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Lin, Leteng
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Morgalla, M., Lin, L. & Strand, M. (2018). Benzene Conversion in a Packed Alumina Bed Continuously Fed with Woody Char Particles. Energy & Fuels, 32(7), 7670-7677
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benzene Conversion in a Packed Alumina Bed Continuously Fed with Woody Char Particles
2018 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 7670-7677Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This Article investigates the decomposition of benzene (as a model tar) over finely dispersed char particles continuously distributed into a packed bed. Fragmented char particles and benzene plus a gasification agent (H2O or CO2) were supplied into a ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. The supplied char particles were retained in the reactor by a bed of alumina grains. Woody char as well as iron-doped and potassium-doped woody char were used. The influence of the gasification agent, char concentration, char weight time (proportional to the instant char mass present in the bed), and bed temperature (600-1050 degrees C) was investigated. Increasing the char concentration and char weight time increased benzene conversions for all tested chars. At similar char weight times, the benzene conversion increased with temperature, whereas the iron- and potassium doped char did not affect the specific conversion. At similar char concentrations, changing the gasification agent from CO2 to steam as well as using doped char led to decreased benzene conversions. This can be explained by accelerated char gasification reactions and thus a diminished char mass in the packed bed. Furthermore, benzene conversion rates were enhanced in the presence of CO2 as compared to steam. As the temperature was increased from 950 to 1050 degrees C, the benzene conversions were slightly reduced. This was interpreted as a combined effect of the enhanced benzene conversion rates and reduced char weight times. The highest benzene conversions achieved in the experiments were approximately 80% at 950-1000 degrees C using CO2 as gasification agent and supplying approximately 20-30 g N m(-3) undoped woody char.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77403 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b01249 (DOI)000439661300038 ()2-s2.0-85048372503 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Morgalla, M., Lin, L. & Strand, M. (2018). Benzene conversion in a packed bed loaded with biomass char particles. Energy & Fuels, 32(1), 554-560
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benzene conversion in a packed bed loaded with biomass char particles
2018 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 554-560Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the conversion of benzene in a packed bed containing fine char particles. Benzene and steam were simultaneously supplied to a tubular ceramic reactor that was heated electrically. Fragmented char particles were suspended and continuously supplied via a separate supply line. A packed bed of crushed alumina balls was positioned in the reactor to retain the char particles. The benzene conversion in the hot char bed was investigated by varying the bed temperature (900–1100 °C), steam concentration (0–27 vol %), and char concentration (5–50 g Nm–3). The highest conversions achieved in the experiments were approximately 75%. At comparable char concentrations, similar benzene conversions occurred at 900 and 1000 °C. Increasing the temperature to 1100 °C or increasing the steam concentration reduced the benzene conversion. The results indicate that the reduced conversion was due to enhanced char gasification reactions at elevated temperatures and steam concentrations and thus to reduced char mass in the packed bed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Tar, char, biomass
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69105 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b03236 (DOI)000423253200059 ()2-s2.0-85040791108 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Biollaz, S., Calbry-Muzyka, A., Rodriguez, S., Sárossy, Z., Ravenni, G., Fateev, A., . . . Ballesteros, R. (2018). Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 1. International Energy Agency (IEA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 1
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2018 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). In practice, a trade-off between reliability, accuracy and cost has to be reached when selecting the proper analysis technique for a specific application. The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to(biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. The report is composed of a set of 2 documents. Document 1(the present report) describes the available analysis techniques (both commercial and underdevelopment) for the measurement of different compounds of interest present in gasification gas. The objective is to help the reader to properly select the analysis technique most suitable to the target compounds and the intended application. Document 1 also describes some examples of application of gas analysis at commercial-, pilot- and research gasification plants, as well as examples of recent and current joint research activities in the field. The information contained in Document 1 is complemented with a book of factsheets on gas analysis techniques in Document 2, and a collection of video blogs which illustrate some of the analysis techniques described in Documents 1 and 2.

This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Energy Agency (IEA), 2018. p. 161
Keywords
biomass, gasification, gas analysis, aerosol, particulate matter
National Category
Bioenergy Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78005 (URN)9781910154472 (ISBN)
Note

The work collected in this report has been the result of the joint effort and kind collaboration of a group of experts in the field of gas analysis and biomass gasification. The coordinators would like to warmly thank all the contributing partners for their generous support in sharing their material and experience for this report. It has been the sum of the experiences of this large group of experts that has added the value to this report. The collaborative effort would have been impossible without the use of existing networks. Serge Biollaz and York Neubauer, coordinators of the Gas Analysis group, are gratefully acknowledged for their kind cooperation, valuable advice and active support throughout the elaboration of this report. The members of the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 working group (Steering Group of this project) are gratefully acknowledged for the commitment and feedback throughout the project. Lastly, we would like to express our sincere thanks to the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 “Gasification of biomass and waste” for the funding of this special report.

Available from: 2018-09-25 Created: 2018-09-25 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Biollaz, S., Calbry-Muzyka, A., Rodriguez, S., Sárossy, Z., Ravenni, G., Fateev, A., . . . Ballesteros, R. (2018). Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques. International Energy Agency (IEA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas analysis in gasification of biomass and waste: Guideline report: Document 2 - Factsheets on gas analysis techniques
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2018 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Gasification is generally acknowledged as one of the technologies that will enable the large-scale production of biofuels and chemicals from biomass and waste. One of the main technical challenges associated to the deployment of biomass gasification as a commercial technology is the cleaning and upgrading of the product gas. The contaminants of product gas from biomass/waste gasification include dust, tars, alkali metals, BTX, sulphur-, nitrogen- and chlorine compounds, and heavy metals. Proper measurement of the components and contaminants of the product gas is essential for the monitoring of gasification-based plants (efficiency, product quality, by-products), as well as for the proper design of the downstream gas cleaning train (for example, scrubbers, sorbents, etc.). The deployment and implementation of inexpensive yet accurate gas analysis techniques to monitor the fate of gas contaminants might play an important role in the commercialization of biomass and waste gasification processes.

This special report commissioned by the IEA Bioenergy Task 33 group compiles a representative part of the extensive work developed in the last years by relevant actors in the field of gas analysis applied to (biomass and waste) gasification. The approach of this report has been based on the creation of a team of contributing partners who have supplied material to the report. This networking approach has been complemented with a literature review. This guideline report would like to become a platform for the reinforcement of the network of partners working on the development and application of gas analysis, thus fostering collaboration and exchange of knowledge. As such, this report should become a living document which incorporates in future coming progress and developments in the field.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Energy Agency (IEA), 2018. p. 141
Keywords
biomass, gasification, gas analysis, aerosol, particulate matter
National Category
Bioenergy Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78110 (URN)9781910154434 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Jiang, J., Lang, L., Lin, L., Liu, H., Yin, X. & Wu, C.-z. (2018). Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment. Energy & Fuels, 32(2), 1703-1710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partial oxidation of filter cake particles from biomass gasification process in the simulated product gas environment
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2018 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 1703-1710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Filtration failure occurs when filter media is blocked by accumulated solid particles. Suitable operating conditions were investigated for cake cleaning by partial oxidation of filter-cake particles (FCP) during biomass gasification. The mechanism of the FCP partial oxidation was investigated in a ceramic filter and by using thermo-gravimetric analysis through a temperature-programmed route in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation of the FCP in the simulated product gas environment was examined at 300–600°C in a ceramic filter that was set and heated in a laboratory-scale fixed reactor. Four reaction stages, namely drying, pre-oxidation, complex oxidation and non-oxidation, occurred in the FCP partial oxidation when the temperature increased from 30°C to 800°C in a 2 vol.% O2–N2 environment. Partial oxidation was more effective for FCP mass loss from 275 to 725°C. Experimental results obtained in a ceramic filter indicated that the best operating temperature and FCP loading occurred at 400°C and 1.59 g/cm2, respectively. The FCP were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller before and after partial oxidation. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that partial oxidation of the FCP can result in a significant decrease in C–Hn (alkyl and aromatic) groups and an increase in C=O (carboxylic acids) groups. The scanning electron microscopy and Brunaeur–Emmett–Teller analysis suggests that during partial oxidation, the FCP underwent pore or pit formation, expansion, amalgamation and destruction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Biomass gasification; Hot gas filtration; Partial oxidation; Filter cake particles
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69601 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.7b01100 (DOI)000426015000073 ()2-s2.0-85042189087 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-07 Created: 2018-01-07 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Morgalla, M., Lin, L. & Strand, M. (2017). Decomposition of benzene using char aerosol particles dispersed in a high-temperature filter. Energy, 118, 1345-1352
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decomposition of benzene using char aerosol particles dispersed in a high-temperature filter
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 118, p. 1345-1352Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study the tar-removal suitability of char particles finely dispersed in a high-temperature filter was investigated. Benzene was selected as the model tar. An aerosol-based method was designed and used to investigate the benzene decomposition behaviour. Two types of char were used: commercially available activated charcoal and pine char prepared in the laboratory. The conversion behaviour of both chars was investigated in the temperature range between 750 and 900 °C using steam as the gasification medium. During the experiments, different benzene concentrations, amounts of deposited char and gas residence times were tested. The results indicate that both activated carbon and pine char reduced the benzene concentration. Activated carbon generally produced higher and more stable benzene conversions compared to the pine char particles. Decreasing the benzene concentration or increasing the gas residence time or char mass improved the benzene conversion. It was concluded that the char gasification rate became slower while benzene was simultaneously converted. The aerosol-based method was also used to investigate benzene decomposition behaviour while continuously supplying fresh char particles together with steam at 1000 °C. In that way, the deactivated and gasified char particles were steadily replaced, preventing the benzene conversion from decreasing over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Biomass, Gasification, Char, Tar, Particles
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58100 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.11.016 (DOI)000395048900116 ()2-s2.0-85006356091 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lin, L. & Zethraeus, B. (2016). Statistical model to reproduce the combustion behavior of domestic-scale wood pellets burners. In: Proceedings of the 24th European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Paper presented at 24th European Biomass conference and Exhibition, 6-9 June, Amsterdam (pp. 666-673). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Statistical model to reproduce the combustion behavior of domestic-scale wood pellets burners
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 24th European Biomass Conference: Setting the course for a biobased economy, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, p. 666-673Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A simplified statistical model was developed to simulate the combustion behavior in wood pellets burners based on the eddy dissipation concept and the assumption that the turbulence to some extents can be treated in a similar way in both the larger scales and the smaller scales. The combustion system was divided into several macroscopic sub-volumes which were characterized by plug flow function with axial diffusion that helps to bridge the geometry with the mixing status and describe the dissipation of turbulence by means of digital filter. Initially a time series of fuel-air mixture was defined according to feedstock and air supply in burner and then successively modified in the following sub-volumes based on the predefined function and additional air. With favor of mass and energy balance the final gas composition can be approximately distributed by water gas equilibrium. After involved the system response of gas analysis instrumentation, the modelled results were compared with experimental tests in two commercialized types of pellet burners, named gasification type and combustion type respectively. The model predicted reasonably the over-all behavior of domestic-scale pellet burners on the mean value and standard deviation of gas compositions, especially the behavior of CO2 and O2 in both cases. The CO emission was simulated unstably but within an acceptable range. This model can be used as an on-line predictor in combustion control systems and may thus serve as a tool for fast-response combustion control. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2016
Series
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ISSN 2282-5819
Keywords
biomass, combustion, control systems, gasification, modelling, pellets
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58153 (URN)10.5071/24thEUBCE2016-2BV.1.22 (DOI)978-88-89407-165 (ISBN)
Conference
24th European Biomass conference and Exhibition, 6-9 June, Amsterdam
Available from: 2016-11-16 Created: 2016-11-16 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
Morgalla, M., Lin, L., Seemann, M. & Strand, M. (2015). Characterization of particulate matter formed during wood pellet gasification in an indirect bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using aerosol measurement techniques. Fuel processing technology, 138, 578-587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of particulate matter formed during wood pellet gasification in an indirect bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using aerosol measurement techniques
2015 (English)In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 138, p. 578-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study characterizes particulate matter, organic compounds, and inorganic compounds formed in an atmospheric indirect bubbling fluidized bed gasifier at two different steam-to-fuel ratios using wood pellets as fuel. The sampling and conditioning system consisted of a high-temperature dilution probe to quench aerosol dynamics and condense inorganic vapors, a primary thermodenuder to adsorb tar components, and a secondary thermodenuder to investigate the volatility/thermal stability of the remaining aerosol. Both online and offline instruments were used to characterize the aerosol in terms of number size distribution, mass size distribution, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, morphology, and elemental analysis. Size distributions with three distinct modes were established. The fine and intermediate modes were mainly formed by tar and alkali vapors that had condensed in the sampling and conditioning systems. The coarse mode mainly consisted of the original particles, which are char, fly ash, and fragmented bed material. At the higher steam-to-fuel ratio, tar components seem to be reduced and more coarse-mode particles emitted compared to the low steam case. Furthermore, a possibility for online monitoring of heavy tar is suggested. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Gasification, Biofuels, Particle sampling, Tar
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47074 (URN)10.1016/j.fuproc.2015.06.041 (DOI)000362920200066 ()2-s2.0-84954196789 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-06 Created: 2015-11-06 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Morgalla, M., Lin, L. & Strand, M. (2015). Characterization Of Particulate Matter In Biomass Gasification. In: I. Obernberger, D. Baxter, A.Grassi, P.Helm (Ed.), Proceedings for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition: . Paper presented at 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 1-4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria (pp. 664-667). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization Of Particulate Matter In Biomass Gasification
2015 (English)In: Proceedings for the 23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition / [ed] I. Obernberger, D. Baxter, A.Grassi, P.Helm, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2015, p. 664-667Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this work is to examine the potential of monitoring heavy tar compounds contained in the product gas of a biomass gasifier. The hot product gas from atmospheric indirect bubbling fluidized bed gasification of wood pellets was extracted. The sampling and conditioning system consisted of a high-temperature dilution probe, a primary thermodenuder and a secondary thermodenuder. Online and semi-online instruments were used to characterize the aerosol in terms of number size distribution and particle mass concentration. The fine mode (mobility equivalent diameter db < 150 nm) was found to mainly consist of heavy tar compounds. An Electrical low­pressure impactor (ELPI) was used to measure this mode with a time resolution of 1 second and thus showed the potential for online measurements of heavy tar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2015
Keywords
aerosol, biomass, gasification, particles emission, tar
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45651 (URN)10.5071/23rdEUBCE2015-2DO.8.1 (DOI)978-88-89407-516 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd European Biomass Conference and Exhibition, 1-4 June 2015, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2015-08-10 Created: 2015-08-10 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Yang, J., Lin, L., Morgalla, M., Gebremedhin, A. & Strand, M. (2015). High-Temperature Characterization of Inorganic Particles and Vapors in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Cofiring Wood and Rubber Waste. Energy & Fuels, 29(2), 863-871
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Temperature Characterization of Inorganic Particles and Vapors in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Cofiring Wood and Rubber Waste
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2015 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 863-871Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of varying fuel mixtures and using a lime additive were studied in a 125-MWth circulating fluidized bed boiler. A high-temperature aerosol measurement method using a hot-dilution probe was used to characterize the particles and condensing inorganic vapors upstream from the superheater. The particle size distributions of the extracted samples indicate that when high-sulfur rubber waste, waste wood, and forest fuel were cocombusted, the hot flue gas contained no substantial amount of particulate matter in the fine (<0.3 mu m) particle size range, although the SO2 concentration exceeded 70 ppm. Only a nucleation mode was observed, which was presumably formed from inorganic vapors that condensed in the sampling probe. The size-segregated elemental analysis of the extracted samples indicated that when lime was added, the nucleation mode mainly comprised condensed alkali chlorides, while the sulfates dominated the mode when no lime was added. The presumed explanation for the sulfates in the nucleation mode was the sulfation of the alkali chlorides inside the sampling system. When only the wood fuels and no rubber fuel were cocombusted, the SO2 concentration in the gas was approximately 5 ppm. In this case, an alkali sulfate particle mode formed at approximately 70 nm in the hot flue gas. In addition, vapors of alkali chlorides and lead formed particulate matter inside the sampling probe when using low dilution ratios.

National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41910 (URN)10.1021/ef502455u (DOI)000349943300047 ()2-s2.0-84923309346 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-04-09 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
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