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Ritchie, B. W., Sie, L., Gössling, S. & Dwyer, L. (2020). Effects of climate change policies on aviation carbon offsetting: a three-year panel study. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 28(2), 337-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of climate change policies on aviation carbon offsetting: a three-year panel study
2020 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 337-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air travel is predicted to grow over the coming decades contributing to carbon emissions. Airlines have offered voluntary carbon offsetting for over a decade, yet less than 10% of air travellers purchase them. Previous studies ignore the broader policy or social context of sustainable transport and aviation offsetting. In a natural experiment, a panel of the same Australian residents was tracked over a three-year period before and after the historic COP21. A novel hierarchical model was also tested using Partial Least Squares SEM. Although behaviour specific attitudes and social norms were more influential at encouraging aviation carbon offsetting, global policy knowledge and effectiveness of climate change policies play an important role. Although no changes in ratings were detected over a three-year period, the effect of social norms on encouraging aviation offsetting became stronger in later years. Implications and future research directions to better understand the political and social context of carbon offsetting and sustainable transport are provided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2020
Keywords
Carbon offsetting, Air travel, Tourist behaviour, Climate policy, COP21
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Tourism; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86918 (URN)10.1080/09669582.2019.1624762 (DOI)000472798000001 ()
Available from: 2019-07-18 Created: 2019-07-18 Last updated: 2020-03-13Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S. (2020). Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 79, 1-12, Article ID 102230.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating e-scooters in urban transportation: Problems, policies, and the prospect of system change
2020 (English)In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 79, p. 1-12, article id 102230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Throughout the world, cities seek to ease transport-related problems of congestion, air pollution, noise, and traffic injuries. Urban transport planners have welcomed e-scooters as an alternative to motorized individual transport, specifically the car. The public has met e-scooters with both enthusiasm and scepticism, as cities have struggled with unforeseen outcomes such as forms of irresponsible riding, cluttering, or vandalism. This paper investigates the challenges associated with the introduction of e-scooters in ten major cities, based on a content analysis of local media reports. News items (n = 173) were identified through Internet searches and include print media, TV and radio websites. Concerns prior to and after the introduction of e-scooters are assessed, analysed, and interpreted in the context of new policies for this transport mode. Results suggest that many cities have moved through trial and error stages in their search for appropriate legislation. The paper concludes that it is prudent for urban planners to introduce policies regarding maximum speeds, mandatory use of bicycle infrastructure, and dedicated parking, as well as to limit the number of licensed operators. Where negative public opinion can be averted, e-scooters stand a chance to become a disruptive niche innovation with the potential to transform urban transport systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
E-scooters, Micromobility, Transport planning, Transport policy, Urban planning
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-93001 (URN)10.1016/j.trd.2020.102230 (DOI)000517854400012 ()
Available from: 2020-03-19 Created: 2020-03-19 Last updated: 2020-03-19Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S., Zeiss, H., Hall, C. M., Martin-Rios, C., Ram, Y. & Grøtte, I.-P. (2019). A cross-country comparison of accommodation manager perspectives on online review manipulation. Current Issues in Tourism, 22(14), 1744-1763
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cross-country comparison of accommodation manager perspectives on online review manipulation
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2019 (English)In: Current Issues in Tourism, ISSN 1368-3500, E-ISSN 1747-7603, Vol. 22, no 14, p. 1744-1763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Accommodation businesses are increasingly dependent on a limited number of reservation platforms. A significant feature of these platforms is guest evaluations, which are transformed into ratings and rankings. As the positioning of the business in comparison to competitors determines customer demand, accommodation managers have considerable interest in maintaining or improving their online reputation. One response may be to engage in manipulation strategies. This paper presents the results of a survey including 270 hotel managers in five countries, Germany, Israel, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. Managers confirm growing competition as a result of ratings and rankings, and they report that guests are increasingly aware of the importance of reviews. To avert negative online feedback impacts, managers intervene strategically. The paper discusses new market pressures, emergent consumer judgement culture and consumer citizenship, opportunities for legal redress and the emerging importance of reputation management strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Consumer citizenship, hotels, manipulation, online reviews, rankings, ratings
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72449 (URN)10.1080/13683500.2018.1455171 (DOI)000472759400008 ()2-s2.0-85044251436 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-07-18Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S., Hanna, P., Higham, J., Cohen, S. & Hopkins, D. (2019). Can we fly less?: Evaluating the 'necessity' of air travel. Journal of Air Transport Management, 81, Article ID 101722.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can we fly less?: Evaluating the 'necessity' of air travel
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Air Transport Management, ISSN 0969-6997, E-ISSN 1873-2089, Vol. 81, article id 101722Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air travel is often justified as 'necessary' or 'unavoidable', in the sense that trips have purpose and value. Yet it is evident that people travel for reasons that may include forced and voluntary movement, with motives ranging from visiting friends and family, to leisure, or business. In light of the challenge to decarbonise transport, and the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this paper discusses the perceived necessity of flight from individual and societal perspectives, while considering moral and economic viewpoints. It suggests that travel motives have different degrees of 'urgency', and that the 'necessity of flight' cannot be generalised. To empirically test this hypothesis in an exploratory survey, we used mixed methods to examine the perspectives of 29 international students at Lund University, Sweden on the perceived importance of their flights (n = 587) over a six-year period (2012-2017). Results show that the value associated with individual flights depends on flight motive, experience, life stage, or situational factors. Notably, almost half of the leisure flights made lack importance. Implications are discussed in the context of climate policy and the future development of the aviation system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Aviation, Climate policy, Flight shame, Induced demand, Paris agreement, Travel motives
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90082 (URN)10.1016/j.jairtraman.2019.101722 (DOI)000493217600003 ()
Available from: 2019-11-19 Created: 2019-11-19 Last updated: 2019-11-19Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S. (2019). Celebrities, air travel, and social norms. Annals of Tourism Research, 79, 1-13, Article ID 102775.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Celebrities, air travel, and social norms
2019 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 79, p. 1-13, article id 102775Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The year 2018 saw the rise of a new global youth movement, Fridays for Future. The organization underlines the importance of personal accountability for greenhouse gas emissions, specifically in the context of air travel. This position is in stark contrast to views associating aeromobility with status. Celebrities in particular maintain personal brands based on frequent flying. This paper assesses the aeromobilities of celebrities, for which it develops a netnography-based methodology that tracks spatial movement on the basis of social media posts. Data is analyzed to determine travel patterns, distances flown, and fuel consumed. Findings are discussed in terms of the energy-intensity of celebrity lifestyles and the struggle over moral and social norms regarding personal accountability for contributions to climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Air travel, Celebrities, Carbon inequality, Climate change, Fridays for Future, Moral and social norms
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-90625 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2019.102775 (DOI)000500203000015 ()
Available from: 2019-12-19 Created: 2019-12-19 Last updated: 2019-12-19Bibliographically approved
Simonsen, M., Gössling, S. & Walnum, H. J. (2019). Cruise ship emissions in Norwegian waters: A geographical analysis. Journal of Transport Geography, 78, 87-97
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cruise ship emissions in Norwegian waters: A geographical analysis
2019 (English)In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 78, p. 87-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cruises are one of the fastest growing and most energy-intense tourism segments, accounting for significant emissions of greenhouse gases, as well as air pollutants such as nitrous oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5). International measures to limit the sector's environmental impacts have so far had no significant effects. This highlights the importance of national, regional or port-specific policies, as implemented or in planning by countries such as Norway. In order to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of such policies, it is necessary to better understand emissions. This paper models the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), NOx and PM2.5 emitted at sea and in port in Norwegian waters. Results show that 81 cruise ships of various sizes sailed Norwegian waters in 2017, consuming 129,798 t of fuel and emitting 0.4 Mt of CO2, as well as 7184 t of NOx and 132 t of PM2.5. About 14.6% of these pollutants are deposited in ports, particularly Bergen, Oslo and Stavanger. Findings also confirm considerable differences in the environmental performance of cruise ships, and can be used to design maritime policies forcing cruise operators to introduce cleaner technologies and to rethink operational practices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Air pollution, Climate change, Cruises, Emissions, Maritime policy, Ports
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Environmental Sciences Climate Research
Research subject
Shipping; Tourism; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89288 (URN)10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2019.05.014 (DOI)000483416200008 ()
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Peeters, P., Higham, J., Cohen, S., Eijgelaar, E. & Gössling, S. (2019). Desirable tourism transport futures. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 27(2), 173-188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Desirable tourism transport futures
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The challenge of mitigating climate change is critical to desirable tourism transportation futures, although to date relatively little attention has been paid to this aspect of sustainable tourism. This introductory article to the special issues on 'Desirable Tourism Transport Futures' explores approaches to transitioning the tourism sector to a sustainable emissions path. It starts by describing an undesirable tourism transport future associated with a business-as-usual scenario, which will inevitably cause the climate mitigation goals outlined in the Paris Climate Accord to soon become unattainable. We then outline a scenario for a climatically desirable future, and its social and economic implications. It is important that desirable tourism transport futures are critically considered in terms of both spatial and temporal scale. The scenarios that inform this editorial provide some insights at the long-term macro-scale. These scenarios are associated with desirable and undesirable elements that will no doubt continue to be the subject of much debate and contestation. While these scenarios will represent both opportunities and threats to the full spectrum of tourism industry stakeholders, they should also inform manifold avenues of future research at a critical moment in the evolution of tourism transportation and the pursuit of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2019
Keywords
Tourism transportation, futures, scenarios, policy, desirability, climate change
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81704 (URN)10.1080/09669582.2018.1477785 (DOI)000461816100001 ()2-s2.0-85052126056 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Bausch, T., Humpe, A. & Gössling, S. (2019). Does Climate Change Influence Guest Loyalty at Alpine Winter Destinations?. Sustainability, 11(15), 1-22, Article ID 4233.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does Climate Change Influence Guest Loyalty at Alpine Winter Destinations?
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 1-22, article id 4233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has dealt extensively with different aspects of climate change and winter tourism such as the impact on ski resorts and ski lift operators, adaptation strategies, governance at destinations and reactions of winter sports guests to changing snow conditions. This paper goes deeper into the question of destination choice and examines the role of climate change among the many factors affecting guest loyalty at Alpine winter destinations. The study uses an established destination choice model with choice sets, destination image and dynamic feedback loop. A qualitative online forum identifies factors influencing winter destination choice, followed by a quantitative survey which compares Alpine winter holidaymakers categorised as loyal, disloyal and undecided. The results demonstrate that climate change clearly influences destination choice, but snow sports are not the only affected attractors. Enjoyment of the natural environment and value for money are just as high on the list of guest motivators. This indicates that climate change adaptation measures such as snowmaking can be counterproductive to guest loyalty because they spoil the natural scenery and raise prices. The paper concludes with a recommendation for winter destinations to prioritize conservation of the natural environment and integrate more environmental protection measures into their management strategies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
climate change, destination choice, destination loyalty, winter tourism, ski resorts, climate adaptation, Alpine tourism
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89419 (URN)10.3390/su11154233 (DOI)000485230200238 ()
Available from: 2019-10-03 Created: 2019-10-03 Last updated: 2019-10-03Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S., Humpe, A., Litman, T. & Metzler, D. (2019). Effects of Perceived Traffic Risks, Noise, and Exhaust Smells on Bicyclist Behaviour: An Economic Evaluation. Sustainability, 11(2), 1-15, Article ID 408.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Perceived Traffic Risks, Noise, and Exhaust Smells on Bicyclist Behaviour: An Economic Evaluation
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-15, article id 408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Active mode (walking, bicycling, and their variants) users are exposed to various negative externalities from motor vehicle traffic, including injury risks, noise, and air pollutants. This directly harms the users of these modes and discourages their use, creating a self-reinforcing cycle of less active travel, more motorized travel, and more harmful effects. These impacts are widely recognized but seldom quantified. This study evaluates these impacts and their consequences by measuring the additional distances that bicyclists travel in order to avoid roads with heavy motor vehicle traffic, based on a sample of German-Austrian bicycle organization members (n = 491), and monetizes the incremental costs. The results indicate that survey respondents cycle an average 6.4% longer distances to avoid traffic impacts, including injury risks, air, and noise pollution. Using standard monetization methods, these detours are estimated to impose private costs of at least Euro0.24/cycle-km, plus increased external costs when travellers shift from non-motorized to motorized modes. Conventional transport planning tends to overlook these impacts, resulting in overinvestment in roadway expansions and underinvestments in other types of transport improvements, including sidewalks, crosswalks, bikelanes, paths, traffic calming, and speed reductions. These insights should have importance for transport planning and economics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
air pollution, cost-benefit analysis, cycling, Detours, exhaust fumes, transport externalities
National Category
Environmental Sciences Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Economy; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80563 (URN)10.3390/su11020408 (DOI)000457129900112 ()2-s2.0-85059977379 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-19 Created: 2019-02-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Scott, D., Hall, C. M. & Gössling, S. (2019). Global tourism vulnerability to climate change. Annals of Tourism Research, 77, 49-61
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Global tourism vulnerability to climate change
2019 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 77, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change will have far-reaching consequence for the future of tourism. A Climate Change Vulnerability Index for Tourism (CVIT) comprised of 27 indicators provides a transparent and systematic first analysis of the differential vulnerability of the tourism sector in 181 countries. Countries with the lowest vulnerability are found in western and northern Europe, central Asia, Canada and New Zealand. High sector vulnerability is found in Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Small Island Developing States. Vulnerability is highest in many countries where tourism represents the largest proportion of GDP and regions where tourism growth is expected to be the strongest over the coming decades. Climate change will pose an increasing barrier to tourism contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Tourism, Climate change, Impacts, Adaptive capacity, Decarbonization, Sustainable development goals
National Category
Climate Research Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89286 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2019.05.007 (DOI)000483413500005 ()
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0505-9207

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