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Gössling, S. & Humpe, A. (2024). Net-zero aviation: Transition barriers and radical climate policy design implications. Science of the Total Environment, 912, Article ID 169107.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Net-zero aviation: Transition barriers and radical climate policy design implications
2024 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 912, article id 169107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While air transport decarbonization is theoretically feasible, less attention has been paid to the complexity incurred in various 'transition barriers' that act as roadblocks to net-zero goals. A total of 40 barriers related to mitigation, management, technology and fuel transition, finance, and governance are identified. As these make decarbonization uncertain, the paper analyzes air transport system's growth, revenue, and profitability. Over the period 1978-2022, global aviation has generated marginal profits of US$20200.94 per passenger, or US$202082 billion in total. Low profitability makes it unlikely that the sector can finance the fuel transition cost, at US $0.5-2.1 trillion (Dray et al. 2022). Four radical policy scenarios for air transport futures are developed. All are characterized by "limitations", such as CO2 taxes, a carbon budget, alternative fuel obligations, or available capacity. Scenario runs suggest that all policy scenarios will more reliably lead to net-zero than the continued volume growth model pursued by airlines.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Aviation, Climate change, Climate policy, Mitigation, Net -zero, Technology optimism
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Climate Research
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-127683 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.169107 (DOI)001152799200001 ()38104828 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85181139047 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-02-14 Created: 2024-02-14 Last updated: 2024-02-14Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S., Humpe, A. & Sun, Y.-Y. (2024). On track to net-zero? Large tourism enterprises and climate change. Tourism Management, 100, 104842-104842, Article ID 104842.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On track to net-zero? Large tourism enterprises and climate change
2024 (English)In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 100, p. 104842-104842, article id 104842Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much recent research on climate change mitigation has focused on carbon intensities, i.e. emissions per unit of economic value, to better understand interrelationships of decarbonization with value. This paper studies large tourism enterprises, which account for a large share of tourism's emissions. Based on annual reports, the paper evaluates greenhouse gas emission and revenue interrelationships for a total of n = 29 large tourism companies including airlines, cruise lines and accommodation businesses. Together, these companies represent about 13% (365 Mt CO2) of global tourism emissions, generating revenues of US$477 billion (in 2019). The paper tracks their total emissions and emission intensities over the period 2015–2019, revealing that large tourism firms are not on track to net-zero. Results show considerable differences in emission intensities between the three tourism subsectors and between individual firms within the subsectors. These findings are discussed against emission reduction needs to mid-century. There is strong evidence that continued growth at industry's expected rates represents an insurmountable barrier to net-zero, contradicting industry narratives of progressively and successfully engaging with climate change mitigation. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
National Category
Climate Research Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-126079 (URN)10.1016/j.tourman.2023.104842 (DOI)2-s2.0-85170710529 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-12-20 Created: 2023-12-20 Last updated: 2023-12-20Bibliographically approved
Fernandez, S., Gössling, S., Martin-Rios, C., Fointiat, V., Pasamar, S., Isaac, R. & Lunde, M. (2024). To tip or not to tip?: Explaining tipping behavior in restaurants with service-inclusive pricing. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 117, Article ID 103640.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To tip or not to tip?: Explaining tipping behavior in restaurants with service-inclusive pricing
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2024 (English)In: International Journal of Hospitality Management, ISSN 0278-4319, E-ISSN 1873-4693, Vol. 117, article id 103640Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tipping behavior is a vital way for waiting staff to enhance their wages, and for managers to monitor guest satisfaction. Despite its importance, there is not yet an established consensus on reasons why people tip. Our lack of understanding about tipping behavior is exacerbated by a strong reliance on studies conducted in countries that have a system of voluntary tipping (e.g., the United States). The study aims therefore at expanding our understanding of tipping behavior beyond voluntary tipping countries and more specifically explaining tipping behavior under service-inclusive pricing. Data obtained from 1458 guests in five European countries show that income and payment method are the strongest predictors of customers' decision to tip, whereas bill size is the most robust predictor of tip amount. Results advance knowledge by suggesting that social norm theory plays a major role to understand tipping behavior in service-inclusive pricing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Tipping behavior, Service-inclusive pricing, Service quality, Equity theory, Social norms, Payment method
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-126767 (URN)10.1016/j.ijhm.2023.103640 (DOI)001134355800001 ()2-s2.0-85179075304 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-16 Created: 2024-01-16 Last updated: 2024-01-16
Gössling, S. & Dolnicar, S. (2023). A review of air travel behavior and climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 14(1), Article ID e802.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of air travel behavior and climate change
2023 (English)In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e802Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Air transport challenges the world's net-zero carbon ambitions. The sector has consistently grown and causes warming as a result of both CO2 and other, short-lived emissions. Two principal solutions have been proposed to reduce the contribution of aviation to climate change: innovations of technology and the development of interventions to trigger behavioral change. Technological innovations include new propulsion technologies and the use of sustainable aviation fuels. Behavioral change includes flight avoidance, substitution with other means of transport, the choice of efficient flight options, and carbon offsetting. This article focuses on behavior; it offers an overview of factors that lead to consumers traveling by air and discusses demand distribution complexities. The importance of price for air travel decisions is assessed, and evidence of travel "wants" are contrasted with "needs," the latter investigated in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. The review of relevant scholarly work culminates in an action list enabling air travelers, policy makers, the aviation industry, researchers and society to meaningfully advance low-carbon air transport trajectories. This article is categorized under: Perceptions, Behavior, and Communication of Climate Change > Behavior Change and Responses The Carbon Economy and Climate Mitigation > Policies, Instruments, Lifestyles, Behavior

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2023
Keywords
air travel, aviation, behavior, demand, social norms
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-116361 (URN)10.1002/wcc.802 (DOI)000842075800001 ()2-s2.0-85120031492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-09-20 Created: 2022-09-20 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Scott, D., Hall, C. M., Rushton, B. & Gössling, S. (2023). A review of the IPCC Sixth Assessment and implications for tourism development and sectoral climate action. Journal of Sustainable Tourism
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of the IPCC Sixth Assessment and implications for tourism development and sectoral climate action
2023 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change represents the state of knowledge of anthropogenic disruption to the climate system, its diverse ecosystem and societal impacts, and the imperative for and challenges of mitigation and adaptation responses. It is foundational for global climate policymaking. This paper examines the place of tourism in AR6 and reviews its key findings for tourism's future. Overall, tourism related content declined relative to previous assessments. While notable improvements in content occurred for Africa, visible knowledge gaps remain in the tourism growth regions of South America, Middle East, and South Asia. There remains limited discussion of many impacts, and very limited understanding of integrated impacts and the effectiveness of adaptation strategies at the destination scale. The contribution of tourism to global emissions was omitted, however tourism was discussed in the context of luxury emissions and just transitions. Tourism is repeatedly identified in solution space discussions, particularly for ecosystem protection, but without consideration of the future of tourism in a rapidly decarbonizing and climate disrupted economy. With only 21% of published climate change and tourism literature in the AR6 review period cited, tourism academics should elevate tourism content and engagement in future assessments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
climate change, tourism, IPCC, emissions, mitigation, impacts, adaptation
National Category
Climate Research Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-120767 (URN)10.1080/09669582.2023.2195597 (DOI)000960523300001 ()2-s2.0-85151952421 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-05-17 Created: 2023-05-17 Last updated: 2024-02-15
Gössling, S., Balas, M., Mayer, M. & Sun, Y.-Y. (2023). A review of tourism and climate change mitigation: The scales, scopes, stakeholders and strategies of carbon management. Tourism Management, 95, Article ID 104681.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A review of tourism and climate change mitigation: The scales, scopes, stakeholders and strategies of carbon management
2023 (English)In: Tourism Management, ISSN 0261-5177, E-ISSN 1879-3193, Vol. 95, article id 104681Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tourism needs to reduce emissions in line with other economic sectors, if the international community's objective of staying global warming at 1.5 degrees-2.0 degrees C is to be achieved. This will require the industry to half emissions to 2030, and to reach net-zero by mid-century. Mitigation requires consideration of four dimensions, the Scales, Scopes, Stakeholders and Strategies of carbon management. The paper provides a systematic review of these dimensions and their interrelationships, with a focus on emission inventory comprehensiveness; allocation principles at different scales; clearly defined responsibilities for decarbonization; and the identification of significant mitigation strategies. The paper concludes that without mitigation efforts, tourism will deplete 40% of the world's remaining carbon budget to 1.5 degrees C. Yet, the most powerful decarbonization measures face major corporate, political and technical barriers. Without worldwide policy efforts at the national scale to manage the sector's emissions, tourism will turn into one of the major drivers of climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Climate change, Decarbonization, Destination management, Net-zero emissions, I/O analysis, Science-based targets
National Category
Economics and Business Climate Research
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119830 (URN)10.1016/j.tourman.2022.104681 (DOI)000927635700002 ()2-s2.0-85141514790 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-16 Created: 2023-03-16 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
Hopkins, D., Gössling, S., Cohen, S., Hanna, P. & Higham, J. E. S. (2023). Aeromasculinities and the fallacy of sustainable aviation. Energy Research & Social Science, 106, Article ID 103319.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aeromasculinities and the fallacy of sustainable aviation
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2023 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 106, article id 103319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite growing recognition of the material impacts of fossil fuel extraction and use, many economic sectors remain highly dependent on these fuels. Amid growing pressure to - at a minimum - appear to be doing something, businesses increasingly communicate the actions they (seek to) take to reduce their environmental impacts. Oftentimes they aim to build a sense of compatible coexistence of the sector with particular modes of sustainability. For air transport, 'sustainable aviation' has emerged as a container term for a suite of actions proposed by sectoral actors in seeking to align the sector with social and environmental sustainability. This paper critically interrogates 'sustainable aviation' through an analysis of the websites and reports of 14 international and regional airlines. Our analysis reveals the multiple and diverse ways that dominant logics (1) underpin the status quo, (2) depend on 'the science', (3) support techno-organisational changes and (4) prioritise sectoral growth. By recognising the gendered nature of environmentalism, we suggest that 'sustainable aviation' can be viewed as an active enactment of aeromasculinities - a gendered system of thinking, being and doing which forecloses radical action and change required for a climate-safe and just energy future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Aeromobilities, Sustainable aviation, Justice, Carbon emissions, Masculinities
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-126261 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2023.103319 (DOI)001115120400001 ()2-s2.0-85176224049 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Humpe, A., Sun, Y.-Y. & Gössling, S. (2023). Cruise emissions and economic feasibility of biofuels [Letter to the editor]. Annals of Tourism Research, 103, Article ID 103666.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cruise emissions and economic feasibility of biofuels
2023 (English)In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 103, article id 103666Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Cruise lines, Emissions, Biofuels, Sustainability, Decarbonisation
National Category
Economics and Business Climate Research
Research subject
Tourism
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-126286 (URN)10.1016/j.annals.2023.103666 (DOI)001122220500001 ()2-s2.0-85173515180 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-02-15Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S. (2023). Extending the theoretical grounding of mobilities research: transport psychology perspectives. Mobilities, 18(2), 167-183
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the theoretical grounding of mobilities research: transport psychology perspectives
2023 (English)In: Mobilities, ISSN 1745-0101, E-ISSN 1745-011X, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 167-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reconsiders the new mobilities paradigm and its relevance for the understanding of transport systems and behaviour. It argues that the mobilities field will gain from more systematically drawing on conceptual and empirical insights from psychology to complement insights as mostly derived from sociology, geography, innovation studies, anthropology, cultural studies and continental philosophy. Focused on the car as one of the most dominant objects of individual consumption, it examines psychology epistemologies that are different from those that prevail in the mobilities literature. Transport systems shape and are shaped by social and personal identities, fears and anxieties, trauma and phobia; aggression and rebellion; and the search for community and companions. These aspects have been debated in the mobilities literature, but transport psychology investigates the more fundamental motives and conditions underlying the systems, processes and practices that shape transport behaviour. This paper discusses interrelationships and common ground between the mobilities and psychology literatures, and elaborates on the specific contributions made by social, evolutionary and clinical psychology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Automobility, transport behaviour, transport psychology, new mobilities paradigm
National Category
Psychology Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-115265 (URN)10.1080/17450101.2022.2092886 (DOI)000818810100001 ()2-s2.0-85133260624 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-08 Created: 2022-07-08 Last updated: 2023-05-09Bibliographically approved
Gössling, S., Freytag, T., Humpe, A. & Scuttari, A. (2023). Keeping older people mobile: Autonomous transport services in rural areas. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives (TRIP), 18, Article ID 100778.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Keeping older people mobile: Autonomous transport services in rural areas
2023 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives (TRIP), E-ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 18, article id 100778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rural areas are characterized by limited access to public transportation. In the absence of alternatives, many older people continue to drive private cars. This imposes risks on society and older people, as traffic risks increase with declining mental and physical health. As opportunities to remain mobile have key relevance for quality of life, this paper investigates attitudes of older people to autonomous transport services (ATS), based on a sample of n = 2,349 respondents living in rural and urban areas in Freiburg, Germany. ATS are not currently available, though they are expected to follow the introduction of automated driving, thus representing a future to alternative to public transport and private car travel. Results show an openness to the use of autonomous transport services for a majority of >65 year olds, though interest declines with age. Neither willingness-to-pay nor waiting times to ATS arrival are likely barriers to adoption. The study concludes that an introduction of ATS that targets older people in rural areas is promising, and will generate social and economic benefits for individuals and society. The transition from private cars to ATS can be supported by mandatory license renewal (fitness) tests. These are welcomed by a large majority of respondents, but not currently required in Germany.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123733 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2023.100778 (DOI)001094804000001 ()2-s2.0-85149006271 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-08-16 Created: 2023-08-16 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0505-9207

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