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Behrenz, Lars
Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Karlsson, P. S., Behrenz, L. & Shukur, G. (2019). Performances of model selection criteria when variables are ill conditioned. Computational Economics, 54(1), 77-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performances of model selection criteria when variables are ill conditioned
2019 (English)In: Computational Economics, ISSN 0927-7099, E-ISSN 1572-9974, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 77-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Model selection criteria are often used to find a "proper" model for the data under investigation when building models in cases in which the dependent or explained variables are assumed to be functions of several independent or explanatory variables. For this purpose, researchers have suggested using a large number of such criteria. These criteria have been shown to act differently, under the same or different conditions, when trying to select the "correct" number of explanatory variables to be included in a given model; this, unfortunately, leads to severe problems and confusion for researchers. In this paper, using Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the properties of four of the most common criteria under a number of realistic situations. These criteria are the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2-adj), Akaike's information criterion (AIC), the Hannan–Quinn information criterion (HQC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The results from this investigation indicate that the HQC outperforms the BIC, the AIC and the R2-adj under specific circumstances. None of them perform satisfactorily, however, when the degree of multicollinearity is high, the sample sizes are small or when the fit of the model is poor (i.e., there is a low R2) . In the presence of all these factors, the criteria perform very badly and are not very useful. In these cases, the criteria are often not able to select the true model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Information criteria, Model selection, Multicollinearity, Monte Carlo methods
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Research subject
Statistics/Econometrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62075 (URN)10.1007/s10614-017-9682-8 (DOI)000467688100005 ()2-s2.0-85018671936 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-04-03 Created: 2017-04-03 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L. & Månsson, J. (2016). Is starting a business a sustainable way out of unemployment?: treatment effects of the Swedish start-up subsidy. Journal of Labor Research, 37(4), 389-411
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is starting a business a sustainable way out of unemployment?: treatment effects of the Swedish start-up subsidy
2016 (English)In: Journal of Labor Research, ISSN 0195-3613, E-ISSN 1936-4768, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 389-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment start-up program based on a matching approach using data from administrative records. In addition to information of labor market history, traditional human capital and socio-economic variables, the data at hand also include information on the self-employment history of participants and nonparticipants as well as that of their parents. Our results indicate that the start-up subsidy program for unemployed persons is a successful program regarding the integration of the unemployed into the mainstream of the labor market. We find that, relative to members of control groups, participants, on average, have an increased probability of unsubsidized employment. Our analysis of different educational backgrounds presents the strongest employment effects for the low educated unemployed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2016
Keywords
Start-up subsidies, Self-employment, Direct employment effects
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58255 (URN)10.1007/s12122-016-9233-4 (DOI)000388182800001 ()2-s2.0-84983521008 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L., Frödin, O., Mathieu, C., Månsson, J. & Ottosson, M. (2015). Arbetsgivares perspektiv på subventionerade anställningar: en kartläggning. Linnaeus University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Arbetsgivares perspektiv på subventionerade anställningar: en kartläggning
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Trots en kraftig ökning av antalet subventionerade anställningar från mitten av 2000-talet är det ett stort antal arbetsgivare som inte använder sig av lönesubventioner. Denna rapport har försökt att kartlägga och analysera arbetsgivares perspektiv på lönekostnadssubventioner. När det gäller analyser som berör de arbetsgivare som använt sig av lönesubventioner är den viktigaste förklaringsfaktorn att man använt sig av subventioner tidigare. Våra intervjuer visar också att de arbetsgivare som använder sig av lönesubventioner ofta har ett socialt ansvarstagande. Ett av huvudresultaten med följande studie är att 95 procent av de som använder sig av subventioner är nöjda. Omfattningen i pengar och personens kvalifikationer var mest avgörande för anställningsbeslutet. Av de som inte använt sig av lönesubventioner är det 20 procent som inte känt till att möjligheten finns. Intervjuer med arbetsgivare utan erfarenhet av att anställa med lönesubventioner visar att de är skeptiska att hitta lämplig personal genom att anställa med lönesubventioner. När vi ställer en hypotetisk fråga till samtliga arbetsgivare om vad som skulle kunna få dem att anställa med en subvention framkommer möjligheten att få pröva aktuell person som den klart viktigaste faktorn. Utifrån våra resultat föreslår vi bl.a. att Arbetsförmedlingen, i ett försöksupplägg, ska ges möjlighet att agera bemanningsföretag och vi föreslår också att man ska genomföra en omfattande informationskampanj till arbetsgivare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University, 2015. p. 92
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies ; 2015:17
Keywords
Arbetsförmedlingen, Subventionerade anställningar
National Category
Economics Sociology
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50628 (URN)
Note

Denna rapport utgör avrapportering av Regeringsuppdrag A2014/2020/A; Arbetsgivaresperspektiv på subventionerade anställningar

Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L. & Månsson, J. (2014). Utvärdering av Almis företagsrådgivning: Utvärdering av rådgivningsverksamhet till etablerade företag. Östersund: Tillväxtanalys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvärdering av Almis företagsrådgivning: Utvärdering av rådgivningsverksamhet till etablerade företag
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Detta PM är en effektutvärdering av de rådgivningsinsatser som utfördes av Almis regionala bolag till etablerade företag under perioden 2005–2010. I detta PM används flera metoder för att skatta effekter och två olika mått på vad som anses vara rådgivning.

Uppdraget

Detta uppdrag är en effektutvärdering av rådgivningsinsatser i Almis regionala bolag under perioden 2005–2010. Syftet med studierna är att avgöra om etablerade företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har utvecklats bättre än företag som inte fått sådan rådgivning i termer av tillväxt i produktionsvärde, sysselsättning och överlevnad. Studien är en av flera underlagsrapporter i Tillväxtanalys pågående uppdrag att utvärdera den statligt finansierade företagsrådgivningen.

Resultat och slutsatser

Rådgivning definieras i rapporten på två olika sätt. I den första antas ett företag fått rådgivning av Almi om företaget gjort minst ett rådgivningsbesök. Det går att finna effekter på produktionsvärde respektive sysselsättning för enstaka år och för enstaka utfallsvariabler. För övriga år är effekterna lägre och inte statistiskt säkerställda. Storleken på de signifikanta effekterna ligger väl i linje med resultaten från tidigare utvärderingar. Företag som fått rådgivning via Almi har knappt två procents högre sannolikhet att överleva två år efter rådgivningen jämfört med företag som inte erhållit rådgivning.

Den andra definitionen av rådgivning utgår ifrån att ett företag antas ha fått rådgivning om företaget gjort minst två rådgivningsbesök hos Almi. Den förändrade definitionen påverkar inte resultatet i någon större utsträckning. Inga effekter på någon av målvariablerna kan statistiskt säkerställas. När rådgivning definieras som minst två rådgivningsbesök finns inte heller någon statistiskt säkerhetsställd effekt på företags överlevnad.

Sammantaget drar vi slutsatsen att det inte går att statistiskt säkerställda några effekter av Almis företagsrådgivning på tillväxt, lönsamhet eller överlevnad.

Framtida undersökningar/Fortsatt lärande

Det finns således betydande svagheter i det datamaterial Tillväxtanalys har getts tillgång till och som ligger till grund för effektutvärderingen. Inte minst finns ett stort bortfall avseende vilka företag som deltagit i företagsrådgivning. Innan man gör ett nytt försök att effektutvärdera verksamheten är det viktigt att förbättra uppföljningen, så att det i större utsträckning är möjligt att identifiera vilka företag som tagit del av rådgivning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Östersund: Tillväxtanalys, 2014. p. 58
Series
Tillväxtanalys PM ; 2014:20
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50556 (URN)
Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2016-03-29Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L. & Hammarstedt, M. (2014). Utvärdering av nystartsjobb i Växjö kommun: slutrapport. Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utvärdering av nystartsjobb i Växjö kommun: slutrapport
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies, 2014. p. 32
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies ; 2014:16
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38646 (URN)
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L. & Månsson, J. (2013). Making the business case for Public Employment Services: Cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis. Paper presented at The European Commission Mutal Learning Programme for Public Employment Services, Brussels, Belgium. European Commission
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making the business case for Public Employment Services: Cost-benefit analysis and productive efficiency analysis
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The PES EU2020 working group points in a briefing note (PES EU2020 no date A) to change processes in EU PESs called for by social evolutions. The note emphasises that public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals.

PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Commission, 2013. p. 36
Series
The European Commission Mutal Learning Programme for Public Employment Services
Keywords
Public Employment Service, Cost-Benefit Analysis, DEA
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-29165 (URN)
Conference
The European Commission Mutal Learning Programme for Public Employment Services, Brussels, Belgium
Available from: 2013-10-02 Created: 2013-10-02 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L. (2013). The Economic Value of Elite Sports: The Case of Sweden. In: Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects AbstractsThirteenth Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos: . Paper presented at 13th Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects, 8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece (pp. 11-11). Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Economic Value of Elite Sports: The Case of Sweden
2013 (English)In: Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects AbstractsThirteenth Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece Edited by Gregory T. Papanikos, Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2013, p. 11-11Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study is about elite sports in Sweden. There are a lot of ways of studying the economic value of elite sports. In this article we use information from population data, club accounting and a questionnaire to get a picture of the economic values of elite sports. Our knowledge from earlier research concerning the economic value of elite sports is mainly based on US data. The Scandinavian model for sport is different from sports in the USA since the clubs are not owned by businesses and the goals are more or less “sport for all”. This paper tries to present a picture of the process of elite sports in countries there elite sports traditionally has been a mixture between professional and amateur. The results from willingness to pay analysis for the presence of elite sports in the actual county indicate values of 350 SEK (about 35 EURO) per year and person in Sweden. Another way of calculating the value of the elite teams is by estimating how many working hours people are prepared to devote to helping the club. If these hours are translated into economic values, it runs into between 3000 to 5000 SEK (about 300 to 500 EURO) per year and person, depending on location in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), 2013
Keywords
Sport Economics, Social Value, Willingness to Pay
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-29135 (URN)978-618-5065-07-2 (ISBN)
Conference
13th Annual International Conference on Sports: Economic, Management, Marketing & Social Aspects, 8-11 July 2013, Athens, Greece
Available from: 2013-10-02 Created: 2013-10-02 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L. & Månsson, J. (2013). The Public Employment Service: A Survey of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Productive Efficiency Analysis Studies. Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Public Employment Service: A Survey of Cost-Benefit Analysis and Productive Efficiency Analysis Studies
2013 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Public employment services’ operations will be massively and profoundly influenced by changes on both the supply and the demand side of the labour market and by such structural impediments as, for example, mismatch between labour demand and supply and low participation rates among vulnerable disadvantaged groups. Rapid and targeted mediation is considered to remain essential for PESs but it has to be combined with attention to provide transitions for individuals facing redundancy and career building. PESs should help job seekers adopt long-term career perspectives, stimulate them to enhance their competencies, give career guidance, give workers support to make smooth career transitions, as well as working with employers to ensure they meet their requirements and encourage and support them to provide career opportunities to more disadvantaged individuals. PESs have to develop their organisation and methods to efficiently and effectively respond to the changing needs in society and the labour market. Far-reaching changes in the tasks, organisational structures, and methods in PESs present corporate governance with great challenges—exacerbated by reduced budgetary resources. The pathway of change that has to be managed will be dotted with demands on decision-makers to choose between alternative courses of action. One of the main thrusts of this paper is to describe cost-benefit analysis, CBA, as a tool to assist decision-makers in choosing. CBA is a tool that judges alternatives in terms of their efficiency as regards the realisation of social objectives, which means that CBA allows policy makers to judge alternatives by their allocative efficiency. This requires taking into account the costs and benefits of the alternatives under consideration. The other main subject of the paper is about measuring productive efficiency which occurs when at a given cost the highest possible output of one service is produced, given the production level of other services. Such measurements make it possible to compare the productive efficiency of individual employment offices or to make comparisons in that respect between PESs in different countries. Therefore, measurements of productive efficiency can be the basis of actions to improve production and managerial processes. Examples of cost-benefit analyses of PES projects and productive efficiency analyses of PESs are given in the paper. The remainder of this paper is organised as follows: Section 1 opens with a brief sketch of changes in the governance in EU PESs during the last decades. This is followed by an accounting framework addressing both efficiency and distributional aspects of employment services. Section 2 begins with a condensed description of basic principles of cost-benefit analysis which is followed by a review of a number of economic analyses concerning employment services that have been carried out in EU countries. Section 3 is devoted to methods to measure the productive efficiency of individual employment offices and of the PES in one country in relation to productive efficiency of PESs in other countries. It starts with brief overviews of the theory of production and of methods to measure efficiency. Then it presents a review of previous studies and a description of the production of employment offices. This section concludes with the development of a benchmarking model for European employment offices. Section 4 provides concluding remarks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2013. p. 23
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies ; 2013:12
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-31087 (URN)
Available from: 2013-12-09 Created: 2013-12-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L. (2012). Idrottens ekonomiska samhällsnytta (1ed.). In: Johan Hvenmark (Ed.), Är idrott nyttigt?: En antologi om idrott och samhällsnytta (pp. 226-257). Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idrottens ekonomiska samhällsnytta
2012 (Swedish)In: Är idrott nyttigt?: En antologi om idrott och samhällsnytta / [ed] Johan Hvenmark, Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker , 2012, 1, p. 226-257Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: SISU Idrottsböcker, 2012 Edition: 1
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-23369 (URN)978-91-86323-42-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-01-09 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Behrenz, L., Delander, L. & Månsson, J. (2012). Start-up Subsidies in Sweden: Treatment, Deadweight and Direct Displacement Effects.. Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Start-up Subsidies in Sweden: Treatment, Deadweight and Direct Displacement Effects.
2012 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we evaluate the Swedish self-employment program using data from administrative records about matched groups of program participants and nonparticipants. We find that participating in the program reduces the duration of unemployment and the risk for re-unemployment. The self-employment scheme is not found to result in a significant reduction of jobs elsewhere in the economy whereas the study estimates displacement effects in the order of 35 percent from the compound of other Swedish labor market programs. According to previous Swedish survey investigations self-reported deadweight in the self-employment scheme varies across studies from about 30 to about 45 percent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2012. p. 27
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Labour Market and Discrimination Studies ; 2012:17
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-23375 (URN)
Available from: 2013-01-09 Created: 2013-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
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