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Gustavsson, Leif
Publications (10 of 281) Show all publications
Vadiee, A., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). A Comparison Between Four Dynamic Energy Modeling Tools for Simulation of Space Heating Demand of Buildings.. In: Johansson D., Bagge H., Wahlström Å. (Ed.), Cold Climate HVAC 2018. CCC 2018: . Paper presented at Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th international cold climate conference, sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates, Kiruna, Sweden, 12-15 March, 2018 (pp. 701-711). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparison Between Four Dynamic Energy Modeling Tools for Simulation of Space Heating Demand of Buildings.
2019 (English)In: Cold Climate HVAC 2018. CCC 2018 / [ed] Johansson D., Bagge H., Wahlström Å., Springer, 2019, p. 701-711Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Different building energy modelling programs exist and are widely used to calculate energy balance of building in the context of energy renovation of existing buildings or in the design of energy performance of new buildings. The different tools have unique benefits and drawbacks for different conditions. In this study, four different types of building energy system modelling tools including TRNSYS, Energy Plus, IDA-Indoor Climate Energy (IDA-ICE) and VIP-Energy are used to calculate the energy balance of a recently built six-storey apartment building in Växjö, Sweden. The building is designed based on the current Swedish building code. The main outcomes of the software include hourly heating and cooling demands and indoor temperature profiles. We explore the general capabilities of the software and compare the results between them. For the studied building with similar input conditions such as weather climate data file, infiltration and ventilation ratio and internal heat gain, IDA-ICE modeled the highest space heating demand while the TRNSYS the lowest due to the simplification of thermal bridges. The main advance feature of VIP-Energy is the detail thermal bridge analysis while the main drawback is the complexity of using the model. EnergyPlus and TRNSYS can be used for energy supply system integration with the ability to add mathematical sub-modules to the models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Series
Springer Proceedings in Energy, E-ISSN 2352-2534
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85141 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-00662-4_59 (DOI)978-3-030-00661-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-00662-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Cold Climate HVAC 2018, The 9th international cold climate conference, sustainable new and renovated buildings in cold climates, Kiruna, Sweden, 12-15 March, 2018
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-12Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). Carbon balances for a low energy apartment building with different structural frame materials. In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 4254-4261). Elsevier, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carbon balances for a low energy apartment building with different structural frame materials
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4254-4261Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We analyse the life cycle carbon implications of a building, with structural frame of prefabricated concrete, prefabricated modular timber or cross laminated timber (CLT) elements, designed to meet the Swedish passive house criteria. The analysis covers non-biogenic carbon flows related to the building alternatives, over an assumed life time of 80 years. The building alternatives are all modelled to have the same housing service and operation energy demand. Substitution factors, showing the efficiency of CO2 emissions reductions when wood alternatives are used instead of non-wood alternatives, are calculated for the CLT and modular alternatives with reference to the concrete alternative. The results show that the CLT and modular buildings give less carbon emissions to the atmosphere during production and when the buildings are demolished at the end-of-life. Moreover, the wood residues from the production and end-of-life activities for the timber alternatives far exceed that for the concrete alternative. The substitution factors differ slightly between the CLT and the modular alternatives, and are significantly lower when fossil gas is substituted by wood residues instead of fossil coal. In summary, the life cycle carbon emissions are significantly lower for the timber alternatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102 ; 158
National Category
Building Technologies Construction Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81982 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.801 (DOI)000471031704094 ()2-s2.0-85063918532 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Piccardo, C., Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2019). Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Materials for the Thermal Upgrade of an Existing Building. In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium: . Paper presented at Buildings as material Baks: a pathway for a circular future, SBE19 Brussels BAMB-CIRCPATH, 5-7 February, 2019; Brussels. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 225, Article ID 012044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Building Materials for the Thermal Upgrade of an Existing Building
2019 (English)In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, article id 012044Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The existing building stock is estimated to need major renovations in the near future. At the same time, the EU energy-efficiency strategy entails upgrading the energy performance of renovated buildings to meet the nearly-zero energy standard. To upgrade existing buildings, two main groups of measures can be adopted: thermally-improved building envelope and energy-efficient technical devices. The first measure usually involves additional building materials for thermal insulation and new building cladding, as well as new windows and doors. A number of commercially-available materials can be used to renovate thermal building envelopes. This study compares the life-cycle primary energy use and CO2 emission when renovating an existing building using different materials, commonly used in renovated buildings. A Swedish building constructed in 1972 is used as a case-study building. The building's envelope is assumed to be renovated to meet the Swedish passive house standard. The entire life cycle of the building envelope renovation is taken into account. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly reduce the production primary energy and associated CO2 emissions by up to 62% and 77%, respectively. The results suggest that a careful material choice can significantly contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emissions associated with energy renovation of buildings, especially when renewable-based materials are used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315 ; 225
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81890 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/225/1/012044 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063379359 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Buildings as material Baks: a pathway for a circular future, SBE19 Brussels BAMB-CIRCPATH, 5-7 February, 2019; Brussels
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2019). Cost-optimized energy-efficient building envelope measures for a multi-storey residential building in a cold climate. In: Yan, J; Yang, HX; Li, H; Chen, X (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 3760-3767). Elsevier, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cost-optimized energy-efficient building envelope measures for a multi-storey residential building in a cold climate
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Yan, J; Yang, HX; Li, H; Chen, X, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 3760-3767Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we analyse cost-optimal building envelope measures including insulation for attic roof, ground floor and exterior walls, and efficient windows and doors for new buildings. The analysis is based on a multi-storey building in south of Sweden with an expected lifetime of at least 100 years. We integrate dynamic energy simulation, total and marginal economic analysis, and consider different scenarios of real discount rates and annual energy price increases. Our analysis shows that cost-optimal thicknesses of insulations for the building envelope elements are significantly higher than those required to meet the current Swedish building code’s minimum energy requirements. For windows, the cost-optimal U-value is about the same as required to fulfil the minimum requirement of the Swedish building code. Overall, large energy and cost savings are achieved when the cost-optimal measures are cumulatively implemented. Compared to the reference, annual space heating reduction of 28-43% is achieved for the building with the cost-optimal measures under the analysed period of 50 years. The cost savings varied between 21 and 188 k€.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81980 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.879 (DOI)000471031704020 ()2-s2.0-85063904812 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Truong, N. L. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). Costs and primary energy use of heating new residential areas with district heat or electric heat pumps. In: Prof. J.Yana, Prof. H.Yang, Dr. H.Li, Dr. X.Chen (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 2031-2038). Elsevier, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Costs and primary energy use of heating new residential areas with district heat or electric heat pumps
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Prof. J.Yana, Prof. H.Yang, Dr. H.Li, Dr. X.Chen, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 2031-2038Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The choice of a heat supply option in new residential areas depends on various factors including available local energy resources and the scale and density of the heat demand in the areas. Here, we study costs and primary energy use of using district heat (DH) and ground-source electric heat pump (EHP) for heating a residential area being developed. We consider different architecture layouts and exploitations of the area along with different building energy efficiency standards which give different heat demand densities and profiles for this residential area. The analysis shows that for existing fuel-based energy supply systems, using DH is more primary energy efficient than using EHP to supply heat to the new residential area. However, if the future production of marginal electricity is based on state-of-the art technologies utilizing renewable energy resources, using EHP can be more primary energy efficient than using DH. The initial investment costs are much lower for options using DH than for options using ground-source EHP for the different exploitation alternatives. Also, the marginal heat cost for suppling DH to the residential area, excluding the sunk capital costs, is significantly lower than the heat cost for supplying heat with ground-source EHPs. The potential use of local ground-source heat linked to the exploitation level of residential area and energy performance of the buildings should be further analyzed in comparison to the use of other types of heat sources such as ambient air or ventilation air.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102
Keywords
District heat; electrict heat pump; heat density; primary energy use; distribution heat loss
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81669 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.469 (DOI)000471031702060 ()2-s2.0-85063904515 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). Design strategies and measures to minimise operation energy use for passive houses under different climate scenarios. Energy Efficiency, 12(1), 299-313
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design strategies and measures to minimise operation energy use for passive houses under different climate scenarios
2019 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 299-313Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Here, the implications of different design strategies and measures in minimising the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden are analysed under different climate change scenarios. The analyses are conducted for recent (1996-2005) and future climate periods of 2050-2059 and 2090-2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in Southern Sweden. The considered design strategies and measures encompass efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, solar shading of windows, window size and properties, building orientation and mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand as well as risk of overheating increases under future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies and measures are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window U-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40-51%, and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy use for operation decreased by 42-54%. This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Climate change, Passive houses, Overheating, Heating and cooling demand, Primary energy, Design strategies
National Category
Energy Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80286 (URN)10.1007/s12053-018-9719-4 (DOI)000456140000019 ()2-s2.0-85052069887 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). Effect of different frame materials on the primary energy use of a multi storey residential building in a life cycle perspective. Energy and Buildings, 185, 259-271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of different frame materials on the primary energy use of a multi storey residential building in a life cycle perspective
2019 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 185, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Primary energy implications over the life cycle of a multi storey residential building with different building systems are explored here. The main structural materials of the buildings include precast concrete, cross laminated timber (CLT) and prefabricated timber modules (modular). The analysis covers energy and material flows from different life cycle phases of the building versions, designed to meet the energy performance of the Swedish building code (BBR) and passive house criteria. The CLT and modular buildings were found to result in lower production primary energy use and higher biomass residues compared to the concrete alternative. The heating value of the recoverable biomass residues from the production phase of the CLT building is significantly larger than the primary energy required for its production. Primary energy use for production and construction constitutes 20-30% and 36-47% of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for the BBR and passive buildings, respectively. Space heating with combined heat and power (CHP) and ventilation electricity for the BBR and passive building versions form 70-79% and 52-63%, respectively, of the total primary energy use for production, construction, space heating, ventilation and demolition for a lifespan of 80 years. The CLT and modular buildings give 20-37% and 9-17% lower total life cycle primary energy use, respectively, than the concrete alternative when space heating is from CHP. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Life cycle, Primary energy use, Residential buildings, Cross laminated timber, Timber modules, Concrete, Structural frame
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81093 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.12.017 (DOI)000459358900021 ()2-s2.0-85059911195 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2019). Effects of end-of-life management options for materials on primary energy and greenhouse gas balances of building systems. In: Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018). Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 4246-4253). Elsevier, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of end-of-life management options for materials on primary energy and greenhouse gas balances of building systems
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018) / [ed] Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 4246-4253Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we have analysed the life cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of concrete-frame and timber-frame multi-storey building alternatives, designed to meet the current Swedish building code, considering different end-of-life scenarios. The scenarios include recycling of concrete and steel, cascading by recycling of wood into particle board and energy recovery at the end-of-life of the board, energy recovery of wood by combustion, and landfilling of wood with and without landfill gas (LFG) recovery. The energy recovered is assumed to replace fossil coal or gas. Our analysis accounts for energy and GHG flows in the production and end-of-life phases. We estimate the GHG emission changes achieved per unit of difference in finished wood in buildings or in harvest forest biomass between the timber buildings and the concrete building. The results show that the timber building systems give significantly lower life cycle primary energy balances than the concrete building system for all the end-of-life options. The concrete building system gives higher life cycle GHG balances than the timber alternatives for all the end-of-life options, except when wood is landfill without LFG recovery. The end-of-life primary energy and GHG benefit of wood materials is most significant for energy recovery while the benefit of cascading is low. However, replacing fossil gas instead of fossil coal significantly reduce the carbon benefits of the timber alternatives. The benefits of recycling steel and concrete are small. This study shows that end-of-life options for building materials can offer opportunities to reduce energy use and GHG emissions in the built environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102 ; 158
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81981 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.802 (DOI)000471031704093 ()2-s2.0-85063861519 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Piccardo, C., Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2019). Energy and carbon balance of materials used in a building envelope renovation. In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium: . Paper presented at Buildings as material Banks: a pathway for a circular future, SBE19 Brussels BAMB-CIRCPATH, 5-7 February, 2019; Brussels. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 225, Article ID 012045.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy and carbon balance of materials used in a building envelope renovation
2019 (English)In: SBE19 Brussels - BAMB-CIRCPATH "Buildings as Material Banks - A Pathway For A Circular Future"5–7 February 2019, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 225, article id 012045Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Construction and demolition waste (CDW) are a priority waste stream in EU's polices, accounting for about 30% of all waste generated. At the same time, according to the EU energy-efficiency directive, existing buildings subject to significant renovation need to be upgraded in their thermal building envelope in order to meet higher energy performance standard. This involves additional building materials and hence increases the CDW generation. This study investigates the energy and CO2 emission balance of building envelope renovation when using different building materials, taking into account the production and end-of-life stages. The study is based on a Swedish case-study building assumed to be upgraded to the passive house standard. Benefits from waste recovering are considered, including construction and demolition wastes. The results show that the selection of building materials can significantly affect the primary energy and CO2 emission balances. Depending on the material alternative the end-of-life primary energy use and net CO2 emission can be reduced by 5%-21% and 2%-24%, respectively, compared to the initial primary energy use and net CO2 emission. Therefore, a careful material choice at the design stage, as well as an efficient waste management, can contribute to reduce primary energy use and CO2 emission associated with energy renovation of existing buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment, ISSN 1755-1307, E-ISSN 1755-1315
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81892 (URN)10.1088/1755-1315/225/1/012045 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063412923 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Buildings as material Banks: a pathway for a circular future, SBE19 Brussels BAMB-CIRCPATH, 5-7 February, 2019; Brussels
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Truong, N. L., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2019). Final and primary energy use for heating new residential area with varied exploitation levels, building energy performance and district heat temperatures. In: Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen (Ed.), Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions: . Paper presented at 10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China (pp. 6544-6550). Elsevier, 158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Final and primary energy use for heating new residential area with varied exploitation levels, building energy performance and district heat temperatures
2019 (English)In: Innovative Solutions for Energy Transitions / [ed] Jinyue Yan, Hong-xing Yang, Hailong Li, Xi Chen, Elsevier, 2019, Vol. 158, p. 6544-6550Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is great potential to build new energy-efficient building blocks in combination with efficient energy supply systems. Such a development will contribute to achieve national energy and climate goals as well as the overall aim for a sustainable development. Here, we analyze final and primary energy use for heating a new residential area by using district-heating. The area, located in Växjö, in south Sweden has potentially varied land exploitation levels, energy performance of buildings and district heat supply/return temperatures. The results show that the district heating demand will be reduced by about 52-56% if buildings in the area meet the Swedish passive house criteria instead of the Swedish building code. The exploitation levels of construction in the area strongly influence the total heating demands. A dense instead of a low exploitation will increase the area’s heating demand more than four times. But, the heat demand density of the residential area has quite a small impact on the total heat losses of the distribution network in contrast to changed supply and return temperatures. The distribution heat losses could be reduced by up to 50% with lower supply/return temperatures. However, a reduction of district heat supply/return temperatures to 50/20oC increases electricity use for boosting hot water temperature to avoid the risk of legionella bacteria. This causes a shift from district heat production to electricity production and increases the primary energy use. The results of this study can be used for further considerations of costs and benefits of energy supply options for new residential areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Series
Energy Procedia, E-ISSN 1876-6102
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81667 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.103 (DOI)000471031706139 ()2-s2.0-85063884911 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Applied Energy (ICAE2018), 22-25 August 2018, Hong Kong, China
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
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