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Jani, Y. & Hogland, W. (2018). Chemical extraction of trace elements from hazardous fine fraction at an old glasswork dump. Chemosphere, 195, 825-830
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chemical extraction of trace elements from hazardous fine fraction at an old glasswork dump
2018 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 195, p. 825-830Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Old glassworks siteshave been always associated with contamination by different trace elements likePb, Cd, As, Zn and others. The mixture of soil and waste glass of particlesizes <2mmat one of the oldest Swedish glassworks (the Pukeberg) was studiedby analyzing the trace elements content, organic content (3.6%) and pH (7.4).The results showed hazardous concentrations of Pb (1525 mg/kg), Ba (1312mg/kg), Sb (128 mg/kg), Cd (36 mg/kg), As (118 mg/kg), Zn (1154mg/kg) and Co(263 mg/kg) exceeded the Swedish guidelines of contaminated soil. Batchchemical extraction by the chelating agents EDTA, DTPA and the biodegradableNTA were performed to study the effect of chelating agent concentration and mixingtime on the extraction efficiencies by following a Box-Wilson design ofexperiments. The results displayed good extraction efficiencies (less than 41%)of Pb, Cd, As and Zn by the EDTA, DTPA and NTA, which seemed depends on thetype of chelator. In addition, high correlation between the extraction efficiencies,the chelators concentration and mixing time was found based on the statisticaland experimental results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Fine fraction, Glass dumps, trace elements, chemical extraction, chelating agents, EDTA
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69897 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.12.142 (DOI)000424172400088 ()29289910 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Burlakovs, J., Jani, Y., Kriipsalu, M., Vincevica-Gaile, Z., Kaczala, F., Celma, G., . . . Klavins, M. (2018). On the way to 'zero waste' management: Recovery potential of elements, including rare earth elements, from fine fraction of waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 186, 81-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the way to 'zero waste' management: Recovery potential of elements, including rare earth elements, from fine fraction of waste
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 186, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Existing schemes of solid waste handling have been improved implementing advanced systems for recovery and reuse of various materials. Nowadays, the 'zero waste' concept is becoming more topical through the reduction of disposed waste. Recovery of metals, nutrients and other materials that can be returned to the material cycles still remain as a challenge for future. Landfill mining (LFM) is one of the approaches that can deal with former dumpsites, and derived materials may become important for circular economy within the concept 'beyond the zero waste'. Perspectives of material recovery can include recycling of critical industrial metals, including rare earth elements (REEs). The LFM projects performed in the Baltic Region along with a conventional source separation of iron-scrap, plastics etc. have shown that the potential of fine-grained fractions (including clay and colloidal matter) of excavated waste have considerably large amounts of potentially valuable metals and distinct REEs. In this paper analytical screening studies are discussed extending the understanding of element content in fine fraction of waste derived from excavated, separated and screened waste in a perspective of circular economy. Technological feasibility was evaluated by using modified sequential extraction technique where easy extractable amount of metals can be estimated. Results revealed that considerable concentrations of Mn (418-823 mg/kg), Ni (41-84 mg/kg), Co (10.7-19.3 mg/kg) and Cd (1.0-3.0 mg/kg) were detected in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste sampled from Hogbytorp landfill, while Cr (49-518 mg/kg) and Pb (30-264 mg/kg) were found in fine fraction (<10 mm) of waste from Torma landfill revealing wide heterogeneity of tested samples. Waste should become a utilizable resource closing the loop of anthropogenic material cycle as the hidden potential of valuable materials in dumps is considerable. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Circular economy, Element recovery, Landfill mining, Zero waste concept, Waste valorisation
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76767 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.03.102 (DOI)000430785600008 ()
Available from: 2018-07-11 Created: 2018-07-11 Last updated: 2018-07-11Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., Mench, M., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F., Notini, P., Hijri, M. & Hogland, W. (2018). Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil. Science of the Total Environment, 618, 753-764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5 months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10% C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5 months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Phytotechnologies, Helianthus annuus, Lepidium sativum, Toxicity test, Compost
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71547 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.143 (DOI)000424130500078 ()29054647 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Hogland, M., Arina, D., Kriipsalu, M., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F., de Sa Salomao, A. L., . . . Hogland, W. (2018). Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 20(2), 1355-1363
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remarks on four novel landfill mining case studies in Estonia and Sweden
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 1355-1363Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In common sense, a landfill is a place where the life cycle of products ends. Landfill mining (LFM) mostly deals with former dumpsites and derived material may have a significant importance for the circular economy. Deliverables of recently applied LFM projects in Sweden and Estonia have revealed the potential and problems for material recovery. There are 75-100 thousand old landfills and dumps in the Baltic Sea Region, and they pose environmental risks to soil, water and air by pollution released from leachate and greenhouse gas emissions. Excavation of landfills is potential solution for solving these problems, and at the same time, there are perspectives to recover valuable lands and materials, save expenses for final coverage of the landfills and aftercare control. The research project "Closing the Life Cycle of Landfills-Landfill Mining in the Baltic Sea Region for Future" included investigation at four case studies in Estonia and Sweden: Kudjape, Torma, Hogbytorp and Vika landfills. Added value of this research project is characterization of waste fine fraction material, determination of concentration for most critical and rare earth elements. The main results showed that both, coarse and fine, fractions of waste might have certain opportunities of recovery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Landfill mining, Recovery of waste, Metals, Environmental remediation, Circular economy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-73123 (URN)10.1007/s10163-017-0683-4 (DOI)000429111800059 ()
Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Jani, Y., Pehme, K.-M., Bucinskas, A., Kriipsalu, M., Burlakovs, J. & Hogland, W. (2018). Speciation of Cu, Zn and Cr in Excavated Fine Fraction of Waste at two Landfills. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), 9(2), 86-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speciation of Cu, Zn and Cr in Excavated Fine Fraction of Waste at two Landfills
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2018 (English)In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), ISSN 2079-2115, E-ISSN 2079-2123, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 86-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mining landfills and open dumpsites is associated with (40-70% by mass) fine fraction of particle sizes less than 20 or 10 mm. Soil and trace elements of considerable concentrations typically dominate the composition of this fraction. In the present paper, a modified three steps sequential extraction procedure was used to fractionate Cu, Zn and Cr in the fine fraction of waste sampled from Högbytorp (Sweden) and Torma (Estonia) landfills. The results showed that the major concentrations of Cu (98.8 and 98.6 wt%) and Cr (98.5% and 98.4 wt %) in fines from Högbytorp and Torma landfills, respectively. These data were found associated to the residual fraction. Noticeable concentrations of Cu and Cr were also found associated within the water -soluble fraction, which could be regarded as a potential risk. The Zn displayed different behavior by distributing in all the sequential extraction fractions in the fine fractions from the two landfills. Specifying the metals content using this method is essential to explore the valorization as well as the potential environmental risks by these fines fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Digital Organization for Scientific Information, 2018
Keywords
Speciation; fractionation; sequential extraction; metals; fine fraction
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69895 (URN)10.5829/ijee.2018.09.02.02 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
Jani, Y., Kriipsalu, M., Pehme, K.-M., Burlakovs, J., Hogland, M., Denafas, G. & Hogland, W. (2017). Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 8(2), 113-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition of waste at an early EU-landfill of Torma in Estonia
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2017 (English)In: Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment / Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, ISSN 2079-2115, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 113-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfills represent a continuous environmental threat due to the emission of different greenhouse gases, which are mainly responsible for the climate changes, and the contaminated leachate that affects the surface and ground water recipients. The circular economy approach appeared as a useful solution to reduce the depletion of the Earth’s natural resources and the environmental risk effects by considering all of the lost resources like wastes including the landfills as potential secondary resources. It is well known that characterizing the composition of landfill waste is an essential step in specifying the recycling methods. In the current research the waste composition at one of the first EU regulations-compliant sanitary landfills (the Torma landfill in Estonia) was studied. The results showed that the fine fraction (<20 mm) represented 53% of the total excavated waste materials while the waste to energy fraction (plastics, woods etc.) was the highest within the coarse fraction (>20 mm). The present work emphasized that mining landfills can be a good solution either for extracting primary raw materials like metals, as a source for recovering energy, or for acquiring landfill space.

Keywords
Landfill mining, Waste composition, Characterization of landfill, Circular economy, Torma landfill
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69894 (URN)10.5829/ijee.2017.08.02.03 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-01-16 Created: 2018-01-16 Last updated: 2018-01-23Bibliographically approved
Kaczala, F., Orupold, K., Augustsson, A., Burlakovs, J., Hogland, M., Bhatnagar, A. & Hogland, W. (2017). Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (< 10 mm) of waste excavated from a municipal landfill. Waste Management & Research, 35(11), 1175-1182
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fractionation of Pb and Cu in the fine fraction (< 10 mm) of waste excavated from a municipal landfill
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2017 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 11, p. 1175-1182Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The fractionation of metals in the fine fraction (<10 mm) of excavated waste from an Estonian landfill was carried out to evaluate the metal (Pb and Cu) contents and their potential towards not only mobility but also possibilities of recovery/extraction. The fractionation followed the BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) sequential extraction, and the exchangeable (F1), reducible (F2), oxidizable (F3) and residual fractions were determined. The results showed that Pb was highly associated with the reducible (F2) and oxidizable (F3) fractions, suggesting the potential mobility of this metal mainly when in contact with oxygen, despite the low association with the exchangeable fraction (F1). Cu has also shown the potential for mobility when in contact with oxygen, since high associations with the oxidizable fraction (F3) were observed. On the other hand, the mobility of metals in excavated waste can be seen as beneficial considering the circular economy and recovery of such valuables back into the economy. To conclude, not only the total concentration of metals but also a better understanding of fractionation and in which form metals are bound is very important to bring information on how to manage the fine fraction from excavated waste both in terms of environmental impacts and also recovery of such valuables in the economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Landfill mining, fine fraction, material recovery, metals fractionation, mobility, circular economy
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68788 (URN)10.1177/0734242X17728124 (DOI)000413730900010 ()28956716 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-11-16 Created: 2017-11-16 Last updated: 2017-11-16Bibliographically approved
Bhatnagar, A., Kaczala, F., Burlakovs, J., Kriipsalu, M., Hogland, M. & Hogland, W. (2017). Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia. Waste Management & Research, 35(6), 627-635
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hunting for valuables from landfills and assessing their market opportunities: A case study with Kudjape landfill in Estonia
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2017 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 627-635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfill mining is an alternative technology that merges the ideas of material recycling and sustainable waste management. This paper reports a case study to estimate the value of landfilled materials and their respective market opportunities, based on a full-scale landfill mining project in Estonia. During the project, a dump site (Kudjape, Estonia) was excavated with the main objectives of extracting soil-like final cover material with the function of methane degradation. In total, about 57,777 m(3) of waste was processed, particularly the uppermost 10-year layer of waste. Manual sorting was performed in four test pits to determine the detailed composition of wastes. 11,610 kg of waste was screened on site, resulting in fine (<40 mm) and coarse (>40 mm) fractions with the share of 54% and 46%, respectively. Some portion of the fine fraction was sieved further to obtain a very fine grained fraction of <10 mm and analyzed for its potential for metals recovery. The average chemical composition of the <10 mm soil-like fraction suggests that it offers opportunities for metal (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) extraction and recovery. The findings from this study highlight the importance of implementing best available site-specific technologies for on-site separation up to 10 mm grain size, and the importance of developing and implementing innovative extraction methods for materials recovery from soil-like fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Landfill mining, waste characterization, landfill plastic, solid recovered fuel, metals recovery
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66971 (URN)10.1177/0734242X17697816 (DOI)000402638600008 ()28566034 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-20 Created: 2017-07-20 Last updated: 2017-07-20Bibliographically approved
Kaczala, F., Mehdinejad, M. H., Laane, A., Orupold, K., Bhatnagar, A., Kriipsalu, M. & Hogland, W. (2017). Leaching characteristics of the fine fraction from an excavated landfill: physico-chemical characterization. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 19(1), 294-304
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching characteristics of the fine fraction from an excavated landfill: physico-chemical characterization
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, ISSN 1438-4957, E-ISSN 1611-8227, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Leaching of fine fraction (< 10 mm) obtained from landfill mining activities in an Estonian landfill was done. On-site excavation was carried out in four test pits (TP1, TP2, TP3, TP4) that were further divided in four layers (L (1), L (2), L (3), L (4)). Total chemical oxygen demand (CODt), dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODd), total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals (Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) were analyzed. The results showed that approximately 70 % of CODt were in particulate/colloidal state. The TOC released ranged between 2326 and 3530-mg/kg dry matter for test pits suggesting spatial differences in the studied landfill. DOC ranged between 365-874 and 317-940 mg/kg for different test pits and sampling layers, respectively. Low average leaching rates of metals were observed (0.2-1.5 %). Pb had a significantly higher average leaching rate (1.0 %) compared to Zn (0.70 %) and Cu (0.35 %). The potential use of CODt as a surrogate indicator of TOC, DOC and Zn on the basis of high correlation coefficients was observed. To conclude, the implementation of adequate strategies to manage fine-grained fractions obtained from excavated waste relies on physico-chemical characterization of both the fine fractions itself and the leachate generated during storage and use.

Keywords
Landfill mining, Leachate, Heavy metals, TOC, DOC
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60806 (URN)10.1007/s10163-015-0418-3 (DOI)000392385300030 ()
Available from: 2017-02-21 Created: 2017-02-21 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Rosenlund, J., Rosell, E. & Hogland, W. (2017). Overcoming the Triple Helix Boundaries in an Environmental Research Collaboration. Science and Public Policy, 44(2), 153-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming the Triple Helix Boundaries in an Environmental Research Collaboration
2017 (English)In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 153-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cross-sector interactions between university and other sectors are increasingly important to contemporary knowledge production. However, there are few guidelines for conducting such interactions at the micro-level of actor or research group. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of cross-sector collaboration by drawing upon the theory of knowledge boundaries. The main author worked as an action researcher, specifically an interactive researcher, within an environmental research group that was focused on solving on-site industry wastewater issues. Using this approach, we created arenas for dialogue between sectors. During this three-year European Union project, built on three years of previous research, there was an increased demand for the group to develop applied results and to interact with other sectors. Thus, the researchers were challenged to cross boundaries and share their knowledge with partners outside academia. We argue that difficulties are encountered when crossing information process-oriented, cultural, and political boundaries. These difficulties are related to the move between Mode 1 and Mode 2 of knowledge production and the triple helix approach. Solutions to these issues were solved, in part, by the use of boundary spanners and boundary management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2017
Keywords
triple helix, mode 2, interactive research, environmental science, usefulness of science, research collaboration
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Economy, Ledarskap, entreprenörskap och organisation; Social Sciences, Sociology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38853 (URN)10.1093/scipol/scw045 (DOI)000401745500001 ()
Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-09 Last updated: 2017-07-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1903-760X

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