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Gustavsson, Leif
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Truong, N. L., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2018). Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply. Energy, 142, 1114-1127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 142, p. 1114-1127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we estimate the final and primary energy savings for different energy efficiency measures in a multi-apartment building when heated by small-, medium- or large-scale district-heat production systems (DHSs). The small-scale system is based on heat-only boilers, whereas the other two also include cogeneration of district heat and electricity. In the systems with cogeneration units, a change in building's heat demand may influence cogenerated electricity and hence the overall power system. For the building analyzed, the estimated annual total final heat and electricity savings were 136 (54%) and 30 MWh (52%), respectively, giving total annual primary energy savings of 177–289 MWh. This varies as the ratio of primary and final heat savings depends on the type of energy efficiency measure and the energy supply. For the same heat savings measure, a system with a heat-only boiler gave the highest primary energy savings, whereas a system based mostly on cogeneration of district heat and electricity in combination with averaged-efficiency standalone power plants gave the lowest primary energy savings. When the energy supply is based on energy-efficient renewable-based system, the differences in primary energy savings between large- and small-scale DHSs are minor for the same energy efficiency measure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keyword
Energy efficiency; District-heated building; Primary energy use; District heat; Renewable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69549 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.071 (DOI)000424854900094 ()
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-03-02Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Truong, N. L. (2018). Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems. Energy, 143, 69-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 143, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Union's Directive on energy performance of buildings emphasizes the need to take cost-effectiveness into account when measures are implemented for improved building energy efficiency. In this study, we investigate cost-effective energy renovation measures for a district heated building under different contexts, including varied locations, energy supply systems and economic scenarios. We determine the final and primary energy savings of cost-effective energy renovation packages for the building in the different contexts. The measures analysed include: improved insulation for attic floor, basement walls, and exterior walls; improved windows and doors; resource-efficient taps; heat recovery of exhaust ventilation air; energy-efficient household appliances and lighting. We consider three existing Swedish energy supply systems of varying district heat production scale and tariffs, and also plausible renewable-based energy supply systems. Our analysis calculates the final energy savings of the measures including the cost-effective renovation packages on hourly basis and links these to the different energy supply systems. The cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a double-stage optimization method, considering total and marginal investment costs of renovation measures as well as associated net present values of total and marginal cost savings. The results show that significant final and primary energy savings can be achieved when energy renovation measures are implemented for the building in the different contexts. This study shows that heat demand in existing Swedish building could be about halved while electricity use may be reduced considerably with cost-effective energy renovation measures. The economic viability of the renovation measures is sensitive to the economic regimes especially discount rates and energy price increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68615 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.113 (DOI)000425565700007 ()
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Hemström, K., Mahapatra, K. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Architects’ perception of the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry. Construction Innovation, 17(2), 244-260
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architects’ perception of the innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry
2017 (English)In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 244-260Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of architects’ perceptions of the propensityto adopt innovations in building construction.

Design/methodology/approach – Based on a theoretical underpinning of the multilevel perspective on socio-technical transitions, a web-based questionnaire (n = 412) was used to empirically investigate Swedish architects’ perceptions of innovativeness in the building construction industry. Specifically, the study looks at perceptions of the level of innovativeness (propensity to adopt innovations), relevant barriers to the adoption of innovations, the influence of different actors and ways of facilitating innovativeness.

Findings – Architects perceive a low level of innovativeness in the Swedish building construction industry because of a number of barriers of varying relevance. These barriers belong to interwoven regulative,normative and cognitive rules (i.e. institutions) that guide actor behaviour, which contribute to the path dependency of the industry. The site-specific nature of building construction, promotional activities from suppliers and the level of competition in the industry is perceived as being of little relevance. The findings suggest that a number of interventions are necessary to facilitate innovativeness of the Swedish construction industry. To change the lock-in mechanisms of the established cognitive and normative rules, regulative rulesneed to change as well. According to architects, contractors and construction clients are the most influentialand therefore have the most power to change the rules associated with path dependency.

Research limitations/implications – The focus on a single construction professional in Sweden necessitates a discussion on these perceptions from the standpoint of other actors.

Practical implications – Architects perceive a need for change in the construction industry and suggestthat changed regulative rules can help overcome path dependency and facilitate innovativeness. Considering the strong interrelatedness of the lock-in mechanisms that guide the actors of the industry, policies may be needed to encourage and support the establishment for more sustainable development.

Originality/value – A multilevel perspective is used to analyse the type of barriers to innovativeness that the architects perceive as relevant and how they contribute to the resistance to change and path dependency in the building construction sector.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
Keyword
Construction, Innovation, Sweden, Barriers, Perceptions, Architects
National Category
Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62587 (URN)10.1108/CI-06-2015-0038 (DOI)000413358000008 ()
Available from: 2017-04-25 Created: 2017-04-25 Last updated: 2018-04-04Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L., Haus, S., Lundblad, M., Lundström, A., Ortiz, C. A., Sathre, R., . . . Wikberg, P.-E. (2017). Climate change effects of forestry and substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels. Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, 67, 612-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change effects of forestry and substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 67, p. 612-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We estimate the climate effects of directing forest management in Sweden towards increased carbon storage in forests with more land set-aside for protection, or towards increased forest production for the substitution of carbon-intensive materials and fossil fuels, relative to a reference case of current forest management. We develop various scenarios of forest management and biomass use to estimate the carbon balances of the forest systems, including ecological and technological components, and their impacts on the climate in terms of radiative forcing. The scenario with increased set-aside area and the current level of forest residue harvest resulted in lower cumulative carbon emissions compared to the reference case for the first 90 years, but then showed higher emissions as reduced forest harvest led to higher carbon emissions from energy and material systems. For the reference case of current forest management, increased harvest of forest residues gave increased climate benefits. The most climatically beneficial alternative, expressed as reduced cumulative radiative forcing, in both the short and long terms is a strategy aimed at high forest production, high residue recovery rate, and high efficiency utilization of harvested biomass. Active forest management with high harvest levels and efficient forest product utilization will provide more climate benefit, compared to reducing harvest and storing more carbon in the forest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Biomass residues ; Forest management ; Climate change ; Radiative forcing
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57660 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.056 (DOI)000389088900046 ()
Available from: 2016-10-28 Created: 2016-10-28 Last updated: 2018-01-04Bibliographically approved
Truong, N. L. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Climate effects of biomass use in integrated energysystems. In: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings 2017: . Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study on energy efficiency. May 29-Jun 3, 2017, Hyères, France (pp. 911-920). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate effects of biomass use in integrated energysystems
2017 (English)In: ECEEE Summer Study proceedings 2017, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 911-920Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biomass is a key resource in a society based on renewable energy, but is a limited resource and the use of biomass in one sector will influence its availability for other sectors. The global energy system is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, and the climate impacts of CO2 occur regardless of the source of emissions. As a result, the climatic effects of biomass use in an energy system depend largely on which biomass feedstock and bioenergy pathway is being used, and what type of fossil fuel pathway is being replaced. In this study, we evaluate the CO2 emissions and climate effects of woody biomass and fossil fuel use. We analyse the potential production of electricity, heat or transport distance when using one kWh of woody biomass and fossil energy system designed to provide the same service to society as the most energy efficient bioenergy systems. The fuel cycle inputs are included in the analyses and are based on different state-of-the art as well as emerging technologies for energy conversion. We quantify the primary energy use and annual CO2 emission of different bioenergy and fossil alternatives. We then calculate the cumulative CO2 emission and climate effects in terms of cumulative radiative forcing for the fossil and bioenergy systems. The results show that primary energy use, CO2 emission, and cumulative radiative forcing vary strongly between the studied alternatives. The use of bioelectricity and electric vehicles instead of biomotor fuel-based vehicles gives about twice the transport distance per unit of consumed woody biomass. Integrated energy systems that supply a package of energy services including electricity, heat and transport distance reduce the primary energy use and increase the climate benefits of woody biomass. The replacement of coal for heat and electricity production by the here studied woody biomass gives large climate benefits immediately.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keyword
bio fuel, vehicles, climate change, electric vehicles, primary energy, integrated energy system, radiative forcing
National Category
Energy Systems Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72205 (URN)978-91-983878-0-3 (ISBN)978-91-983878-1-0 (ISBN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study on energy efficiency. May 29-Jun 3, 2017, Hyères, France
Available from: 2018-04-04 Created: 2018-04-04 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Sathre, R., Gustavsson, L. & Truong, N. L. (2017). Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture. Energy, 122, 711-723
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate effects of electricity production fuelled by coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 122, p. 711-723Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse the climate implications of producing electricity in large-scale conversion plants using coal, forest slash and municipal solid waste with and without carbon capture and storage (CCS). We calculate the primary energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission profiles, and the cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) of different systems that produce the same amount of electricity. We find that using slash or waste for electricity production instead of coal somewhat increases the instantaneous CO2 emission from the power plant, but avoids significant subsequent emissions from decaying slash in forests or waste in landfills. For slash used instead of coal, we find robust near- and long-term reductions in total emissions and CRF. Climate effects of using waste instead of coal are more ambiguous: CRF is reduced when CCS is used, but without CCS there is little or no climate benefits of using waste directly for energy, assuming that landfill gas is recovered and used for electricity production. The application of CCS requires more fuel, but strongly reduces the CO2 emissions. The use of slash or waste together with CCS results in negative net emissions and CRF, i.e. global cooling.

Keyword
Forest residues; Landfill; Carbon capture and storage; Radiative forcing; Fuel substitution
National Category
Energy Systems Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61035 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.01.076 (DOI)000399267100060 ()
Available from: 2017-03-01 Created: 2017-03-01 Last updated: 2017-05-24Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate. In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits. Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France. (pp. 1185-1195). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate
2017 (English)In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1185-1195Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we analyse the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building version, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden and explore various design strategies to minimise these demands under different climate change scenarios. The analysis is performed for recent (1996–2005) and future climate periods of 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in South of Sweden. Design strategies include efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, window solar shading, building orientation, window size and properties, besides mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand increases as the risk of overheating under the future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window u-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40–51 % and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy for operating the building versions decreased by 49–54 % This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and the potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climate scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keyword
climate change, space heating, cooling, primary energy, passive houses, overheating, design strategies
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65682 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France.
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L. & Dodoo, A. (2017). Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building. In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits. Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères,
 France. (pp. 1064-1073). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building
2017 (English)In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1064-1073Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents and demonstrates a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures for buildings. Based on the method, cost-optimal energy efficiency measures are calculated considering total and marginal investment costs as well as net present value of energy savings for the measures under different technical and economic scenario. The method is applied to a 1970s Swedish multi-family building to explore the profitability of different energy renovation measures when implemented individually or in packages. The measures analysed include improved thermal insulation for exterior and basement walls as well as attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electrical appliances, efficient water taps, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. Our results show that the economic viability of the retrofit measures is sensitive to the techno-economic parameters used including, real discount rates, energy price increases and technical lifetime of retrofit measures. Still, about 34–51 % reduction of final heat demands is economically viable for the analysed building. Resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure while improved thermal envelope insulation for exterior walls is the least cost-effective among the measures analysed for the studied building. This study shows the significance of different technical and economic parameters in achieving deep-energy savings from renovation of a building in a cold climate. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keyword
deep renovations, energy savings, refurbishment, deep renovations, energy efficiency measures, existing buildings, cost effectiveness
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65679 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères,
 France.
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates. Energy, 138, 846-860
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, p. 846-860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of climate change on the final and primary energy use of versions of a multi-storey residential building have been analysed. The building versions are designed to the Swedish building code (BBR 2015) and passive house criteria (Passive 2012) with different design and overheating control strategies under different climate scenarios. Future climate datasets are based on Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099. The analysis showed that strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the Passive 2012 building version remained the same under all climate scenarios. In contrast, strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the BBR 2015 version varied, as cooling demand became more significant under future climate scenarios. Cooling demand was more dominant than heating for the Passive 2012 building version under future climate scenarios. Household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology gave the biggest reduction in total primary energy use among considered strategies. Overall, annual total operation primary energy decreased by 37–54% for the building versions when all strategies are implemented under the considered climate scenarios. This study shows that appropriate design strategies could result in significant primary energy savings for low-energy buildings under changing climates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Climate change, Representative concentration pathways (RCPs), Design strategies and overheating control measures, Space heating and cooling, Primary energy, Residential building
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-67345 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.07.123 (DOI)000415769300069 ()
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2017). Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building. Energy, 135, 563-576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 135, p. 563-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we present a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures and demonstrate its application for modelling a wide range of energy renovation measures for a typical 1970s multi-family building in Sweden. The method integrates energy balance and bottom-up economic calculations considering total and marginal investment costs of energy efficiency measures as well as net present value of total and marginal savings of the measures. The energy renovation measures explored include additional insulation to basement walls, exterior walls, and attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electric appliances and lighting, efficient water taps, glazed enclosed balcony systems, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. The measures are analysed first individually and then designed to form economic packages. Our results show that improved windows give the biggest single final energy savings while resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure for the building. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the energy renovation measures is sensitive to real discount rates and energy price increases. Cost-optimal final heat savings varies between 34% and 51%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. The corresponding electricity savings varies between 35% and 43%. This study shows a method and the significance of various technical and economic-related parameters in achieving deep energy savings cost-efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2017
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65678 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.123 (DOI)000412043300050 ()
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
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