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Agerström, J., Stening, K. & Axman, O. (2019). Pain here and now: physical pain impairs transcendence of psychological distance. Journal of Pain Research, 12, 961-968
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pain here and now: physical pain impairs transcendence of psychological distance
2019 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 12, p. 961-968Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The ability to traverse psychological distance by going beyond the experienced reality of the self, here and now, is fundamental for effective human functioning. Yet, little is known about how physical pain affects transcendence of psychological distance. Using a construal level theory framework of psychological distance, the current research examines the hypothesis that pain impairs people's ability to traverse any kind of psychological distance whether it be temporal, social, and spatial distance, or the hypothetical. Methods: Using the cold pressor test, 151 participants participated in an experiment where they were either induced with acute pain (treatment group) or no pain (control group) while completing a battery of questions measuring to what extent their current thoughts were transcending psychological distance. Results: The results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Relative to the control group, pain induced participants showed significantly less transcendence of past temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, and the hypothetical. Furthermore, greater self-reported pain intensity was significantly associated with less transcendence of temporal (past and future), social, and spatial distance. Conclusion: Physical pain impairs the ability to traverse psychological distance. The research has practical implications for the pain clinic and for pain-afflicted individuals in everyday life.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dove Medical Press Ltd, 2019
Keywords
physical pain, temporal distance, social distance, spatial distance, hypotheticality
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81413 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S194114 (DOI)000461272700003 ()30881106 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070008382 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-29 Created: 2019-03-29 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lindersson, L., Guntell, L., Carlsson, R. & Agerström, J. (2019). Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving. International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, 24(1), 1-6, Article ID e1617.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reassessing the impact of descriptive norms on charitable giving
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Marketing, ISSN 1465-4520, E-ISSN 1479-103X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-6, article id e1617Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The usefulness of conveying descriptive norms (“this is what most people do”) for prosocial purposes such as environmental conservation and charitable giving has recently been called into question. Two experiments (N = 748) evaluated the hypothesis that descriptive norms increase people's intentions to donate to charity. Overall, the results supported this hypothesis. Another aim was to examine the robustness of the local norm superiority effect that proposes that the local norms of one's immediate environment are superior to other descriptive norms (global and social identity norms). This hypothesis was not supported. The results suggest that differences between different types of norms are likely to be small.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77848 (URN)10.1002/nvsm.1617 (DOI)000458529200001 ()2-s2.0-85061091090 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-19 Created: 2018-09-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R., Agerström, J., Williams, D. & Burns, G. N. (2018). A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior. Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 14(3), 193-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Primer on the benefits of differential treatment analysis when predicting discriminatory behavior
2018 (English)In: Quantitative Methods for Psychology, E-ISSN 2292-1354, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A central question in social psychology is to what extent individual differences in attitudes, prejudices, and stereotypes can predict discriminatory behavior. This is often studied by simply regressing a measure of behavior toward a single group (e.g., behavior toward Black people only) onto the predictors (e.g., attitude measures). In the present paper, we remind researchers that an analysis focusing on predicting the differential treatment (e.g., behavior towards Black people vs. White people) has a higher conceptual validity and will result in more informative effect sizes. The paper is concluded with a list of suggestions for future research on the link between attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes and discrimination.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ottawa: University of Ottawa, 2018
Keywords
Discrimination, attitudes, stereotypes, prejudice, methodology
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79525 (URN)10.20982/tqmp.14.3.p193 (DOI)000447603000004 ()
Available from: 2019-01-15 Created: 2019-01-15 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, H. E. M. & Agerström, J. (2018). Clinical pain, abstraction, and self-control: being in pain makes it harder to see the forest for the trees and is associated with lower self-control. Journal of Pain Research, 11, 1105-1114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical pain, abstraction, and self-control: being in pain makes it harder to see the forest for the trees and is associated with lower self-control
2018 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 11, p. 1105-1114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Although abstract thinking is a fundamental dimension of human cognition, it has received scant attention in research on pain and cognition. We hypothesized that physical pain impairs abstraction, because when people experience pain at high intensity levels, attention becomes concretely focused on the self in the here and now, where little else matters than finding relief for the pain they are currently experiencing. We also examined the relationship between pain and self-control, predicting that pain would debilitate self-control. Patients and methods: Abstraction and self-reported self-control were assessed in 109 patients with musculoskeletal pain. The influence of specific pain qualities, such as pain intensity, pain interference with daily activities, pain duration, and pain persistence, was examined. Furthermore, we assessed other factors (e.g., anxiety, depression, and fatigue) that could be assumed to play a role in the pain experience and in cognitive performance. Results: Higher pain intensity and persistence were associated with less abstract thinking. Furthermore, self-control decreased with greater pain intensity, persistence, and self-reported pain interference with daily activities. Self-reported depressive symptoms mediated the overall relationship between pain and self-control. Conclusion: Abstraction is compromised in patients reporting higher pain intensity and persistence. Different dimensions of pain also predict lower self-control although depression seems to account for the relationship between overall pain and self-control. The current study is the first to report an association between clinical musculoskeletal pain and abstraction. The results suggest that pain patients may suffer from a broader range of cognitive disadvantages than previously believed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Auckland: Dove Medical Press, 2018
Keywords
abstraction, self-control, clinical pain, musculoskeletal pain, cognition
National Category
Nursing Psychology
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Nursing; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76900 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S163044 (DOI)000435875800001 ()29942145 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048681361 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-13 Created: 2018-07-13 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Årestedt, K., Allert, C., Djukanovic, I., Israelsson, J., Schildmeijer, K., Agerström, J., . . . Bremer, A. (2018). Health-related quality of life among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in working age. Paper presented at The Congress of the European Resuscitation Council, 20th – 22th September. Bologna, Italy. Resuscitation, 130(s1), Article ID e18.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health-related quality of life among in-hospital cardiac arrest survivors in working age
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2018 (English)In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 130, no s1, article id e18Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Health-related quality of life, in-hospital, cardiac arrest, working age, anxiety, depression
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77900 (URN)10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.07.342 (DOI)
Conference
The Congress of the European Resuscitation Council, 20th – 22th September. Bologna, Italy
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2019-08-28Bibliographically approved
Al-Dury, N., Rawshani, A., Israelsson, J., Strömsöe, A., Aune, S., Agerström, J., . . . Herlitz, J. (2017). Characteristics and outcome among 14,933 adult cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide study with the emphasis on gender and age.. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, 35(12), 1839-1844
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characteristics and outcome among 14,933 adult cases of in-hospital cardiac arrest: A nationwide study with the emphasis on gender and age.
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2017 (English)In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1839-1844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: To investigate characteristics and outcome among patients suffering in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) with the emphasis on gender and age.

METHODS: Using the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, we analyzed associations between gender, age and co-morbidities, etiology, management, 30-day survival and cerebral function among survivors in 14,933 cases of IHCA. Age was divided into three ordered categories: young (18-49years), middle-aged (50-64years) and older (65years and above). Comparisons between men and women were age adjusted.

RESULTS: The mean age was 72.7years and women were significantly older than men. Renal dysfunction was the most prevalent co-morbidity. Myocardial infarction/ischemia was the most common condition preceding IHCA, with men having 27% higher odds of having MI as the underlying etiology. A shockable rhythm was found in 31.8% of patients, with men having 52% higher odds of being found in VT/VF. After adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients. Increasing age was associated with lower 30-day survival but not with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

CONCLUSION: When adjusting for various confounders, it was found that men had a 10% lower chance than women of surviving to 30days after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Older individuals were managed less aggressively than younger patients, despite a lower chance of survival. Higher age was, however, not associated with poorer cerebral function among survivors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Cardiac arrest, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Research subject
Natural Science, Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72702 (URN)10.1016/j.ajem.2017.06.012 (DOI)000417337100009 ()28624147 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85020765621 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-13 Created: 2018-04-13 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Agerström, J., Gunnarsson, H. E. M. & Stening, K. (2017). Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 29(6), 748-754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does physical pain impair abstract thinking?
2017 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 748-754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ability to think abstractly constitutes a fundamental dimension of human cognition. Although abstraction has been extensively studied, its emotional and affective antecedents have been largely overlooked. One experiment was conducted to examine whether physical pain affects abstraction. Drawing on Construal Level Theory [Trope, Y., & Liberman, N. (2010). Construal-level theory of psychological distance. Psychological Review117, 440–463] and Loewenstein’s [(1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes65, 272–292] visceral factors theory, we hypothesised that pain impairs abstraction because pain constricts people’s mental horizons and lead to a concrete, inward-focus toward oneself in the here and now. Physical pain was manipulated between subjects (N = 150). The participants either kept their left hand immersed in cold (painful) water or neutral (painless) water while we measured abstract versus concrete behaviour identification, categorisation, and perceptual processing. Bayesian statistical analyses indicate substantial evidence against the hypothesis that pain impairs abstraction. In contrast to many other previously studied cognitive outcomes (e.g. attention), abstraction appears to be largely immune to acute, experimentally induced pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Abstraction, Physical pain, Construal level
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61089 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2017.1304941 (DOI)000417441000008 ()2-s2.0-85015900559 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-06 Created: 2017-03-06 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, R. & Agerström, J. (2016). A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(4), 278-287
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A closer look at the discrimination outcomes in the IAT literature
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To what extent the IAT (Implicit Association Test, Greenwald et al., 1998) predicts racial and ethnic discrimination is a heavily debated issue. The latest meta-analysis by Oswald et al. (2013) suggests a very weak association. In the present meta-analysis, we switched the focus from the predictor to the criterion, by taking a closer look at the discrimination outcomes. We discovered that many of these outcomes were not actually operationalizations of discrimination, but rather of other related, but distinct, concepts, such as brain activity and voting preferences. When we meta-analyzed the main effects of discrimination among the remaining discrimination outcomes, the overall effect was close to zero and highly inconsistent across studies. Taken together, it is doubtful whether the amalgamation of these outcomes is relevant criteria for assessing the IAT's predictive validity of discrimination. Accordingly, there is also little evidence that the IAT can meaningfully predict discrimination, and we thus strongly caution against any practical applications of the IAT that rest on this assumption. However, provided that the application is thoroughly informed by the current state of the literature, we believe the IAT can still be a useful tool for researchers, educators, managers, and students who are interested in attitudes, prejudices, stereotypes, and discrimination.

Keywords
Implicit association test, ethnic discrimination, racial discrimination, meta-analysis
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-55772 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12288 (DOI)000379940000002 ()27109866 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84978481217 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-08-26 Created: 2016-08-26 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, H. E. M., Grahn, B. & Agerström, J. (2016). Impaired psychomotor ability and attention in patients with persistent pain: a cross-sectional comparative study. Journal of Pain Research, 9, 825-835
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired psychomotor ability and attention in patients with persistent pain: a cross-sectional comparative study
2016 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 9, p. 825-835Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims: Patients with pain have shown cognitive impairment across various domains. Although the pain qualities vary among patients, research has overlooked how cognitive performance is affected by the duration and persistence of pain. The current study sought to fill this gap by examining how qualitatively different pain states relate to the following cognitive functions: sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability. Patients and methods: Patients with musculoskeletal pain in primary care were divided into three pain groups: acute pain (duration <3 months), regularly recurrent pain (duration >3 months), and persistent pain (duration >3 months). These groups were then compared with healthy controls. The MapCog Spectra Test, the Color Word Test, and the Grooved Pegboard Test were used to measure sustained attention, cognitive control, and psychomotor ability, respectively. Results: Patients with persistent pain showed significantly worse sustained attention and psychomotor ability compared with healthy controls. The acute pain group showed a significant decrease in psychomotor ability, and the regularly recurrent pain group showed a significant decrease in sustained attention. These results remained unchanged when age, education, and medication were taken into account. Conclusion: Persistent musculoskeletal pain seems to impair performance on a wider range of cognitive tasks than acute or regularly recurrent pain, using pain-free individuals as a benchmark. However, there is some evidence of impairment in psychomotor ability among patients with acute pain and some impairment in sustained attention among patients with regularly recurrent pain.

Keywords
persistent pain, cognitive impairment, musculoskeletal pain, psychomotor ability, attention, cognitive control
National Category
Psychology Neurosciences
Research subject
Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59730 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S114915 (DOI)000389837700001 ()27799814 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84992482345 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-10 Created: 2017-01-10 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Gunnarsson, H. E. M., Grahn, B. & Agerström, J. (2016). Increased deep pain sensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain but not in other musculoskeletal pain states. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 13, 1-5
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased deep pain sensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain but not in other musculoskeletal pain states
2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 13, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundPressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in a non-painful body area are known to be affected in some chronic pain states. The aim of this study is to investigate PPTs in a pain-free body part in relation to pain persistence and intensity in patients with musculoskeletal pain. MethodsPatients with musculoskeletal pain were divided into three different pain groups: acute pain (pain duration < 3 months, n = 38), regularly recurrent pain (regularly recurrent pain duration > 3 months, n = 56), persistent pain (persistent pain duration > 3 months, n = 52) and a healthy control group (n = 51). PPT measures were conducted over the tibialis anterior muscle on the right leg in all groups. ResultsThe persistent pain group showed significantly lower PPTs over the tibialis anterior muscle compared to controls. No significant differences were found between the acute and regularly recurrent pain groups compared to healthy controls. Significant correlations, albeit small, were found between pain intensity and PPTs. ConclusionsIncreased deep pain sensitivity was found in patients with persistent musculoskeletal pain, but not in regularly recurrent pain or in acute pain. Yet, a limitation of the study is that it did not have sufficient power to detect small levels of increased deep pain sensitivity among the latter groups when compared to healthy controls. Implications: Knowledge about increased general hypersensitivity in persistent musculoskeletal pain could be important in clinical treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Central sensitization, Deep pain sensitivity, Persistent pain, Pressure pain threshold
National Category
Neurology
Research subject
Natural Science, Medicine; Social Sciences, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-56062 (URN)10.1016/j.sjpain.2016.05.032 (DOI)000391261500001 ()28850505 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84973340677 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-09-16 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6134-0058

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