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Agerström, J., Andréll, C., Bremer, A., Strömberg, A., Årestedt, K. & Israelsson, J. (2024). All else equal: Examining treatment bias and stereotypes based on patient ethnicity and socioeconomic status using in-hospital cardiac arrest clinical vignettes. Heart & Lung, 63, 86-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All else equal: Examining treatment bias and stereotypes based on patient ethnicity and socioeconomic status using in-hospital cardiac arrest clinical vignettes
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2024 (English)In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 63, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundResearch on ethnic and socioeconomic treatment differences following in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) largely draws on register data. Due to the correlational nature of such data, it cannot be concluded whether detected differences reflect treatment bias/discrimination – whereby otherwise identical patients are treated differently solely due to sociodemographic factors. To be able to establish discrimination, experimental research is needed.ObjectiveThe primary aim of this experimental study was to examine whether simulated IHCA patients receive different treatment recommendations based on ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), holding all other factors (e.g., health status) constant. Another aim was to examine health care professionals’ (HCP) stereotypical beliefs about these groups.MethodsHCP (N = 235) working in acute care made anonymous treatment recommendations while reading IHCA clinical vignettes wherein the patient's ethnicity (Swedish vs. Middle Eastern) and SES had been manipulated. Afterwards they estimated to what extent hospital staff associate these patient groups with certain traits (stereotypes).ResultsNo significant differences in treatment recommendations for Swedish versus Middle Eastern or high versus low SES patients were found. Reported stereotypes about Middle Eastern patients were uniformly negative. SES-related stereotypes, however, were mixed. High SES patients were believed to be more competent (e.g., respected), but less warm (e.g., friendly) than low SES patients.ConclusionsSwedish HCP do not seem to discriminate against patients with Middle Eastern or low SES backgrounds when recommending treatment for simulated IHCA cases, despite the existence of negative stereotypes about these groups. Implications for health care equality and quality are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-124935 (URN)10.1016/j.hrtlng.2023.09.011 (DOI)001097657300001 ()2-s2.0-85174048692 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-28 Created: 2023-09-28 Last updated: 2024-01-11Bibliographically approved
Israelsson, J., Carlsson, M. & Agerström, J. (2023). A more conservative test of sex differences in the treatment and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest. Heart & Lung, 58, 191-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A more conservative test of sex differences in the treatment and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest
2023 (English)In: Heart & Lung, ISSN 0147-9563, E-ISSN 1527-3288, Vol. 58, p. 191-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Studies investigating sex disparities related to treatment and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) have produced divergent findings and have typically been unable to adjust for outstanding confounding variables.

Objectives: The aim was to examine sex differences in treatment and survival following IHCA, using a comprehensive set of control variables including e.g., age, comorbidity, and patient-level socioeconomic status. Methods: This retrospective study was based on data from the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Statistics Sweden. In the primary analyses, logistic regression models and ordinary least square regressions were estimated.

Results: The study included 24,217 patients and the majority (70.4%) were men. In the unadjusted analyses, women had a lower chance of survival after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attempt, at hospital discharge (with good neurological function) and at 30 days (p<0.01). In the adjusted regression models, female sex was associated with a higher chance of survival after the CPR attempt (B = 1.09, p<0.01) and at 30-days (B = 1.09, p<0.05). In contrast, there was no significant association between sex and survival to discharge with good neurological outcome. Except for treatment duration (B=-0.07, p<0.01), no significant associations between sex and treatment were identified.

Conclusions: No signs of treatment disparities or discrimination related to sex were identified. However, women had a better chance of surviving IHCA compared to men. The finding that women went from having a survival disadvantage (unadjusted analysis) to a survival advantage (adjusted analysis) attests to the importance of including a comprehensive set of control variables, when examining sex differences.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Psychology Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Science; Natural Science, Medicine; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117929 (URN)10.1016/j.hrtlng.2022.12.008 (DOI)000910624700001 ()36571977 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85145726773 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2018-00256
Available from: 2022-12-15 Created: 2022-12-15 Last updated: 2023-02-07Bibliographically approved
Sinclair, S. & Agerström, J. (2023). Do Social Norms Influence Young People’s Willingness to Take the COVID-19 Vaccine?. Health Communication, 38(1), 152-159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Social Norms Influence Young People’s Willingness to Take the COVID-19 Vaccine?
2023 (English)In: Health Communication, ISSN 1041-0236, E-ISSN 1532-7027, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 152-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although young adults are not at great risk of becoming severely ill with COVID-19, their willingness to get vaccinated affects the whole community. Vaccine hesitancy has increased during recent years, and more research is needed on its situational determinants. This paper reports a preregistered experiment (N = 654) that examined whether communicating descriptive social norms – information about what most people do – is an effective way of influencing young people’s intentions and reducing their hesitancy to take the COVID-19 vaccine. We found weak support for our main hypothesis that conveying strong (compared to weak) norms leads to reduced hesitancy and stronger intentions. Furthermore, norms did not produce significantly different effects compared to standard vaccine information from the authorities. Moreover, no support was found for the hypothesis that young people are more strongly influenced by norms when the norm reference group consists of other young individuals rather than people in general. These findings suggest that the practical usefulness of signaling descriptive norms is rather limited, and may not be more effective than standard appeals in the quest of encouraging young adults to trust and accept a new vaccine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-104338 (URN)10.1080/10410236.2021.1937832 (DOI)000660951500001 ()34114897 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85107777194 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-06-09 Created: 2021-06-09 Last updated: 2023-01-03Bibliographically approved
Heath, A. J., Carlsson, M. & Agerström, J. (2023). Is employer collection of diversity data attractive to potential job seekers? Ethnicity and sex differences and a UK-Sweden comparison. Personnel review, 52(7), 1900-1915
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is employer collection of diversity data attractive to potential job seekers? Ethnicity and sex differences and a UK-Sweden comparison
2023 (English)In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1900-1915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose Many organisations monitor statistics on the background of job applicants to inform diversity management, a practice known as equality monitoring (EM). The study examines perceptions of EM and employers that use it. Additionally, it aims to assess potentially salient group differences in attitudes towards EM, focussing on perceived history of employment discrimination, ethnicity, sex, and a comparison between the UK and Sweden - two countries which differ extensively in EM prevalence. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional self-report survey assessed attitudes toward EM, attraction to employers using it, pro-equality and diversity attitudes, perceived history of employment discrimination and background characteristics (e.g. ethnicity and sex), and compared a UK and Sweden sample (N = 925). Findings The results reveal positive perceptions of EM overall. Although no differences were observed between UK ethnic majority and minority respondents, White British men rate employers using EM as less attractive with increasing levels of perceived past discrimination. Women have more positive perceptions than men. Finally, the UK sample rated EM more positively than the Sweden sample. Originality/value Despite EM being widespread, the study is the first to investigate detailed perceptions of it, making group and country comparisons. Results support the use of EM in HRM but highlight the need for clear communication to avoid confusion with positive discrimination, which is perceived negatively in some majority group members, and to allay fears of data misuse. Recommendations are made for future implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-114338 (URN)10.1108/PR-10-2021-0735 (DOI)000835851200001 ()2-s2.0-85135222577 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-03487
Available from: 2022-06-17 Created: 2022-06-17 Last updated: 2023-11-07Bibliographically approved
Sinclair, S., Nilsson, A. & Agerström, J. (2023). Judging Job Applicants by Their Politics: Effects of Target–Rater Political Dissimilarity on Discrimination, Cooperation, and Stereotyping. The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 11(1), 75-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Judging Job Applicants by Their Politics: Effects of Target–Rater Political Dissimilarity on Discrimination, Cooperation, and Stereotyping
2023 (English)In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 75-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite well-known problems associated with political prejudice, research that examines effects of political dissimilarity in organizational contexts is scarce. We present findings from a pre-registered experiment (N = 973, currently employed) which suggest that both Democrats and Republicans negatively stereotype and discriminate against job applicants with a political orientation that is dissimilar to their own. The effects were small for competence perceptions, moderate for hiring judgments, and large for warmth ratings and willingness to cooperate and socialize with the applicant. The effects of political orientation on hiring judgments and willingness to cooperate and socialize were mediated by stereotype content, particularly warmth. Furthermore, for all outcomes except competence judgments, Democrats discriminated and stereotyped applicants to a larger extent than Republicans did. These findings shed light on the consequences of applicants revealing their political orientation and have implications for the promotion of diversity in organizations. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PsychOpen, 2023
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117171 (URN)10.5964/jspp.9855 (DOI)000967838900006 ()2-s2.0-85168124777 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-10-28 Created: 2022-10-28 Last updated: 2023-08-29Bibliographically approved
Agerström, J., Carlsson, M. & Erenel, A. (2023). The effect of social gender norms on parental leave uptake intentions: Evidence from two survey experiments on prospective fathers and mothers. Applied Economics, 55(53), 6277-6293
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of social gender norms on parental leave uptake intentions: Evidence from two survey experiments on prospective fathers and mothers
2023 (English)In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 55, no 53, p. 6277-6293Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate how social gender norms influence parental leave uptake intentions by conducting two separate survey experiments on prospective fathers (N = 877) and mothers (N = 882) in the UK. In a between-subjects design, we manipulate social gender norms by varying information on the average number of days that other fathers and mothers stay at home to take care of a child during the first year after childbirth. We find that when prospective parents (both genders) are exposed to the low staying-home-with-children norm, they plan less parental leave uptake compared to the control (no norm) group. When exposed to the high staying-home-with-children norm, men (but not women) plan more parental leave uptake compared to the control group. We discuss policy implications and suggest directions for future studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117251 (URN)10.1080/00036846.2022.2142192 (DOI)000906680500001 ()2-s2.0-85145505915 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-11-03 Created: 2022-11-03 Last updated: 2023-12-19Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, H. E. M. & Agerström, J. (2023). Thinking abstractly about one’s physical pain: can abstraction reduce sensitivity to painful stimuli?. Nordic Psychology, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thinking abstractly about one’s physical pain: can abstraction reduce sensitivity to painful stimuli?
2023 (English)In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Whether people think less abstractly when they experience physical pain has been examined in previous research. However, the reverse causal possibility—that abstraction reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli—does not appear to have been empirically tested. The aim of this study was to investigate whether abstraction reduces sensitivity to painful stimuli. Using the cold pressor method, university students (N = 205) were exposed to experimental pain. Participants were randomly assigned to an abstract mindset, concrete mindset, cognitive distraction (control task), or no task (control) condition. As a manipulation of abstraction, participants focused on why they felt pain (abstract condition) versus how they felt pain (concrete condition). Pain endurance and pain intensity were evaluated. The abstract mindset condition did not show significantly lower pain sensitivity compared with the other experimental conditions. We found no evidence suggesting that abstract thinking would reduce pain sensitivity. The effectiveness of other techniques that induce abstraction, such as third-person (versus first-person) self-talk should be examined in future research. Since experimentally induced pain in healthy participants differs from clinical pain, whether abstract thinking may reduce pain sensitivity in chronic pain patients should also be examined.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
National Category
Health Sciences Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-118473 (URN)10.1080/19012276.2023.2166977 (DOI)000915434100001 ()2-s2.0-85146460005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-02-23
Heath, A. J., Carlsson, M. & Agerström, J. (2023). What adds to job ads? The impact of equality and diversity information on organizational attraction in minority and majority ethnic groups. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 96(4), 872-896
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What adds to job ads? The impact of equality and diversity information on organizational attraction in minority and majority ethnic groups
2023 (English)In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325, Vol. 96, no 4, p. 872-896Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prior research suggests that job search activities of underrepresented groups are sensitive to diversity cues in recruitment materials, but less is known about the impact of different types of cues. Despite widespread use, employment equality monitoring (EM), or data collection on legally protected characteristics (like gender or ethnic background), has received scant empirical attention. Two experiments used fictitious job advertisements to examine the effects of a strong equality/diversity/inclusion (EDI) value statement and descriptions of EM use by employers. In Study 1, we found that advertisements containing an EDI statement and a statement of EM together produced the highest ratings of organizational prestige, and, in minority respondents, stronger job-pursuit intentions. Study 2 examined various framing conditions of EM using a between-subjects design. The inclusion of any EDI information was positively received, but minority ethnicity respondents were less positive when an EM statement was provided without an explanation for why it is done. The practical implications are that both value statements and EM information together could help increase attraction among jobseekers from underrepresented groups, with potential to contribute to diversity branding. However, minority groups are still sceptical of employer EDI credibility and employers must do more than talk the talk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-121470 (URN)10.1111/joop.12454 (DOI)001022815800001 ()2-s2.0-85164305117 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-06-08 Created: 2023-06-08 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
Strinic, A., Carlsson, M. & Agerström, J. (2022). Occupational stereotypes: professionals' warmth and competence perceptions of occupations. Personnel review, 51(2), 603-619
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occupational stereotypes: professionals' warmth and competence perceptions of occupations
2022 (English)In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 603-619Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose – The purpose of the current study is to investigate occupational stereotypes among a professionalsample of recruiters and other employees on the two fundamental dimensions of warmth and competence.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors conducted a survey to collect professionals' (mostly recruiters') ratings of preselected occupations. Participants were asked to rate warmth and competenceattributes. Factor and cluster analysis were employed to investigate the two-dimensional structure of thewarmth/competence space and how and whether occupations cluster as predicted by the stereotype contentmodel (SCM).

Findings – Almost all occupations showed a clear two-factorial structure, corresponding to the warmth/competence dimensions. A five-cluster solution was deemed appropriate as depicting how occupations disperseon these dimensions. Implications for stereotyping research, the design of hiring discrimination experiments,and HRM are discussed.

Originality/value – In contrast to previous related research, in which participants select the includedoccupations themselves, the authors included prespecified common occupations, which should be importantfor representativeness. In addition, previous research has been conducted in the United States, while theauthors conduct this study in a European context (Sweden). Finally, instead of studying students orparticipants with unspecified work experience, the authors focus on professionals (mostly recruiters).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2022
Keywords
Warmth, Competence, Stereotype content model, Occupational stereotypes, Hiring
National Category
Applied Psychology Economics and Business
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology; Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-99754 (URN)10.1108/PR-06-2020-0458 (DOI)000619992300001 ()2-s2.0-85100928484 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Available from: 2020-12-30 Created: 2020-12-30 Last updated: 2022-08-30Bibliographically approved
Sinclair, S., Nilsson, A. & Agerström, J. (2022). Tolerating the Intolerant: Does Realistic Threat Lead to Increased Tolerance of Right-Wing Extremists?. The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 10(1), 35-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tolerating the Intolerant: Does Realistic Threat Lead to Increased Tolerance of Right-Wing Extremists?
2022 (English)In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous research suggests that threat can bolster anti-immigration attitudes, but less is known about the effects of threat on ideological tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that realistic threats — tangible threats to e.g., the safety or financial well-being of one’s group — bolster support for right-wing extremists. In Experiment 1, participants (N = 200) learned that crime and unemployment rates were either increasing (high threat condition) or remaining the same (low threat condition). Consistent with our hypothesis, higher threat lead to a significant increase in tolerance for right-wing, but not left-wing, extremists. In a second, pre-registered extended replication experiment (N = 385), we added a baseline (no threat) condition. Additionally, attitudes to immigrants were examined as a mediator. This experiment produced non-significant threat effects on tolerance of right-wing extremists. Overall, the current research provides weak support for the hypothesis that realistic threats have asymmetric effects on tolerance of political extremists. However, consistent with previous research, people were more tolerant of extremists within their own ideological camp.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PsychOpen Gold, 2022
Keywords
social threat, realistic threat, tolerance, political ideology, ideological asymmetry
National Category
Applied Psychology Social Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-107553 (URN)10.5964/jspp.8017 (DOI)000772950100004 ()2-s2.0-85136093437 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2021-10-18 Created: 2021-10-18 Last updated: 2022-10-11Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6134-0058

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