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Berger, Tobias
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Yu, C., Berger, T., Drake, H., Song, Z., Peltola, P. & Åström, M. E. (2019). Geochemical controls on dispersion of U and Th in Quaternary deposits, stream water, and aquatic plants in an area with a granite pluton. Science of the Total Environment, 663, 16-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geochemical controls on dispersion of U and Th in Quaternary deposits, stream water, and aquatic plants in an area with a granite pluton
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2019 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 663, p. 16-28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The weathering of U and/or Th rich granite plutons, which occurs worldwide, may serve as a potentially important, but as yet poorly defined source for U and Th in (sub-)surface environments. Here, we assessed the impact of an outcrop of such granite (5 km in diameter) and its erosional products on the distribution of U and Th in four nemo-boreal catchments. The results showed that (i) the pluton was enriched in both U and Th; and (ii) secondary U and Th phases were accumulated by peat/gyttja and in other Quaternary deposits with high contents of organic matter. Movement of the ice sheet during the latest glaciation led to dispersal of U- and Th-rich materials eroded from the pluton, resulting in a progressive increase in dissolved U and Th concentrations, as well as U concentrations in aquatic plants with increasing proximity to the pluton. The accumulation of U in the aquatic plants growing upon the pluton (100–365 mg kg−1, dry ash weight) shows that this rock represents a long-term risk for adjacent ecosystems. Dissolved pools of U and Th were correlated with those of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and were predicted to largely occur as organic complexes. This demonstrates the importance of DOM in the transport of U and Th in the catchments. Large fractions of Ca2UO2(CO3)30(aq) were modeled to occur in the stream with highest pH and alkalinity and thus, explain the strongly elevated U concentrations and fluxes in this particular stream. In future climate scenarios, boreal catchments will experience intensified runoff and warmer temperature that favor the production of hydrologically accessible DOM and alkalinity. Therefore, the results obtained from this study have implications for predicting the distribution and transport of Th and U in boreal catchments, especially those associated with U and/or Th rich granite plutons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Uranium, Thorium, Nemo-boreal catchments, Climate change, Weathering
National Category
Environmental Sciences Geochemistry
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80032 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.293 (DOI)000459858500002 ()30708213 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060730596 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-30 Created: 2019-01-30 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Berger, T., Mathurin, F. A., Drake, H. & Åström, M. E. (2016). Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks. Science of the Total Environment, 569, 948-960
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluoride abundance and controls in fresh groundwater in Quaternary deposits and bedrock fractures in an area with fluorine-rich granitoid rocks
2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, p. 948-960Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on fluoride (F-) concentrations in groundwater in an area in northern Europe (Laxemar, southeast Sweden) where high F- concentrations have previously been found in surface waters such as streams and quarries. Fluoride concentrations were determined over time in groundwater in the Quaternary deposits ("regolith groundwater"), and with different sampling techniques from just beneath the ground surface to nearly -700 min the bedrock (fracture) groundwater. A number of potential controls of dissolved F- were studied, including geological variables, mineralogy, mineral chemistry and hydrology. In the regolith groundwater the F- concentrations (0.3-4.2 mg/L) were relatively stable over time at each sampling site but varied widely among the sampling sites. In these groundwaters, the F- concentrations were uncorrelated with sample (filter) depth and the water table in meters above sea level (masl), with the thicknesses of the groundwater column and the regolith, and with the distribution of soil types at the sampling sites. Fluoride concentrations were, however, correlated with the anticipated spatial distribution of erosional material (till) derived from a F-rich circular granite intrusion. Abundant release of F-from such material is thus suggested, primarily via dissolution of fluorite and weathering of biotite. In the fresh fracture groundwater, the F- concentrations (1.2-7.4 mg/L) were generally higher than in the regolith groundwater, and were uncorrelated with depth and with location relative to the granite intrusion. Two mechanisms explaining the overall high F- levels in the fracture groundwater were addressed. First, weathering/dissolution of fluorite, bastnasite and apophyllite, which are secondary minerals formed in the fractures during past hydrothermal events, and biotite which is a primary mineral exposed on fracture walls. Second, long water-residence times, favoring water-rock interaction and build-up of high dissolved F- concentrations. The findings are relevant in contexts of extraction of groundwater for drinking-water purposes. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Groundwater quality, Fluorosis, Water-rock interaction, Transscandinavian Igneous Belt, Gotemar granite
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57039 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.06.002 (DOI)000382269000091 ()27450253 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84979573913 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-10-05 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Berger, T. (2016). Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluoride in surface water and groundwater in southeast Sweden: sources, controls and risk aspects
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to determine the sources, controls and risk aspects of fluoride in surface water and groundwater in a region of southeastern Sweden where the fluorine-rich 1.45 Ga circular Götemar granite (5 km in diameter) crops out in the surrounding 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites (TIB rocks). The materials of this thesis include both primary data, collected for the purpose of this thesis, and a large set of secondary data, retrieved from the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., the Swedish Geological Survey and the Kalmar County Council. A characteristic feature of the area is high fluoride concentrations in all kinds of natural waters, including surface waters (such as streams) and groundwater in both the Quaternary deposits (regolith groundwater) and bedrock fractures (fracture groundwater). A number of potential sources and controls of the high fluoride concentrations were investigated, including a variety of geological, mineralogical, mineral-chemical and hydrological features and processes. For the stream waters and regolith groundwater, high fluoride concentrations were correlated with the location of the Götemar granite. This finding is explained by the discharge of fluoride-rich groundwater from fractures in the bedrock and/or the release of fluoride due to the weathering of fluorine-bearing minerals in the Quaternary deposits; however, the Quaternary deposits had considerably lower fluoride concentrations than the underlying bedrock. The high fluoride concentrations in the fresh fracture groundwater (up to 7.4 mg/L) in the TIB-rocks are proposed to be the result of long residence times and the alteration/dissolution of fluorine-bearing primary and secondary minerals along the fracture walls. In terms of risk aspects, this thesis shows that fluoride can add to the transport and inorganic complexation of aluminium in humic-rich, acidic streams. Additionally, 24 % of the children in households with private wells in Kalmar County were assessed to be at risk of excess fluoride intake based on the WHO drinking water guideline value (1.5 mg/L). However, the risk increased significantly when instead the US EPA reference dose (0.06 mg/kg-day) was used, both when all relevant exposure pathways were taken into account as well as water consumption alone. Hence, it is shown that the risk of an excess intake of fluoride is strongly dependent on the basis for evaluation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2016
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 253/2016
Keywords
fluorine, fluoride, water-rock interaction, granite, crystalline bedrock, surface water, groundwater, Götemar, drinking water quality, aluminium, speciation, fluorosis, PBA
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52562 (URN)978-91-88357-20-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-06-10, Fullriggaren, Sjöfartshögskolan, Kalmar, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-20 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
Berger, T., Yu, C., Drake, H., Peltola, P., Svensson, D. & Åström, M. E. (2016). Fluorine geochemistry of quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwater. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 170, 148-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluorine geochemistry of quaternary deposits in a nemo-boreal catchment with elevated dissolved fluoride in surface waters and groundwater
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Geochemical Exploration, ISSN 0375-6742, E-ISSN 1879-1689, Vol. 170, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on fluorine (F) concentrations and solid-phase speciation in Quaternary deposits, including till, sorted sediments (gravel, sand, clay/silt) and organic-rich soil types, in an area in southeast Sweden underlain by 1.8 Ga granites and quartz monzodiorites with moderate F concentrations (0.11-0.13 wt%) and an outcrop (5 km in diameter) of 1.45 Ga granite (the Gotemar granite) with high to very high F concentrations (0.38-0.54 wt%). Eighteen <1 to 5 m thick profiles were sampled both upon and in the vicinity of the Gotemar granite. The F concentrations in the Quaternary deposits were considerably lower than in the underlying fresh bedrock, with the overall highest concentrations in glacial clay having values up to 660 ppm. A contributing factor to the low F concentrations in the till, as compared to the fresh rock, is release and leaching of fluoride (F-) during alteration of biotite and amphiboles to secondary minerals. Sequential chemical extractions showed that the F in the Quaternary deposits exists mainly in the residual fraction, and also to a substantial extent in phases extractable with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in the till and in phases extractable with Na pyrophosphate in the organic-rich soil types. These features indicate that after release via alteration of primary minerals, F- has to a significant extent been scavenged by Fe/Al (and perhaps Mn) oxyhydroxides in the till and by labile organic matter in the organic soil types. The high F- concentrations previously reported for stream waters and regolith groundwaters in the area are due to weathering and leaching of the Quaternary deposits and discharge of fluoride-rich waters from underlying bedrock fractures. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Fluorite, Gotemar granite, Water-rock interaction, Sequential chemical extraction, X-ray diffraction
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58200 (URN)10.1016/j.gexplo.2016.09.003 (DOI)000386405300012 ()2-s2.0-84987950342 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Berger, T., Mathurin, F. A., Gustafsson, J. P., Peltola, P. & Åström, M. E. (2015). The impact of fluoride on Al abundance and speciation in boreal streams. Chemical Geology, 409, 118-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of fluoride on Al abundance and speciation in boreal streams
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2015 (English)In: Chemical Geology, ISSN 0009-2541, E-ISSN 1872-6836, Vol. 409, p. 118-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of fluoride on the abundance and speciation of aluminium (Al) was investigated in three boreal streams characterised by overall high concentrations of fluoride and dissolved organic matter. Stream-water sampling was carried out several times a year for at least 4 years, and a chemical equilibrium model (Visual MINTEQ) was applied in order to model the proportion of colloidal and organically/inorganically complexed Al in the waters. The Al concentrations in filtered (0.45 mu m) water samples were inversely correlated with pH, and reached values up to approximately 1 mg/L during low pH conditions (pH < 6.0). In a stream with high fluoride concentrations, as compared to a similar stream with only moderately elevated fluoride concentrations, the Al concentrations were consistently elevated. For the stream with high concentrations of fluoride and Al, the model predicted both high concentrations and proportions of Al-fluoride complexation. This prediction indicates that high fluoride levels contribute to raise both the Al abundance and the ratio of inorganic to organic Al complexation in stream water. In contrast, for another stream with high fluoride concentrations and consistently high (near neutral) pH, there was no evidence of fluoride affecting Al concentration or complexation. These results show that it is important to focus future studies on the role of high levels of dissolved fluoride on both the speciation and the toxicity of Al in stream water.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-44138 (URN)10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.05.013 (DOI)000358525500012 ()2-s2.0-84930942419 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Augustsson, A. & Berger, T. (2014). Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach. Environment International, 68, 192-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the risk of an excess fluoride intake among Swedish children in households with private wells: Expanding static single-source methods to a probabilistic multi-exposure-pathway approach
2014 (English)In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 68, p. 192-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is often assumed that water consumption is the major route of exposure for fluoride and analysis of water fluoride content is the most common approach for ensuring that the daily intake is not too high. In the present study, the risk of excess intake was characterized for children in households with private wells in Kalmar County, Sweden, where the natural geology shows local enrichments in fluorine. By comparing water concentrations with the WHO drinking water guideline (1.5 mg/L), it was found that 24% of the ca. 4800 sampled wells had a concentration above this limit, hence providing a figure for the number of children in the households concerned assessed to be at risk using this straightforward approach. The risk of an excess intake could, alternatively, also be characterized based on a tolerable daily intake (in this case the US EPA RfD of 0.06 mg/kg-day). The exposure to be evaluated was calculated using a probabilistic approach, where the variability in all exposure factors was considered, again for the same study population. The proportion of children assessed to be at risk after exposure from drinking water now increased to 48%, and when the probabilistic model was adjusted to also include other possible exposure pathways; beverages and food, ingestion of toothpaste, oral soil intake and dust inhalation, the number increased to 77%. Firstly, these results show how the risk characterization is affected by the basis of comparison. In this example, both of the reference values used are widely acknowledged. Secondly, it illustrates how much of the total exposure may be overlooked when only focusing on one exposure pathway, and thirdly, it shows the importance of considering the variability in all relevant pathways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33952 (URN)10.1016/j.envint.2014.03.014 (DOI)000337874300022 ()2-s2.0-84898926173 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-04-23 Created: 2014-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Berger, T. & Augustsson, A. (2014). Assessing the risk of an excessive fluoride intake in a region of southeastern Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 32nd Conference of the International Society for Fluoride, Fluorosis Prevention: From research at the cellular level to mitigation. Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 25-28, 2014..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the risk of an excessive fluoride intake in a region of southeastern Sweden
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40668 (URN)
Conference
32nd Conference of the International Society for Fluoride, Fluorosis Prevention: From research at the cellular level to mitigation. Chiang Mai, Thailand, November 25-28, 2014.
Available from: 2015-03-09 Created: 2015-03-09 Last updated: 2015-03-09Bibliographically approved
Mathurin, F. A., Drake, H., Tullborg, E.-L., Berger, T., Peltola, P., Kalinowski, B. E. & Åström, M. E. (2014). High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 132, 187-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High cesium concentrations in groundwater in the upper 1.2 km of fractured crystalline rock - Influence of groundwater origin and secondary minerals
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2014 (English)In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 132, p. 187-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dissolved and solid phase cesium (Cs) was studied in the upper 1.2 km of a coastal granitoid fracture network on the Baltic Shield (Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory and Laxemar area, SE Sweden). There unusually high Cs concentrations (up to 5-6 mu g L-1) occur in the low-temperature (<20 degrees C) groundwater. The material includes water collected in earlier hydro-chemical monitoring programs and secondary precipitates (fracture coatings) collected on the fracture walls, as follows: (a) hydraulically pristine fracture groundwater sampled through 23 surface boreholes equipped for the retrieval of representative groundwater at controlled depths (Laxemar area), (b) fracture groundwater affected by artificial drainage collected through 80 boreholes drilled mostly along the Aspo Hard Rock Laboratory (underground research facility), (c) surface water collected in local streams, a lake and sea bay, and shallow groundwater collected in 8 regolith boreholes, and (d) 84 new specimens of fracture coatings sampled in cores from the Aspo HRL and Laxemar areas. The groundwater in each area is different, which affects Cs concentrations. The highest Cs concentrations occurred in deep-seated saline groundwater (median Aspo HRL: 4.1 mu g L-1; median Laxemar: 3.7 mu g L-1) and groundwater with marine origin (Aspo HRL: 4.2 mu g L-1). Overall lower, but variable, Cs concentrations were found in other types of groundwater. The similar concentrations of Cs in the saline groundwater, which had a residence time in the order of millions of years, and in the marine groundwater, which had residence times in the order of years, shows that duration of water-rock interactions is not the single and primary control of dissolved Cs in these systems. The high Cs concentrations in the saline groundwater is ascribed to long-term weathering of minerals, primarily Cs-enriched fracture coatings dominated by illite and mixed-layer clays and possibly wall rock micaceous minerals. The high Cs concentrations in the groundwater of marine origin are, in contrast, explained by relatively fast cation exchange reactions. As indicated by the field data and predicted by 1D solute transport modeling, alkali cations with low-energy hydration carried by intruding marine water are capable of (NH4+ in particular and K+ to some extent) replacing Cs+ on frayed edge (FES) sites on illite in the fracture coatings. The result is a rapid and persistent (at least in the order of decades) buildup of dissolved Cs concentrations in fractures where marine water flows downward. The identification of high Cs concentrations in young groundwater of marine origin and the predicted capacity of NH4+ to displace Cs from fracture solids are of particular relevance in the disposal of radioactive nuclear waste deep underground in crystalline rock. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34476 (URN)10.1016/j.gca.2014.02.001 (DOI)000334832100012 ()2-s2.0-84895973626 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Augustsson, A. & Berger, T. (2013). A probabilistic view of risks associated with consumption of drinking water in an area with natural fluoride enrichments. In: : . Paper presented at NGL Annual Science Meeting , 7-8 November, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A probabilistic view of risks associated with consumption of drinking water in an area with natural fluoride enrichments
2013 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33596 (URN)
Conference
NGL Annual Science Meeting , 7-8 November, Oskarshamn, Sweden
Available from: 2014-04-03 Created: 2014-04-03 Last updated: 2014-05-08Bibliographically approved
Berger, T., Mathurin, F. A., Drake, H. & Åström, M. E. (2013). Fluoride in groundwater of regolith and bedrock (0-900 meters depth) in a granitoidic setting, SE Sweden. Paper presented at Goldschmidt 2013, August 25-30, 2013, Florence Italy. Mineralogical magazine, 77(5), 691-691
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fluoride in groundwater of regolith and bedrock (0-900 meters depth) in a granitoidic setting, SE Sweden
2013 (English)In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 77, no 5, p. 691-691Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33953 (URN)10.1180/minmag.2013.077.5.2 (DOI)
Conference
Goldschmidt 2013, August 25-30, 2013, Florence Italy
Available from: 2014-04-23 Created: 2014-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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