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Bylund, Emanuel
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Bokander, L. & Bylund, E. (2019). Probing the internal validity of the LLAMA language aptitude tests. Language learning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing the internal validity of the LLAMA language aptitude tests
2019 (English)In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Over the past decade, the LLAMA language aptitude test battery has come to play an increasingly important role as an instrument in research on individual differences in language development. However, a potentially serious problem that has been pointed out by several scholars is that the LLAMA has not yet been carefully validated. We addressed this issue by examining the internal validity of this test battery. We collected LLAMA data from 350 participants and assessed these data using classical item analysis, Rasch analysis, and principal component analysis within a framework of best practices in educational and psychological test validation. The results show that only one out of the four subtests (LLAMA B) produced scores that fit a latent trait model with sufficient accuracy. This suggests that researchers using the LLAMA battery must treat their results with appropriate carefulness and also that there is potential for refining the LLAMA further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2019
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87032 (URN)10.1111/lang.12368 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-08-08
Montero-Melis, G. & Bylund, E. (2017). Getting the ball rolling: the cross-linguistic conceptualization of caused motion. Language and Cognition, 9(3), 446-472
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Getting the ball rolling: the cross-linguistic conceptualization of caused motion
2017 (English)In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 446-472Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Does the way we talk about events correspond to how we conceptualize them? Three experiments (N = 135) examined how Spanish and Swedish native speakers judge event similarity in the domain of caused motion (He rolled the tyre into the barn'). Spanish and Swedish motion descriptions regularly encode path (into'), but differ in how systematically they include manner information (roll'). We designed a similarity arrangement task which allowed participants to give varying weights to different dimensions when gauging event similarity. The three experiments progressively reduced the likelihood that speakers were using language to solve the task. We found that, as long as the use of language was possible (Experiments 1 and 2), Swedish speakers were more likely than Spanish speakers to base their similarity arrangements on object manner (rolling/sliding). However, when recruitment of language was hindered through verbal interference, cross-linguistic differences disappeared (Experiment 3). A compound analysis of all experiments further showed that (i) cross-linguistic differences were played out against a backdrop of commonly represented event components, and (ii) describing vs. not describing the events did not augment cross-linguistic differences, but instead had similar effects across languages. We interpret these findings as suggesting a dynamic role of language in event conceptualization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2017
Keywords
language and thought, linguistic relativity, event cognition, caused motion, similarity arrangement, verbal interference, cross-linguistic differences
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities, Swedish
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79217 (URN)10.1017/langcog.2016.22 (DOI)000407564600003 ()
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Ramirez-Galan, P. (2016). Language Aptitude in First Language Attrition: A Study on Late Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals. Applied Linguistics, 37(5), 621-638
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language Aptitude in First Language Attrition: A Study on Late Spanish-Swedish Bilinguals
2016 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 621-638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Language aptitude remains one of the most understudied predictor variables in L1 attrition research. The current study seeks to address this gap by investigating the effects of language aptitude on L1 retention in late attriters. Forty L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden participated in the study, along with 20 functionally monolingual L1 speakers of Spanish. L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the LLAMA Language Aptitude Test (Meara 2005). Additional data on the participants' linguistic background were also collected. Results revealed a robust difference in GJT scores between the bilinguals and the control group. However, degree of language aptitude was not found to exert a significant influence on the bilinguals' GJT performance. Instead, the only significant predictor for GJT performance was linguistic identification, showing that those participants with strong L1 identification were more accurate in judging L1 grammaticality. The lack of aptitude effects on L1 attrition is discussed against the background of age-related attrition susceptibility.

National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58204 (URN)10.1093/applin/amu055 (DOI)000386018700002 ()2-s2.0-84995946037 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Norrman, G. & Bylund, E. (2016). The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees. Developmental Science, 19(3), 513-520
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The irreversibility of sensitive period effects in language development: evidence from second language acquisition in international adoptees
2016 (English)In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 513-520Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The question of a sensitive period in language acquisition has been subject to extensive research and debate for more than half a century. While it has been well established that the ability to learn new languages declines in early years, the extent to which this outcome depends on biological maturation in contrast to previously acquired knowledge remains disputed. In the present study, we addressed this question by examining phonetic discriminatory abilities in early second language (L2) speakers of Swedish, who had either maintained their first language (L1) (immigrants) or had lost it (international adoptees), using native speaker controls. Through this design, we sought to disentangle the effects of the maturational state of the learner on L2 development from the effects of L1 interference: if additional language development is indeed constrained by an interfering L1, then adoptees should outperform immigrant speakers. The results of an auditory lexical decision task, in which fine vowel distinctions in Swedish had been modified, showed, however, no difference between the L2 groups. Instead, both L2 groups scored significantly lower than the native speaker group. The three groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate non-modified words. These findings demonstrate that L1 loss is not a crucial condition for successfully acquiring an L2, which in turn is taken as support for a maturational constraints view on L2 acquisition.

National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities, Swedish
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-53271 (URN)10.1111/desc.12332 (DOI)000374325400014 ()26264762 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84939612877 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-06-10 Created: 2016-06-10 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Athanasopoulos, P. (2015). Introduction: Cognition, Motion Events, and SLA. The Modern language journal, 99(S1), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction: Cognition, Motion Events, and SLA
2015 (English)In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, no S1, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This opening article introduces the reader to current topics in research on language and thought in monolingual speakers and second language (L2) learners, with particular attention to the domain of motion. The article also delineates the rationale that underlies the special issue at hand, and provides a contextualisation of the individual contributions. It is argued that the centrality of motion in everyday human life, in combination with the vast cross-linguistic variation in motion construal, makes motion events a suitable topic for SLA research, both in terms of ecological validity and learnability challenge. The pedagogical aspects of this line of research are discussed in terms of, first, whether it is desirable to include the acquisition of language-specific thought patterns in curricular goals, and second, whether the knowledge about language specificity in thought can be used in teaching as a means to facilitate learning.

Keywords
cross-linguistic differences, language teaching, linguistic relativity, motion events, second language acquisition, thinking for speaking, Whorf
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities, Swedish
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40908 (URN)10.1111/j.1540-4781.2015.12175.x (DOI)000349082400001 ()2-s2.0-84923046332 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Athanasopoulos, P. (2015). Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure. The Modern language journal, 99(S1), 123-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure
2015 (English)In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, no S1, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style="text-decoration:underline">to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style="text-decoration:underline">are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

Keywords
English as a foreign language, grammatical aspect, linguistic relativity, audiovisual media, multimodality, motion event, Swedish
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities, Swedish
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40909 (URN)10.1111/j.1540-4781.2015.12182.x (DOI)000349082400008 ()2-s2.0-84908654606 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Donoso, A. & Bylund, E. (2015). The Construal of Goal-Oriented Motion Events by Swedish Speakers of L2 Spanish: Encoding of motion endpoints and Manner of motion. In: Tiffany Judy, Silvia Perpiñán (Ed.), The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings: (pp. 233-254). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Construal of Goal-Oriented Motion Events by Swedish Speakers of L2 Spanish: Encoding of motion endpoints and Manner of motion
2015 (English)In: The Acquisition of Spanish in Understudied Language Pairings / [ed] Tiffany Judy, Silvia Perpiñán, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 233-254Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The current study investigates motion event construal in Swedish speakers of L2 Spanish. In particular, the study examines the encoding of motion endpoints and manner of motion through elicited video clip descriptions of everyday motion event situations. The results show that Swedish learners of Spanish exhibit the same, high endpoint frequencies as their monolingual Swedish peers, thus deviating from the Spanish native pattern. Moreover, the learners used the same amount of manner verbs as Spanish natives, but were more prone to give additional manner information in periphrastic constructions. These findings are interpreted in relation to previous literature on the construal of motion events in L2 learners and the notion of conceptual transfer (Cadierno & Ruiz, 2006; Jarvis & Pavlenko, 2008; von Stutterheim, 2003).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015
Keywords
Motion events, event construal, endpoint encoding, satellite-framed languages, verb-framed languages, Path, Manner, Spanish, Swedish
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Spanish
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69046 (URN)10.1075/ihll.3.09don (DOI)9789027258021 (ISBN)9789027269089 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-03-06 Created: 2017-11-30 Last updated: 2018-04-16Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Athanasopoulos, P. (2014). Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 17(2), 431-441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa
2014 (English)In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

Keywords
linguistic relativity, motion events, grammatical aspect, multilingualism, isiXhosa
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38987 (URN)10.1017/S1366728913000503 (DOI)000337729600011 ()
Available from: 2014-05-16 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Athanasopoulos, P. (2014). Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme. Language learning, 64(4), 952-985
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme
2014 (English)In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 952-985Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38983 (URN)10.1111/lang.12080 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bylund, E. & Oostendorp, M. (2014). Second language acquisition (1ed.). In: Zannie Bock; Gift Mheta (Ed.), Language, Society & Communication: . Hatfield: van Schaik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Second language acquisition
2014 (English)In: Language, Society & Communication / [ed] Zannie Bock; Gift Mheta, Hatfield: van Schaik , 2014, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hatfield: van Schaik, 2014 Edition: 1
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41850 (URN)9780627030185 (ISBN)0627030181 (ISBN)9780627030963 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-04-08 Created: 2015-04-08 Last updated: 2015-04-10Bibliographically approved
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