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Publications (10 of 39) Show all publications
Nevalainen, T., Laitinen, M., Nevala, M. & Numi, A. (2018). Changes in different stages: From nearing completion to completed. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 251-256). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in different stages: From nearing completion to completed
2018 (English)In: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 251-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Keywords
Language change, historical sociolinguistics
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78278 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)9789027263834 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Palander-Collin, M., Laitinen, M., Sairio, A. & Säily, T. (2018). From incipient to mid-range and beyond. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 246-252). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From incipient to mid-range and beyond
2018 (English)In: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 246-252Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Keywords
Language change, historical sociolinguistics
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78279 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)978 90 272 6383 4 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M. & Säily, T. (2018). Google Books: A shortcut to studying language variability?. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 225-235). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Google Books: A shortcut to studying language variability?
2018 (English)In: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 225-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Keywords
Google books, sociolinguistics, language change
National Category
Specific Languages General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78276 (URN)9789027201034 (ISBN)978 90 272 6383 4 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M. (2018). Indefinite pronouns with singular human reference: Recessive and ongoing. In: Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily (Ed.), Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach (pp. 137-158). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indefinite pronouns with singular human reference: Recessive and ongoing
2018 (English)In: Patterns of Change in 18th-century English: A sociolinguistic approach / [ed] Terttu Nevalainen, Minna Palander-Collin, Tanja Säily, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 137-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 8
Keywords
Language change, corpus linguistics, historicalsociolinguistics
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78275 (URN)10.1075/ahs.8.09lai (DOI)9789027201034 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2019-01-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M. (2018). Placing ELF among the varieties of English: Observations from typological profiling. In: Sandra C. Deshors (Ed.), Modelling World Englishes in the 21st century: Assessing the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties (pp. 109-131). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Placing ELF among the varieties of English: Observations from typological profiling
2018 (English)In: Modelling World Englishes in the 21st century: Assessing the interplay of emancipation and globalization of ESL varieties / [ed] Sandra C. Deshors, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 109-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how (dis)similar ELF is structurally from the core nativevarieties of English, indigenized L2 varieties, and learner English. ELF is understoodas second language use of English in settings where the interactants do notnecessarily share a first language. The empirical part makes use of the method oftypological profiling based on aggregate structural features. This method measuresthree indices (i.e. grammaticity, analyticity, and syntheticity), and it hasbeen used previously to analyze a range of variety types but has not been appliedto the assessment of ELF. The results provide quantitative evidence that placesELF on the map and shows that, on purely structural grounds, ELF is a distinctvariety type among English varieties. Moreover, the observations show that ELFis structurally different from second language acquisition, and there is a quantitativebasis for drawing a distinction between ELF and traditional learner data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018
Series
Varieties of English around the World, ISSN 0172-7362 ; G61
Keywords
English as a lingu franca, second language use, typological profiling, genres in ELF
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77681 (URN)10.1075/veaw.g61.05lai (DOI)9789027201232 (ISBN)978 90 272 6370 4 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA-DHDISA
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Lundberg, J., Levin, M. & Martins, R. M. (2018). The Nordic Tweet Stream: A Dynamic Real-Time Monitor Corpus of Big and Rich Language Data. In: Eetu Mäkelä, Mikko Tolonen, Jouni Tuominen (Ed.), DHN 2018 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018. Paper presented at Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference, Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018 (pp. 349-362). CEUR-WS.org
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Nordic Tweet Stream: A Dynamic Real-Time Monitor Corpus of Big and Rich Language Data
2018 (English)In: DHN 2018 Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference: Proceedings of the Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018 / [ed] Eetu Mäkelä, Mikko Tolonen, Jouni Tuominen, CEUR-WS.org , 2018, p. 349-362Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article presents the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS), a cross-disciplinarycorpus project of computer scientists and a group of sociolinguists interestedin language variability and in the global spread of English. Our research integratestwo types of empirical data: We not only rely on traditional structured corpusdata but also use unstructured data sources that are often big and rich inmetadata, such as Twitter streams. The NTS downloads tweets and associatedmetadata from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. We first introducesome technical aspects in creating a dynamic real-time monitor corpus, andthe following case study illustrates how the corpus could be used as empiricalevidence in sociolinguistic studies focusing on the global spread of English tomultilingual settings. The results show that English is the most frequently usedlanguage, accounting for almost a third. These results can be used to assess howwidespread English use is in the Nordic region and offer a big data perspectivethat complement previous small-scale studies. The future objectives include annotatingthe material, making it available for the scholarly community, and expandingthe geographic scope of the data stream outside Nordic region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CEUR-WS.org, 2018
Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 2084
Keywords
Real-time language data, Nordic Tweet Stream, Twitter
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78277 (URN)
Conference
Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries 3rd Conference, Helsinki, Finland, March 7-9, 2018
Projects
DISA
Available from: 2018-10-11 Created: 2018-10-11 Last updated: 2018-10-17Bibliographically approved
Alissandrakis, A., Reski, N., Laitinen, M., Tyrkkö, J., Levin, M. & Lundberg, J. (2018). Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality. In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at The 39th Annual Conference of the International Computer Archive for Modern and Medieval English (ICAME39): Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society. Tampere, 30 May - 3 June, 2018 (pp. 205-205). Tampere: University of Tampere
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualizing dynamic text corpora using Virtual Reality
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2018 (English)In: ICAME 39 : Tampere, 30 May – 3 June, 2018: Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society : Book of Abstracts, Tampere: University of Tampere , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years, data visualization has become a major area in Digital Humanities research, and the same holds true also in linguistics. The rapidly increasing size of corpora, the emergence of dynamic real-time streams, and the availability of complex and enriched metadata have made it increasingly important to facilitate new and innovative approaches to presenting and exploring primary data. This demonstration showcases the uses of Virtual Reality (VR) in the visualization of geospatial linguistic data using data from the Nordic Tweet Stream (NTS) project (see Laitinen et al 2017). The NTS data for this demonstration comprises a full year of geotagged tweets (12,443,696 tweets from 273,648 user accounts) posted within the Nordic region (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden). The dataset includes over 50 metadata parameters in addition to the tweets themselves.

We demonstrate the potential of using VR to efficiently find meaningful patterns in vast streams of data. The VR environment allows an easy overview of any of the features (textual or metadata) in a text corpus. Our focus will be on the language identification data, which provides a previously unexplored perspective into the use of English and other non-indigenous languages in the Nordic countries alongside the native languages of the region.

Our VR prototype utilizes the HTC Vive headset for a room-scale VR scenario, and it is being developed using the Unity3D game development engine. Each node in the VR space is displayed as a stacked cuboid, the equivalent of a bar chart in a three-dimensional space, summarizing all tweets at one geographic location for a given point in time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr). Each stacked cuboid represents information of the three most frequently used languages, appropriately color coded, enabling the user to get an overview of the language distribution at each location. The VR prototype further encourages users to move between different locations and inspect points of interest in more detail (overall location-related information, a detailed list of all languages detected, the most frequently used hashtags). An underlying map outlines country borders and facilitates orientation. In addition to spatial movement through the Nordic areas, the VR system provides an interface to explore the Twitter data based on time (days, weeks, months, or time of predefined special events), which enables users to explore data over time (see: https://tinyurl.com/nts-vr-time).

In addition to demonstrating how the VR methods aid data visualization and exploration, we will also briefly discuss the pedagogical implications of using VR to showcase linguistic diversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tampere: University of Tampere, 2018
Keywords
virtual reality, Nordic Tweet Stream, digital humanities
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Human Computer Interaction Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Computer Science, Information and software visualization; Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75064 (URN)
Conference
The 39th Annual Conference of the International Computer Archive for Modern and Medieval English (ICAME39): Corpus Linguistics and Changing Society. Tampere, 30 May - 3 June, 2018
Projects
DISA-DHOpen Data Exploration in Virtual Reality (ODxVR)
Available from: 2018-06-05 Created: 2018-06-05 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Bravo, G., Laitinen, M., Levin, M., Löwe, W. & Petersson, G. (2017). Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic. Journal of universal computer science (Online), 23(11), 1035-1037
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic
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2017 (English)In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1035-1037Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72044 (URN)000429070900003 ()
Available from: 2018-03-30 Created: 2018-03-30 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Lundberg, J., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2017). Revisiting weak ties: Using present-day social media data in variationist studies. In: Tanja Säily, Minna Palander-Collin, Arja Nurmi, Anita Auer (Ed.), Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics: (pp. 303-325). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting weak ties: Using present-day social media data in variationist studies
2017 (English)In: Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics / [ed] Tanja Säily, Minna Palander-Collin, Arja Nurmi, Anita Auer, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 303-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article makes use of big and rich present-day data to revisit the social network model in sociolinguistics. This model predicts that mobile individuals with ties outside a home community and subsequent loose-knit networks tend to promote the diffusion of linguistic innovations. The model has been applied to a range of small ethnographic networks. We use a database of nearly 200,000 informants who send micro-blog messages in Twitter. We operationalize networks using two ratio variables; one of them is a truly weak tie and the other one a slightly stronger one. The results show that there is a straightforward increase of innovative behavior in the truly weak tie network, but the data indicate that innovations also spread under conditions of stronger networks, given that the network size is large enough. On the methodological level, our approach opens up new horizons in using big and often freely available data in sociolinguistics, both past and present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017
Series
Advances in historical sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 7
Keywords
Big data, social networks, weak tie model
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68501 (URN)10.1075/ahs.7.12lai (DOI)9789027200860 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA-DH
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Lundberg, J., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2017). Utilizing Multilingual Language Data in (Nearly) Real Time: The Case of the Nordic Tweet Stream. Journal of universal computer science (Online), 23(11), 1038-1056
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilizing Multilingual Language Data in (Nearly) Real Time: The Case of the Nordic Tweet Stream
2017 (English)In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1038-1056Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the Nordic Tweet Stream, a cross-disciplinary digital humanities project that downloads Twitter messages from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The paper first introduces some of the technical aspects in creating a real-time monitor corpus that grows every day, and then two case studies illustrate how the corpus could be used as empirical evidence in studies focusing on the global spread of English. Our approach in the case studies is sociolinguistic, and we are interested in how widespread multilingualism which involves English is in the region, and what happens to ongoing grammatical change in digital environments. The results are based on 6.6 million tweets collected during the first four months of data streaming. They show that English was the most frequently used language, accounting for almost a third. This indicates that Nordic Twitter users choose English as a means of reaching wider audiences. The preference for English is the strongest in Denmark and the weakest in Finland. Tweeting mostly occurs late in the evening, and high-profile media events such as the Eurovision Song Contest produce considerable peaks in Twitter activity. The prevalent use of informal features such as univerbated verb forms (e.g., gotta for (HAVE) got to) supports previous findings of the speech-like nature of written Twitter data, but the results indicate that tweeters are pushing the limits even further.

Keywords
Twitter, corpus linguistics, language choice, oral discourse style
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-73133 (URN)000429070900004 ()
Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3123-6932

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