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Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Adamopoulos, S., Ahmed, S. A. & Lankveld, C. (2018). Acoustic properties of acetylated wood under different humid conditions and its relevance for musical instruments. In: Jos Creemers, Thomas Houben, Bôke Tjeerdsma, Holger Militz and Brigitte Junge (Ed.), Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands: . Paper presented at 9th European Conference on Wood Modification (ECWM9), September 17-18, Arnhem, The Netherlands (pp. 236-243). The Netherlands: Practicum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic properties of acetylated wood under different humid conditions and its relevance for musical instruments
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Wood Modification 2018, Arnhem, The Netherlands / [ed] Jos Creemers, Thomas Houben, Bôke Tjeerdsma, Holger Militz and Brigitte Junge, The Netherlands: Practicum , 2018, p. 236-243Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In musical instrument making, less expensive wood species and materials with good characteristics and acoustical properties can provide potentials to find alternatives to the traditional exotic wood species used today. Modified wood could be such a choice if shows similar sound characteristics to wood coming from endangered and expensive tropical species with problematic commercial availability. In musical instruments, the overall functionality depends on the contribution of wood to different material performance indexes like sound radiation coefficient (R), characteristic impedance (z) and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE). In this study, the performance indexes were measured for acetylated beech, maple and radiata pine and compared with these obtained for the reference wood materials maple, mahogany, alder and ash. A non-destructive free-free flexural vibration test method was used at constant temperature (20oC) but in different humid conditions- dry (35% RH), standard (65% RH) and wet (85% RH). Dimensional changes in the different humid conditions were also taken in account. Acetylated wood showed lower EMC with higher dimensional stability at each humidity level as compared with the reference wood materials. These properties are considered important factors for making quality musical instruments. Based on the acoustical properties, acetylated wood materials, especially radiata pine, showed good potential for use for musical instruments where specific characteristics of sound are required. However, the other types of acetylated wood can also be used for specific musical instruments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Netherlands: Practicum, 2018
Keywords
Acoustic conversion efficiency, damping, equilibrium moisture content, free-free flexural vibration, volumetric shrinkage
National Category
Wood Science Chemical Engineering Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-84630 (URN)
Conference
9th European Conference on Wood Modification (ECWM9), September 17-18, Arnhem, The Netherlands
Available from: 2019-06-05 Created: 2019-06-05 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, S. A. & Adamopoulos, S. (2018). Acoustic properties of modified wood under different humid conditions and their relevance for musical instruments. Applied Acoustics, 140, 92-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic properties of modified wood under different humid conditions and their relevance for musical instruments
2018 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, Vol. 140, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In musical instrument making, there is a strong need to find alternatives to the traditional endangered and expensive tropical wood species used today. The present study examined whether different commercial and experimental modified wood materials have the necessary acoustic qualities under different humid conditions (dry, standard and wet) to contribute to the use of raw materials for wooden musical instruments. The materials were thermally-modified wood (ash, aspen and birch), acetylated wood (beech, maple and radiata pine), melamine- and phenol formaldehyde-treated beech and furfurylated Scots pine (Kebony Scots pine). Investigations involved physical (density ρ, Equilibrium moisture content EMC, volumetric shrinkage) and dynamic elastic testing by a free-free flexural vibration method to determine various acoustic characteristics: specific dynamic modulus (MOEdyn/ρ), damping coefficient (tanδ), speed of sound (c), specific acoustic impedance (z), sound radiation coefficient (R) and acoustic conversion efficiency (ACE). The modified materials and especially acetylated wood showed low EMC values and high dimensional stability at each humidity level, which are considered important factors for making quality musical instruments. Based on the obtained value ranges of all acoustical properties, the different modified wood materials could find uses in musical instruments where specific characteristics of sound are required. Furthermore, most of the modified materials showed an excellent acoustic performance in the three humid conditions based on a high ACE and low tanδ. Furfurylated Scots pine and phenol formaldehyde-treated beech showed an inferior acoustic quality with the lowest ACE and the highest tanδ, which is a less favourable combination for most of the musical instruments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Wood modification; Dimensional stability; Free-free flexural vibration; Dynamic elastic modulus; Damping; Sound velocity; Sound radiation; Acoustic impedance; Acoustic conversion efficiency
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Physics, Waves and Signals
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74511 (URN)10.1016/j.apacoust.2018.05.017 (DOI)000440121900010 ()
Available from: 2018-05-24 Created: 2018-05-24 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, S. A., Morén, T., Sehlstedt-Persson, M. & Blom, Å. (2017). Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally-modified European aspen and downy birch wood. Journal of Wood Science, 63(1), 74-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally-modified European aspen and downy birch wood
2017 (English)In: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional chemical wood preservatives have been banned or restricted in some applications due to human and animal toxicity and their adverse impact on the surrounding environment. New, low-environmental-impact wood treatments that still provide effective protection systems are needed to protect wood. Thermal modification of wood could reduce hygroscopicity, improve dimensional stability and enhance resistance to mold attack. The aim of this study was to investigate if these properties enhanced in thermally modified (TM) wood through treatments with oils. In this study, TM European aspen (Populus tremula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) wood were impregnated with three different types of oil: water-miscible commercial Elit Träskydd (Beckers oil with propiconazole and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate, IPBC), a pine tar formulation and 100% tung oil. The properties of oil-impregnated wood investigated were water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility. The treated wood, especially with pine tar and tung oil, showed an increase in water repellency and dimensional stability. However, Beckers oil which contains biocides like propiconazole and IPBC showed better protection against mold compared with pine tar and tung oil. To enhance the dimensional stability of the wood, pine tar and tung oil can be used, but these oil treatments did not significantly improve mold resistance rather sometimes enhanced the mold growth, whereas a significant anti-mold effect was observed on Beckers oil treated samples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Japan: Springer-Verlag Tokyo Inc., 2017
Keywords
Thermal modification, oil impregnation, dimensional stability, durability, mold
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57073 (URN)10.1007/s10086-016-1595-y (DOI)000394991100008 ()
Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-10-05 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Wang, X. A., Björnberg, J., Hagman, O., Ahmed, S. A., Wan, H. & Niemz, P. (2016). Effect of Low Temperatures on the Block Shear Strength of Norway Spruce Glulam Joints. BioResources, 11(4), 9638-9648
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Low Temperatures on the Block Shear Strength of Norway Spruce Glulam Joints
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2016 (English)In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 9638-9648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The block shear strength of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) glulam joints was tested under low temperature. Glulam samples were glued with the three of the most common outdoor structural adhesives. The cold temperatures tested were 20, −20, −30, −40, -50 and −60 °C. Within the temperature test range, the block shear strength of the glulam joints was resistant to the effect of temperature. As the temperature decreased, the joints’ block shear strength did not show any significant change. In most cases, phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) adhesive yielded the strongest block shear strength, while melamine-formaldehyde (MF) adhesive yielded the weakest block shear strength. Melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesive yielded similar results to those of MF adhesives for all temperatures tested. The block shear strengths of the glulam joints with PRF, MUF and MF adhesives were not sensitive to temperature change. The results indicated that PRF, MUF and MF adhesives are stable for outdoor structural engineered wood construction in cold climate. The results also suggest that the SS-EN 14080 (2013) standard for the block shear method may not be the proper standard for testing differences in shear strength at different temperatures. The EN 302-1 (2011) standard could be more suitable for this purpose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
USA: North Carolina State University, Department of Wood & Paper Science, 2016
Keywords
Block shear strength, Norway spruce, Outdoor structural adhesives, Glulam joints
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57064 (URN)10.15376/biores.11.4.9638-9648 (DOI)000391801300114 ()
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Elustondo, D., Ahmed, S. A. & Oliveira, L. (2014). Drying western red cedar with superheated steam. Drying Technology, 32(5), 550-556
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drying western red cedar with superheated steam
2014 (English)In: Drying Technology, ISSN 0737-3937, E-ISSN 1532-2300, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This exploratory study evaluated the possibility of drying 50-mm-thick western red cedar with superheated steam. Since there are no industrial facilities in Canada drying western red cedar with superheated steam, the study was designed to explore the potential of this technology in terms of lumber quality, moisture content distribution, and drying time. The experiments showed that the 50-mm-thick product can be dried in less than three days without jeopardizing lumber quality (in comparison with the two weeks that is currently required in conventional kilns), and the percentage of pieces that remained wet after drying was within the 10% to 15% range that is typically tolerated in industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2014
Keywords
Drying, lumber, superheated steam, western red cedar
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46530 (URN)10.1080/07373937.2013.843190 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Sehlstedt-Persson, M. & Ahmed, S. A. (2014). Metodutveckling för mögeltestning av trä - förstudie: Slutrapport. TräCentrum Norr
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metodutveckling för mögeltestning av trä - förstudie: Slutrapport
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna förstudie har varit att utveckla enkla och robusta forcerade mögeltester på trä som kan följas och utvärderas kontinuerligt i forskningsprojekt som bedrivs inom beständighetsområdet vid LTU och SP Trätek i Skellefteå. Testerna som gjorts i klimatskåp bygger på naturlig kontaminering och klimatval som gynnar mögeltillväxt.De metoder som utvecklats gör inte anspråk på att kunna erbjuda jämförelser med andra etablerade metoder utan enbart jämförelser inom batcher som ingår i de material- och processvariabler som studeras, exempelvis inom virkestorkning, värmebehandling och impregneringsmetoder.I förstudien utvärderades ett antal olika klimatval i ett klimatskåp som användes i försöken. Mögelpåväxt gynnas av stabil och hög RF, mörker och stillastående luft. Därför täcktes glasdörren till skåpet med svart plast och övre delen av klimatskåpet skärmades av med en mellanplåt eftersom en fläkt cirkulerar luften i kammaren nedre delar. I den övre delen av klimatskåpet gjordes noggranna mätningar av klimatet för att säkerställa ett jämnt och stabilt klimat i olika positioner.Mögelkontaminerat furumaterial sparat från tidigare TCN projekt användes som ”smittokälla” genom att placeras i klimatskåpets nedre del vid valt klimat under 2 dygn för att infektera kammaren med mögelsporer. Därefter placerades försöksmaterialet i klimatskåpets övre del. Smittokällan dvs. det kontaminerade materialet befann sig i skåpet under hela försöket. Inspektion av mögelpåväxtengjordes regelbundet fram tills beslut togs att avbryta försöket och utvärdera mögelpåväxten. Den utvärderingsmetod som används för att bedöma mögelpåväxt bygger på en visuell bedömningsskala översatt i ”praktisk användning” som utarbetats i tidigare TCN-projekt.Den lämpligaste metoden bedöms vara att använda klimatskåpets ”set-points” +27°C/95 % RF samt att avbryta försöket efter ca 12-14 dagar. Mögelgraderna på de undersökta proverna har då varit av samma omfattning som efter ca 100 dagars forcerat utomhustest beskrivit i tidigare TCN-projekt.Den framtagna metoden har använts i fyra ”skarpa” studier som publicerats i vetenskapliga tidskrifter. Detta får ses som att projektet varit lyckat och utgör ett viktigt vetenskapligt bidrag.Metoden beskrivs i detalj i en av dessa publikationer som finns som bilaga till denna rapport nämligen: “Development of a new rapid method for mould testing in a climate chamber: Preliminary tests.” Ahmed, S. A., Sehlstedt-Persson, M. & Morén, T. jul 2013 i :Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff .71 ,4 ,s. 451-461.11 s.Den framtagna metoden har fungerat mycket bra. Metoden har följande fördelar:* Den är enkel, robust och billig.* Mögelpåväxten kan följas på plats.* Det är möjligt att få svar redan efter två veckor på inverkan av olika variabler som undersöks.* Enkel kontaminering – ingen uppodling av speciella mögelarter.* Upp till 44 stycken prover kan ingå i en batch, beroende av dimension.Metoden har följande nackdelar:* Ingen standardiserad metod dvs. det är inte möjligt göra jämförelser mellan olika försöksomgångar utan endast möjligt att göra ”inom-batch” jämförelser.* Ingen kontroll av vilka mögelarter som angriper virket.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TräCentrum Norr, 2014. p. 23
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57777 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-03 Created: 2016-11-03 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Sidorova, E., Ahmed, S. A. & Diego, E. (2014). Wood thermal-modification at Luleå University of Technology. In: Mojgan Vaziri, Dick Sandberg (Ed.), Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden: Books of Abstracts. Paper presented at Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference: “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” : May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden (pp. 75-75). Skellefteå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood thermal-modification at Luleå University of Technology
2014 (English)In: Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden: Books of Abstracts / [ed] Mojgan Vaziri, Dick Sandberg, Skellefteå: Luleå tekniska universitet , 2014, p. 75-75Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Wood Physics group at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) has the vision of transforming Swedish solid wood into the material of choice for the renewable economy of the future. To realize that vision, the group believes, stability and durability of local softwood species must be enhanced at a reasonable cost without jeopardizing the natural beauty of this environmentally friendly material. One of the methods for enhancing stability and durability of solid wood is thermal modification, and LTU's Wood Physics group has vast experience in developing and evaluating thermal modification process. In simple words, thermal modification involves exposing the wood to relatively high temperatures, between 160o C and 240o C depending on the products and technologies used, and in the absence of oxygen to avoid degradation of the wood by combustion. It has been proved that these relatively high temperatures modify the chemical structure of the wood polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), and wood becomes less prone to absorb moisture from the environment and more resistance to biological degradation. There are a number of thermal modification methods that have been implemented in Europe at the commercial level, such as ThermoWood® and WTT thermo-treatment. ThermoWood® process is performed under normal atmospheric pressure with superheated steam containing as little oxygen as possible. The wood is first dried to almost 0% moisture content with steam temperatures up to 130°C, and then exposed to steam temperatures between 185°C to 212°C for a few hours. Afterward the vapor temperature is reduced to below 90°C to saturate the steam and allow the wood regain moisture. The WTT thermotreatment is performed with saturated steam under pressure up to 20 bars and temperatures between 160°C and 210°C, so the wood is not dried during the process. In the last years, LTU's Wood Physics group has performed several studies in collaboration with local wood producers interested in the evaluation and optimization of thermal modification processes. To study thermal modification in laboratory, LTU's Wood Physics has built pilot scale kiln/thermal-modification unit that fits through the field of view of a CT-scanner unit specially adapted for wood material studies. This combined equipment allowed measuring wood density profiles through entire thermal modification process, thus providing valuable information about the effect of the process conditions in the material. More recently, LTU's Wood Physics group became interested in the process of thermal modification by boiling in linseed oil for 2 to 4 hours. This technology is available in the market, but the novelty at LTU was the implementation of an additional oil impregnation cooling phase in which the wood is submerged in cool oil after thermal modification. This creates a sudden contraction of the gases inside the wood, which in turn draws considerable amounts of oil into the wood. The authors believe that this combined thermal-modification/oil-impregnation treatment offers a simple but effective methodology for simultaneously: 1) enhance the stability and durability of solid wood, 2) impregnate the wood surfaces with oil for increasing the repellency to moisture. This presentation includes an example of the combined thermal-modification/oil-impregnation treatment applied to common Swedish softwood and hardwood species. Both species were treated by using the WTT heat treatment technology and impregnated with different types of preservative oils. After impregnation, the samples were tested for water repellency, dimensional stability, and resistance to mould. Water repellency and dimensional stability were assessed for both liquid water and air relative humidity, and the resistance to oil leaching was determined by exposing the treated wood to cycles in which the samples absorbed water by immersion and then release the water under vacuum. As expected, the treatments showed a significant improvement in the water repellency and dimensional stability of the wood. Overall, untreated wood was more stable after thermal modification, and thermally modified wood was more stable after oil impregnation. The resistance to mould was evaluated by using an accelerated technique also developed by the Wood Physics group at Luleå University of Technology. The technique consists in placing the wood samples in the upper zone of a conditioning chamber in which there are other pieces of wood already infected by mould in the lower zone. Typically, the source of mould is pine sapwood infected with mould of aspergillus, rhizopus, penicillium genus along with other various species, and the test samples are exposed approximately 20 days to the infected environment. After incubation, the incidence of mould over the surfaces is graded in scale from 0 to 6 based on the visual assessment of two independent observers. The results of the study showed that some of the oil impregnation treatments did not significantly improved mould resistance, and it was still questionable whether the oil would not leach from the wood when the products are in service. Future research in wood modification would be certainly needed to find the right thermal-modification/oil-impregnation combination for the right application, as well as to realize the vision of transforming solid wood in the material of choice for the renewable economy of future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Skellefteå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2014
Keywords
wood Physics group, wood modification, thermal modification, oil impregnation
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57844 (URN)978-91-7439-937-0 (ISBN)978-91-7439-938-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Final Cost Action FP0904 Conference: “Recent Advances in the Field of TH and THM Wood Treatment” : May 19-21, 2014, Skellefteå, Sweden
Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, S. A., Yang, Q., Sehlstedt-Persson, M. & Morén, T. (2013). Accelerated Mold Test on Dried Pine Sapwood Boards: Impact of Contact Heat Treatment. Journal of wood chemistry and technology, 33(3), 174-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Accelerated Mold Test on Dried Pine Sapwood Boards: Impact of Contact Heat Treatment
2013 (English)In: Journal of wood chemistry and technology, ISSN 0277-3813, E-ISSN 1532-2319, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 174-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We test the hypothesis that the combination of kiln drying of double-stacked boards and contact heat treatment will reduce the susceptibility of treated boards to colonization by mold fungi. Winter-felled Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards were double-stacked in an industrial kiln in ''sapwood out'' and ''sapwood in'' positions. Dried samples were then contact heat-treated using a hot press at three different temperatures (140°C, 170°C, and 200°C) for three different periods (1, 3, and 10 min). An accelerated mold test was performed in a climate chamber where naturally mold-infected samples were used as a source of mold inocula. Contact heat treatment degraded the saccharides that accumulated at dried surfaces, and reduced the mold growth. The threshold temperature and time for inhibiting mold growth were 170°C for 10 min. However, for industrial application, the most feasible combination of temperature and time would be 200°C for 3 min. We concluded that double stacking/contact heat treatment used is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemicals for reducing mold on Scots pine sapwood boards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2013
Keywords
Accelerated mold test, climate chamber, double-stacked drying, contact heat treatment, mold grade, soluble sugar migration
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46540 (URN)10.1080/02773813.2013.773041 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, S. A., Morén, T., Hagman, O., Cloutier, A., Fang, C.-H. & Elustondo, D. (2013). Anatomical properties and process parameters affecting blister/blow formation in densified European aspen and downy birch sapwood boards by thermo-hygro-mechanical compression. Journal of Materials Science, 48(24), 8571-8579
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anatomical properties and process parameters affecting blister/blow formation in densified European aspen and downy birch sapwood boards by thermo-hygro-mechanical compression
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 24, p. 8571-8579Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Approximately, 13.5 % of the standing volume of productive forest land in Sweden is covered by birch and aspen, which provides the vast potential to produce value-added products such as densified wood. This study shows whether it is possible to densify those species with a thermo-hygro-mechanical (THM) process using heat, steam, and pressure. In this process, transverse compression on thin European aspen (Populus tremula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) boards was performed at 200 °C with a maximum steam pressure of 550 kPa. To obtain a theoretical 50 % compression set, the press’s maximum hydraulic pressure ranged from 1.5 to 7.3 MPa. Preliminary tests showed that ~75 % of the birch boards produced defects (blisters/blows) while only 25 % of the aspen boards did. Mainly, radial delamination associated with internal checks in intrawall and transwall fractures caused small cracks (termed blisters) while blows are characterized by relatively larger areas of delamination visible as a bumpy surface on the panel. Anatomical investigations revealed that birch was more prone to those defects than aspen. However, those defects could be minimized by increasing the pre-treatment time during the THM processing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46537 (URN)10.1007/s10853-013-7679-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, S. A., Sehlstedt-Persson, M. & Morén, T. (2013). Development of a new rapid method for mould testing in a climate chamber: preliminary tests. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 71(4), 451-461
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of a new rapid method for mould testing in a climate chamber: preliminary tests
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 71, no 4, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to develop fast, simple and robust solid wood mould testing methods for the use in small-scale laboratory tests. The objective was to investigate mould susceptibility of different wood materials within the batches. The proposed method is based on natural contamination of non-sterile surfaces in climates conducive to mould growth. For this purpose, a climate chamber with regulated temperature and relative humidity was used. The conditioning chamber was divided into upper and lower chamber by a thin layer of stainless steel placed horizontally above the fan to minimise air circulation to the sample in the upper compartment. Mould-infected samples from outdoor tests were used as a source of mould inocula, and test trials were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood. Samples were suspended from the top of the upper chamber, and the chamber was exposed to different temperature and humidity levels. Severe mould infestation was observed after 12–14 days of incubation. Visual mould rating was then performed. Regardless of some constraints, this test method was very simple, fast, and effective. More importantly, unlike other test methods, it closely models mould infestation as it would occur under natural condition.

Abstract [de]

Zweck dieser Studie war die Entwicklung eines schnellen, einfachen und robusten Verfahrens zur Prüfung von Schimmelbefall auf Massivholz im Labor. Ziel war es, die Anfälligkeit von in der Prüfkammer unterschiedlich angeordneten Prüfkörpern für Schimmelbefall zu untersuchen. Die vorgeschlagene Methode basiert auf natürlicher Kontamination nicht steriler Oberflächen in Klimata, die Schimmelwachstum fördern. Hierfür wurde eine Klimakammer mit regulierbarer Temperatur und relativer Luftfeuchte verwendet. Die Klimakammer wurde mittels einer horizontal über dem Ventilator angebrachten dünnen Edelstahlplatte in einen oberen und einen unteren Teil abgeteilt, um die Luftzirkulation im Bereich der Prüfkörper in der oberen Kammer zu minimieren. Von Schimmel befallene Prüfkörper aus Freilandversuchen dienten als Infektionsquelle. An Kiefernsplintholz (Pinus sylvestris L.) wurden Testversuche durchgeführt. Die Prüfkörper wurden an der Decke der oberen Kammer aufgehängt und in der Kammer wurden verschiedene Temperatur- und Feuchteniveaus eingestellt. Nach 12-14 Tagen wurde starker Schimmelbefall festgestellt. Anschließend wurde der Befall visuell bewertet. Abgesehen von einigen Einschränkungen erwies sich diese Methode als sehr einfach, schnell und effektiv. Noch wichtiger war jedoch, dass dieses Verfahren, im Vergleich zu anderen Prüfverfahren, Schimmelbefall am realistischsten modelliert.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46539 (URN)10.1007/s00107-013-0697-0 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-09-29 Created: 2015-09-29 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6390-7377

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