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Senniappan, M., Becherini, Y., Punch, M., Thoudam, S., Bylund, T., Kukec Mezek, G. & Ernenwein, J.-P. (2022). Expected performance of the ALTO particle detector array designed for 200 GeV - 50 TeV gamma-ray astronomy. In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German. Paper presented at 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German. Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 395, Article ID 761.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expected performance of the ALTO particle detector array designed for 200 GeV - 50 TeV gamma-ray astronomy
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) , 2022, Vol. 395, article id 761Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 2022
Series
Proceedings of Science (PoS), E-ISSN 1824-8039
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110707 (URN)2-s2.0-85144156458 (Scopus ID)
Conference
37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German
Available from: 2022-03-04 Created: 2022-03-04 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Becherini, Y., Bylund, T., Ernenwein, J.-P., Kukec Mezek, G., Punch, M., Romano, P., . . . Vercellone, S. (2022). The CoMET multiperspective event tracker for wide field-of-view gamma-ray astronomy. In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German. Paper presented at 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021, Online – Berlin, German. Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 395, Article ID 905.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The CoMET multiperspective event tracker for wide field-of-view gamma-ray astronomy
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2022 (English)In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA) , 2022, Vol. 395, article id 905Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), 2022
Series
Proceedings of Science (PoS), E-ISSN 1824-8039
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110708 (URN)2-s2.0-85145018578 (Scopus ID)
Conference
37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021, Online – Berlin, German
Available from: 2022-03-04 Created: 2022-03-04 Last updated: 2023-08-15Bibliographically approved
Senniappan, M., Becherini, Y., Punch, M., Thoudam, S., Bylund, T., Kukec Mezek, G. & Ernenwein, J.-P. (2021). Signal extraction in atmospheric shower arrays designed for 200 GeV–50 TeV γ-ray astronomy. Journal of Instrumentation, 16(07), Article ID P07050.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Signal extraction in atmospheric shower arrays designed for 200 GeV–50 TeV γ-ray astronomy
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 16, no 07, article id P07050Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the SEMLA (Signal Extraction using Machine Learning for ALTO) analysis method, developed for the detection of E>200 GeV γ rays in the context of the ALTO wide-field-of-view atmospheric shower array R&D project. The scientific focus of ALTO is extragalactic γ-ray astronomy, so primarily the detection of soft-spectrum γ-ray sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei and Gamma Ray Bursts. The current phase of the ALTO R&D project is the optimization of sensitivity for such sources and includes a number of ideas which are tested and evaluated through the analysis of dedicated Monte Carlo simulations and hardware testing. In this context, it is important to clarify how data are analysed and how results are being obtained. SEMLA takes advantage of machine learning and comprises four stages: initial event cleaning (stage A), filtering out of poorly reconstructed γ-ray events (stage B), followed by γ-ray signal extraction from proton background events (stage C) and finally reconstructing the energy of the events (stage D). The performance achieved through SEMLA is evaluated in terms of the angular, shower core position, and energy resolution, together with the effective detection area, and background suppression. Our methodology can be easily generalized to any experiment, provided that the signal extraction variables for the specific analysis project are considered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-108882 (URN)10.1088/1748-0221/16/07/p07050 (DOI)000791155900002 ()2-s2.0-85112048482 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-01-10 Created: 2022-01-10 Last updated: 2023-01-30Bibliographically approved
Bylund, T., Kukec Mezek, G., Senniappan, M., Becherini, Y., Punch, M., Thoudam, S. & Ernenwein, J.-P. (2021). Studies of Gamma-Ray Shower Reconstruction UsingDeep Learning. In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German. Paper presented at 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German. , Article ID 758.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studies of Gamma-Ray Shower Reconstruction UsingDeep Learning
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2021 (English)In: Proceedings of Science: 37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German, 2021, article id 758Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The ALTO project aims to build a particle detector array for very high energy gamma ray observations optimized for soft spectrum sources. The accurate reconstruction of gamma ray events, in particular their energies, using a surface array is an especially challenging problem at the low energies ALTO aims to optimize for. In this contribution, we leverage Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) to improve reconstruction performance at lower energies ( smaller 1 TeV ) as compared to the SEMLA analysis procedure, which is a more traditional method using mainly manually derived features.rnWe present performance figures using different network architectures and training settings, both in terms of accuracy and training time, as well as the impact of various data augmentation techniques.

Series
Proceedings of Science (PoS), E-ISSN 1824-8039
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110661 (URN)2-s2.0-85144130601 (Scopus ID)
Conference
37th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2021), July 12th – 23rd, 2021 Online – Berlin, German
Available from: 2022-03-01 Created: 2022-03-01 Last updated: 2023-06-28Bibliographically approved
Mulrey, K., Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., . . . Winchen, T. (2019). Calibration of the LOFAR low-band antennas using the Galaxy and a model of the signal chain. Astroparticle physics, 111, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calibration of the LOFAR low-band antennas using the Galaxy and a model of the signal chain
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2019 (English)In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 111, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is used to make precise measurements of radio emission from extensive air showers, yielding information about the primary cosmic ray. Interpreting the measured data requires an absolute and frequency-dependent calibration of the LOFAR system response. This is particularly important for spectral analyses, because the shape of the detected signal holds information about the shower development. We revisit the calibration of the LOFAR antennas in the range of 30-80 MHz. Using the Galactic emission and a detailed model of the LOFAR signal chain, we find an improved calibration that provides an absolute energy scale and allows for the study of frequency dependent features in measured signals. With the new calibration, systematic uncertainties of 13% are reached, and comparisons of the spectral shape of calibrated data with simulations show promising agreement. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Radio antenna array, Calibration, Air showers
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85846 (URN)10.1016/j.astropartphys.2019.03.004 (DOI)000470047300001 ()2-s2.0-85063297167 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Winchen, T., Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., . . . Trinh, T. N. (2019). Cosmic ray physics with the LOFAR radio telescope. In: 26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, 6–10 July 2018, Altai State University, Barnaul-Belokurikha, Russian Federation: . Paper presented at 26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, E+CRS 2018, 6-10 July 2018 (pp. 1-6). Institute of Physics (IOP) (1), Article ID 012020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cosmic ray physics with the LOFAR radio telescope
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2019 (English)In: 26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, 6–10 July 2018, Altai State University, Barnaul-Belokurikha, Russian Federation, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, no 1, p. 1-6, article id 012020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The LOFAR radio telescope is able to measure the radio emission from cosmic ray induced air showers with hundreds of individual antennas. This allows for precision testing of the emission mechanisms for the radio signal as well as determination of the depth of shower maximum X max , the shower observable most sensitive to the mass of the primary cosmic ray, to better than 20 g cm -2 . With a densely instrumented circular area of roughly 320 m 2 , LOFAR is targeting for cosmic ray astrophysics in the energy range 10 16 -10 18 eV. In this contribution we give an overview of the status, recent results, and future plans of cosmic ray detection with the LOFAR radio telescope. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596 ; 1181
Keywords
Cosmic ray detectors, Cosmology, Radio telescopes, Air showers, Emission mechanism, Energy ranges, Radio emission, Radio signals, Cosmic rays
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86424 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1181/1/012020 (DOI)000556332900020 ()2-s2.0-85064343283 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, E+CRS 2018, 6-10 July 2018
Note

Conference code: 146680; Export Date: 22 May 2019

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2020-10-23Bibliographically approved
Rossetto, L., Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., . . . Winchen, T. (2019). Latest results on the analysis of the radio frequency spectrum emitted by high energy air showers with LOFAR. In: Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P (Ed.), 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018): . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY (pp. 1-3). EDP Sciences, Article ID 02013.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Latest results on the analysis of the radio frequency spectrum emitted by high energy air showers with LOFAR
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2019 (English)In: 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018) / [ed] Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P, EDP Sciences , 2019, p. 1-3, article id 02013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The LOw Frequency ARay (LOFAR) is a multi-purpose radio antenna array aimed to detect radio signals in the frequency range 10 - 240 MHz, covering a large surface in Northern Europe with a higher density in the Netherlands. Analytical calculations and simulation studies performed in the 2000s indicate a dependence of the radio frequency spectrum on cosmic-ray characteristics. The high number density of radio antennas at the LOFAR core allows to characterise the observed cascade in a detailed way. The radio signal emitted by air showers in the atmosphere has been studied accurately in the 30 - 80 MHz frequency range. The analysis has been conducted on simulated events and on real data detected by LOFAR since 2011. The final aim of this study is to find an independent method to infer information of primary cosmic rays for improving the reconstruction of primary particle parameters. Results show a strong dependence of the frequency spectrum on the distance to the shower axis for both real data and simulations. Furthermore, results show that this method is very sensitive to the precision in reconstructing the position of the shower axis at ground, and to different antenna calibration procedures. A correlation between the frequency spectrum and geometrical distance to the shower maximum development X-max has also been investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
Series
EPJ Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2100-014X ; 216
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-98768 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201921602013 (DOI)000570244200023 ()2-s2.0-85184353466 (Scopus ID)978-2-7598-9080-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY
Available from: 2020-11-05 Created: 2020-11-05 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Winchen, T., Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., . . . Trinh, T. N. (2019). Properties of the Lunar Detection Mode for ZeV-Scale Particles with LOFAR. In: Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P (Ed.), 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018): . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY (pp. 1-3). EDP Sciences, Article ID 04010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties of the Lunar Detection Mode for ZeV-Scale Particles with LOFAR
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2019 (English)In: 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018) / [ed] Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P, EDP Sciences , 2019, p. 1-3, article id 04010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The steep decrease of the flux of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) provides a challenge to answer the long standing question about their origin and nature. A significant increase in detector volume may be achieved by employing Earth's moon as a detector that is read out using existing Earth-bound radio telescopes by searching for the radio pulses emitted by the particle shower in the lunar rock. In this contribution we will report on the properties of a corresponding detection mode currently under development for the LOFAR Radio telescope.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
Series
EPJ Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2100-014X ; 216
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-98769 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201921604010 (DOI)000570244200046 ()2-s2.0-85184346055 (Scopus ID)978-2-7598-9080-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY
Available from: 2020-11-05 Created: 2020-11-05 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Winchen, T., Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., . . . Trinh, T. N. (2019). Status of the lunar detection mode for cosmic particles of LOFAR. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Paper presented at 26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, E+CRS 2018, 6 July 2018 through 10 July 2018 (pp. 1-7). Institute of Physics (IOP) (1), Article ID 012077.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Status of the lunar detection mode for cosmic particles of LOFAR
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, no 1, p. 1-7, article id 012077Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cosmic particles hitting Earth's moon produce radio emission via the Askaryan effect. If the resulting radio ns-pulse can be detected by radio telescopes, this technique potentially increases the available collective area for ZeV scale particles by several orders of magnitude compared to current experiments. The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is the largest radio telescope operating in the optimum frequency regime for this technique. In this contribution, we report on the status of the implementation of the lunar detection mode at LOFAR. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596 ; 1181
Keywords
Cosmic rays, Moon, Radio telescopes, Askaryan effects, Cosmic particles, Detection mode, Low frequency arrays, Optimum frequency, Orders of magnitude, Radio emission, Cosmology
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86425 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1181/1/012077 (DOI)000556332900077 ()2-s2.0-85064332178 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th Extended European Cosmic Ray Symposium, E+CRS 2018, 6 July 2018 through 10 July 2018
Note

Conference code: 146680; Export Date: 22 May 2019

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2020-10-23Bibliographically approved
Bonardi, A., Buitink, S., Corstanje, A., Falcke, H., Hare, B. M., Horande, J. R., . . . Winchen, T. (2019). Towards real-time cosmic-ray identification with the LOw Frequency ARay. In: Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P (Ed.), 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018): . Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY (pp. 1-3). EDP Sciences, Article ID 04005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards real-time cosmic-ray identification with the LOw Frequency ARay
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2019 (English)In: 8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA 2018) / [ed] Riccobene, G Biagi, S Capone, A Distefano, C Piattelli, P, EDP Sciences , 2019, p. 1-3, article id 04005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The radio signals emitted by Extensive Air Showers have been successfully used for the last decade by LOFAR to reconstruct the properties of the primary cosmic rays. Since an effective real-time recognition system for the very short radio pulses is lacking, cosmic-ray acquisition is currently triggered by an external array of particle detector, called LORA, limiting the LOFAR collecting area to the area covered by LORA. A new algorithm for the real-time cosmic-ray detection has been developed for the LOFAR Low Band Antenna, which are sensitive between 10 and 90 MHz, and is here presented together with the latest results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences, 2019
Series
EPJ Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2100-014X ; 216
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Research subject
Physics, Astroparticle Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-98766 (URN)10.1051/epjconf/201921604005 (DOI)000570244200041 ()2-s2.0-85184350781 (Scopus ID)978-2-7598-9080-4 (ISBN)
Conference
8th International Conference on Acoustic and Radio EeV Neutrino Detection Activities (ARENA), JUN 12-18, 2015, Ist Nazl Fisica Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Catania, ITALY
Available from: 2020-11-05 Created: 2020-11-05 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7066-3614

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