often lack physical boundaries for gene flow, but ecological and behavioural barriers can form surprisingly fine spatial scale genetic patterns that challenge traditional, large scale management. To detect fine spatial scale structures, understand sources of intraspecific diversity, and design appropriate management plans requires identification of reproductively isolated units. This study reports on genetic differentiation in pike (Esox lucius) within a coastal area stretching 55 km from south to north in the central Baltic Sea. Pike is here an economically and ecologically important top predator that has declined in abundance. However, population structures have mostly been studied on large spatial scales, and without considering the potential for genetic divergence between the sympatric anadromous fresh water and the resident brackish water spawning ecotypes. To this end, 487 individuals from the east coast of Sweden and the island of oland, representing sympatric anadromous and resident spawning individuals, categorized to ecotype based on spawning location or otolith microchemistry, were genotyped for 10 microsatellites and used to test for divergence between ecotypes. Furthermore, divergence between regions (island/mainland), neighbouring spawning locations (n = 13) and isolation by distance within and between regions were evaluated for the anadromous ecotype. The results revealed strong genetic differences between regions, between spawning locations separated by as little as 5 km and the first evidence of genetic differentiation between resident and anadromous ecotypes; despite a high dispersal capacity of pike and a high connectivity within the study area. The signatures of isolation by distance indicated that connectivity among populations differed between regions, probably reflecting availability of spawning habitats. To safeguard against the challenges and uncertainties associated with environmental change, adaptive conservation management should aim to promote high intra-population functional genetic diversity without compromising the continued integrity and coexistence of the different ecotypes and of locally adapted sub-populations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
biodiversity, brackish, climate, coastal, fish, fishing, genetics, migration, wetland
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-88825 (URN)10.1002/aqc.3196 (DOI)000481341300001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29
Engstedt, O., Nilsson, J. & Larsson, P. (2018). Habitat restoration: A sustainable key to management (1ed.). In: Christian Skov and Anders Nilsson (Ed.), Biology and Ecology of Pike: (pp. 248-268). Boca Ratón: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Habitat restoration: A sustainable key to management
2018 (English)In: Biology and Ecology of Pike / [ed] Christian Skov and Anders Nilsson, Boca Ratón: CRC Press, 2018, 1, p. 248-268Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Ratón: CRC Press, 2018 Edition: 1
Keywords
Pike, Esox lucius, habitat restoration, Baltic Sea
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80403 (URN)978-1-4822-6290-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-20Bibliographically approved
Sunde, J., Tibblin, P., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2018). Sex-specific effects of outbreeding on offspring quality in pike (Esox lucius). Ecology and Evolution, 8(21), 10448-10459
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sex-specific effects of outbreeding on offspring quality in pike (Esox lucius)
2018 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, no 21, p. 10448-10459Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intraspecific genetic admixture occurs when previously separated populations withina species start interbreeding, and it can have either positive, negative, or neutral effectson reproductive performance. As there currently is no reliable predictor for theoutcome of admixture, an increased knowledge about admixture effects in differentspecies and populations is important to increase the understanding about what determinesthe response to admixture. We tested for effects of admixture on F1 offspringquality in three subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Gametes were collected inthe field, and eggs from each female were experimentally fertilized with milt from amale from each population (one “pure” and two “admixed” treatments). Three offspringquality measures (hatching success, fry survival, and fry length) were determinedand compared between (a) pure and admixed population combinations and (b)the sex-specifictreatments within each admixed population combination (based onthe origin of the male and female, respectively). The results suggested that althoughthere were no overall effects of admixture on offspring quality, the consequences fora given population combination could be sex-specificand thus differ depending onwhich of the parents originated from one or the other population. All offspring qualitytraits were influenced by both maternal ID and paternal ID. Sex-andindividual-specificeffects can have implications for dispersal behavior and gene flow betweennatural populations, and are important to consider in conservation efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78895 (URN)10.1002/ece3.4510 (DOI)000450351400008 ()30464817 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054334923 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2017-00346Lars Hierta Memorial Foundation, FO2017-0113Ecosystem dynamics in the Baltic Sea in a changing climate perspective - ECOCHANGE
Available from: 2018-11-20 Created: 2018-11-20 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Nordahl, O., Tibblin, P., Koch-Schmidt, P., Berggren, H., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2018). Sun-basking fish benefit from body temperatures that are higher than ambient water. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 285(1879), Article ID 20180639.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sun-basking fish benefit from body temperatures that are higher than ambient water
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1879, article id 20180639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In terrestrial environments, cold-blooded animals can attain higher bodytemperatures by sun basking, and thereby potentially benefit from broaderniches, improved performance and higher fitness. The higher heat capacityand thermal conductivity of water compared with air have been universallyassumed to render heat gain from sun basking impossible for aquaticectotherms, such that their opportunities to behaviourally regulate body temperatureare largely limited to choosing warmer or colder habitats. Here wechallenge this paradigm. Using physical modelswe first showthat submergedobjects exposed to natural sunlight attain temperatures in excess of ambientwater. We next demonstrate that free-ranging carp (Cyprinus carpio) canincrease their body temperature during aquatic sun basking close to thesurface. The temperature excess gained by basking was larger in dark thanin pale individuals, increased with behavioural boldness, and was associatedwith faster growth. Overall, our results establish aquatic sun basking as a novelecologically significant mechanism for thermoregulation in fish. The discoveryof this previously overlooked process has practical implications for aquaculture,offers alternative explanations for behavioural and phenotypicadaptations, will spur future research in fish ecology, and calls for modificationsof models concerning climate change impacts on biodiversity inmarine and freshwater environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Royal Society Publishing, 2018
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75330 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2018.0639 (DOI)000433506100024 ()2-s2.0-85047935379 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-07 Created: 2018-06-07 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Sunde, J., Tamario, C., Tibblin, P., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2018). Variation in salinity tolerance between and within anadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius). Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 22.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in salinity tolerance between and within anadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox lucius)
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Environmental heterogeneity is a key determinant of genetic and phenotypic diversity. Stable andhomogenous environments tends to result in evolution of specialism and local adaptations, whiletemporally unpredictable environments may maintain a diversity of specialists, promote generaliststrategies, or favour diversified bet hedging strategies. We compared salinity tolerance between twoanadromous subpopulations of pike (Esox Lucius) that utilize freshwater spawning sites with differentsalinity regimes. Eggs from each population were artificially fertilized and incubated in a salinitygradient (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 psu) using a split-brood design. Effects on embryonic development, hatchingsuccess, survival of larvae, and fry body length were compared between populations and families.The population naturally spawning in the stable freshwater habitat showed signs of specialization forfreshwater spawning. The population exposed to fluctuating selective pressure in a spawning area withoccasional brackish water intrusions tolerated higher salinities and displayed considerable variation inreaction norms. Genetic differences and plasticity of salinity tolerance may enable populations to copewith changes in salinity regimes associated with future climate change. That geographically adjacentsubpopulations can constitute separate units with different genetic characteristics must be consideredin management and conservation efforts to avoid potentially negative effects of genetic admixture onpopulation fitness and persistence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69620 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-18413-8 (DOI)000419441300022 ()29311634 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85040446275 (Scopus ID)
Note

Author Correction: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24805-1

The original version of this Article contained an error in the title of the paper, where the word “lucius” was incorrectly given as “1ucius”. This has now been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Rydin, E., Kumblad, L., Wulff, F. & Larsson, P. (2017). Remediation of a eutrophic bay in the Baltic Sea. Environmental Science and Technology, 51(8), 4559-4566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remediation of a eutrophic bay in the Baltic Sea
2017 (English)In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 4559-4566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eutrophication of coastal ecosystems is a global problem that often results in bottom water oxygen deficiency and in turn promotes sediment phosphorus (P) release (A). In order to increase sediment P retention, we injected dissolved aluminum into the anoxic sediment of a eutrophic semienclosed bay in the Baltic Sea, thereby inhibiting P recycling and further eutrophication (B). The P concentration in the bay remained at half, as did phytoplankton biomass (C), compared to pretreatment conditions and compared to the reference bay. Four years after treatment the water column transparency was increased, allowing submerged vegetation to penetrate deeper, and the habitat suitable for fish and benthic fauna had expanded (D). The lowered P concentration in the bay decreased the P export to the surrounding archipelago. This is the first full-scale marine remediation project using a geo-engineering method that demonstrates a quick recovery. For successful remediation in coastal areas, permanent binding of mobile P in anoxic sediments may be needed together with measures in the catchment area to obtain faster recovery of eutrophicated marine ecosystems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2017
Keywords
Remediation, Baltic Sea, aluminum, phosphorus, ecological effects
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62502 (URN)10.1021/acs.est.6b06187 (DOI)000399859700046 ()28350961 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020029456 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Remediation of Björnö Bay, Stockholm archipelago ; EcoChange
Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Tibblin, P., Berggren, H., Nordahl, O., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2016). Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number. Scientific Reports, 6, Article ID 26372.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causes and consequences of intra-specific variation in vertebral number
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 26372Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Intraspecific variation in vertebral number is taxonomically widespread. Much scientific attention hasbeen directed towards understanding patterns of variation in vertebral number among individualsand between populations, particularly across large spatial scales and in structured environments.However, the relative role of genes, plasticity, selection, and drift as drivers of individual variation andpopulation differentiation remains unknown for most systems. Here, we report on patterns, causesand consequences of variation in vertebral number among and within sympatric subpopulations ofpike (Esox lucius). Vertebral number differed among subpopulations, and common garden experimentsindicated that this reflected genetic differences. A QST-FST comparison suggested that populationdifferences represented local adaptations driven by divergent selection. Associations with fitness traitsfurther indicated that vertebral counts were influenced both by stabilizing and directional selectionwithin populations. Overall, our study enhances the understanding of adaptive variation, which iscritical for the maintenance of intraspecific diversity and species conservation.

Keywords
Biodiversity, Evolution, Evolutionary ecology, Ichthyology
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Natural Science, Ecology; Ecology, Evolutionary Biology; Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52632 (URN)10.1038/srep26372 (DOI)000376236300001 ()27210072 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84971287174 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2016-05-23 Created: 2016-05-23 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Tibblin, P., Forsman, A., Borger, T. & Larsson, P. (2016). Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine tuning of of migratory timing in pike. Journal of Animal Ecology, 85(1), 136-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causes and consequences of repeatability, flexibility and individual fine tuning of of migratory timing in pike
2016 (English)In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Many organisms undertake migrations between foraging and breeding habitats and while it is assumed that reproductive timing affects fitness, little is known about the degree of individual consistency, and about the causes and consequences of individual variation in migratory timing in organisms other than birds. 2. Here, we report on a 6-year mark-recapture study, including 2048 individuals, of breeding migration in anadromous pike (Esox lucius), an iteroparous top-predatory fish that displays homing behaviour. By repeated sampling across years at a breeding site, we first quantify individual variation both within and between breeding events and then investigate phenotypic correlates and fitness consequences of arrival timing to the breeding site. 3. Our data demonstrate that males arrive before females, that large males arrive later than small males, that the timing of breeding migration varies among years and that individuals are consistent in their timing across years relative to other individuals in the population. 4. Furthermore, data on return rates indicate that arrival time is under stabilizing viability selection, and that individuals who are more flexible in their timing of arrival during the first reproductive years survive longer compared with less flexible individuals. Finally, longitudinal data demonstrate that individuals consistently fine-tune their arrival timing across years, showing that the timing of arrival to breeding sites is influenced by experience. 5. These findings represent rare evidence of how between-and within-individual variations in migratory timing across breeding events are correlated with phenotypic and fitness traits in an ecologically important keystone species. Our results emphasize the importance of considering variation in migratory timing both between and within individuals in studies investigating the fitness consequences of migratory behaviour and have implications for future management.

Keywords
Pike, Esox lucius, migration, Baltic Sea
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-48307 (URN)10.1111/1365-2656.12439 (DOI)000368141400014 ()26412457 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84942683769 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EcochangeStiftelsen Olle Engqvist
Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Berggren, H., Nordahl, O., Tibblin, P., Larsson, P. & Forsman, A. (2016). Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos. PLoS ONE, 11(5), Article ID e0154488.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing for local adaptation to spawning habitat in sympatric subpopulations of northern pike by reciprocal translocation of embryos
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 5, article id e0154488Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We tested for local adaption in early life-history traits by performing a reciprocal translocation experiment with approximately 2500 embryos of pike (Esox lucius) divided in paired split-family batches. The experiment indicated local adaptation in one of the two subpopulations manifested as enhanced hatching success of eggs in the native habitat, both when compared to siblings transferred to a non-native habitat, and when compared to immigrant genotypes from the other subpopulation. Gene-by-environment effects on viability of eggs and larvae were evident in both subpopulations, showing that there existed genetic variation allowing for evolutionary responses to divergent selection, and indicating a capacity for plastic responses to environmental change. Next, we tested for differences in female life-history traits. Results uncovered that females from one population invested more resources into reproduction and also produced more (but smaller) eggs in relation to their body size compared to females from the other population. We suggest that these females have adjusted their reproductive strategies as a counter-adaptation because a high amount of sedimentation on the eggs in that subpopulations spawning habitat might benefit smaller eggs. Collectively, our findings point to adaptive divergence among sympatric subpopulations that are physically separated only for a short period during reproduction and early development – which is rare. These results illustrate how combinations of translocation experiments and field studies of life-history traits might infer about local adaptation and evolutionary divergence among populations. Local adaptations in subdivided populations are important to consider in management and conservation of biodiversity, because they may otherwise be negatively affected by harvesting, supplementation, and reintroduction efforts targeted at endangered populations.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51999 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0154488 (DOI)000375675700036 ()27139695 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84969850246 (Scopus ID)
Projects
EcoChange
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0344-1939

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