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Bergh, Johan
Publications (10 of 54) Show all publications
Almeida, J. P., Rosenstock, N. P., Forsmark, B., Bergh, J. & Wallander, H. (2019). Ectomycorrhizal community composition and function in a spruce forest transitioning between nitrogen and phosphorus limitation. Fungal ecology, 40, 20-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ectomycorrhizal community composition and function in a spruce forest transitioning between nitrogen and phosphorus limitation
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2019 (English)In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, E-ISSN 1878-0083, Vol. 40, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nitrogen is the main limiting nutrient in boreal ecosystems, but studies in southwest Sweden suggest that certain forests approach phosphorus (P) limitation driven by nitrogen (N) deposition. We added N, P or N + P to a Norway spruce forest in this region, to push the system to N or P limitation. Tree growth and needle nutrient concentrations indicated that the trees are P limited. EMF biomass was reduced only by N + P additions. Soil EMF communities responded more strongly to P than to N. Addition of apatite to ingrowth meshbags altered EMF community composition and enhanced the abundance of Imleria badia in the control and N plots, but not when P was added. The ecological significance of this species is discussed. Effects on tree growth, needle chemistry, and EMF communities indicate a dynamic interaction between EMF fungi and the nutrient status of trees and soils. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Apatite, Ectomycorrhizae, Ergosterol, Nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, Nitrogen deposition, Nitrogen leaching
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology; Natural Science, Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86949 (URN)10.1016/j.funeco.2018.05.008 (DOI)000473841600004 ()
Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2019-07-24Bibliographically approved
Subramanian, N., Nilsson, U., Mossberg, M. & Bergh, J. (2019). Impacts of climate change, weather extremes and alternative strategies in managed forests. Ecoscience, 26(1), 53-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of climate change, weather extremes and alternative strategies in managed forests
2019 (English)In: Ecoscience, ISSN 1195-6860, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 53-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth rate of most tree species in boreal forests will increase with changing climate. This increase is counterbalanced by an increased risk of damage due to extreme weather events. It is believed that the risk of storm damage will increase over time, especially if forests continue to be managed as they are today. In this study, a new landscape-level hybrid forest growth model 3PG-Heureka was developed and simulations were performed to predict the damage caused by storm events in Kronoberg county, over a period of 91 years (2010-2100) with different alternative management regimes under various climatic scenarios (historic, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). The results indicate that damage caused by storm events could drastically reduce the annual volume increment and annual net revenue obtained from forest landscapes if current forest management regimes are used. These problems can be reduced by adopting alternative management strategies involving avoiding thinning, shorter rotation periods and planting alternative tree species. Alternative management strategies could potentially improve annual volume increments and net revenue obtained while reducing storm-felling. Planting Scots pine instead of Norway spruce across the landscape to minimize storm damage is predicted to be less effective than reducing rotation periods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Keywords
Landscape modelling, parameterization, storm-felling, short rotation forestry, timber harvesting, net income
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80779 (URN)10.1080/11956860.2018.1515597 (DOI)000457644500005 ()
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, D., Nilsson, B., Thörnqvist, T. & Bergh, J. (2018). Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 33(5), 437-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amount of nutrients extracted and left behind at a clear-felled area using the fresh-stacked and dried-stacked methods of logging residue extraction
2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Nutrient removal has been one of the key issues since the harvesting of logging residues started in Sweden. This study examined the actual removal of nutrients by measuring the amounts of biomass removed (from a forest products perspective) combined with their respective nutrient concentrations (N, P, Ca, K and Mg), from a clear-felled area when using the dried-stacked and fresh-stacked methods. The most important finding is that the two methods were very similar regarding nutrients remaining at the clear-felled area. Of the nutrients remaining there, most were found to be well distributed between the harvester heaps. Both methods fulfilled the requirements of the Swedish Forest Agency. A sensitivity analysis showed that even if the dried-stacked method left more needles, or the fresh-stacked method extracted more logging residues, there would only be a small impact on the levels of nutrients removed. The sensitivity analysis also showed that the amount of logging residues remaining between the harvester heaps seems to be much more important for nutrients left behind, regardless of extraction method. With this in mind, it is highly probable that improvements to the extraction of logging residues, without increasing nutrient removal, can be made.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Forest fuel; storage; quality; needles; nitrogen; Norway spruce
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72344 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2018.1427786 (DOI)000433155900004 ()
Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2018-07-12Bibliographically approved
Klapwijk, M. J., Boberg, J., Bergh, J., Bishop, K., Björkman, C., Ellison, D., . . . Marald, E. (2018). Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action. Global Environmental Change, 52, 238-247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action
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2018 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, p. 238-247Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the different factors related to the socio-ecological system. To examine the level of dispersion and to obtain a holistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forest related carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Global change, Socio-ecological system, Forest industry, Forestry, Governance, Adaptation
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79011 (URN)10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.07.012 (DOI)000449444900022 ()
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hedwall, P.-O., Bergh, J. & Brunet, J. (2017). Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Oecologia, 185(2), 317-326
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus and nitrogen co-limitation of forest ground vegetation under elevated anthropogenic nitrogen deposition
2017 (English)In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 185, no 2, p. 317-326Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plant growth in northern forest ecosystems is considered to be primarily nitrogen limited. Nitrogen deposition is predicted to change this towards co-limitation/limitation by other nutrients (e.g., phosphorus), although evidence of such stoichiometric effects is scarce. We utilized two forest fertilization experiments in southern Sweden to analyze single and combined effects of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity, composition, and diversity of the ground vegetation. Our results indicate that the productivity of forest ground vegetation in southern Sweden is co-limited by nitrogen and phosphorus. Additionally, the combined effect of nitrogen and phosphorus on the productivity was larger than when applied solely. No effects on species richness of any of these two nutrients were observed when applied separately, while applied in combination, they increased species richness and changed species composition, mainly by promoting more mesotrophic species. All these effects, however, occurred only for the vascular plants and not for bryophytes. The tree layer in a forest has a profound impact on the productivity and diversity of the ground vegetation by competing for both light and nutrients. This was confirmed in our study where a combination of nitrogen and high tree basal area reduced cover of the ground vegetation compared to all the other treatments where basal area was lower after stand thinning. During the past decades, nitrogen deposition may have further increased this competition from the trees for phosphorus and gradually reduced ground vegetation diversity. Phosphorus limitation induced by nitrogen deposition may, thus, contribute to ongoing changes in forest ground vegetation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Mosses, Forbs, Graminoids, Eutrophication, Picea abies
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68554 (URN)10.1007/s00442-017-3945-x (DOI)000412338900015 ()
Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2017-11-01Bibliographically approved
Cintas, O., Berndes, G., Hansson, J., Poudel, B. C., Bergh, J., Börjesson, P., . . . Nordin, A. (2017). The potential role of forest management in Swedish scenarios towards climate neutrality by mid century. Forest Ecology and Management, 383(Special Issue), 73-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential role of forest management in Swedish scenarios towards climate neutrality by mid century
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2017 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 383, no Special Issue, p. 73-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Swedish climate policy targets net zero greenhouse gases (GHG) by mid-century, with road transport independent of fossil fuels by 2030, requiring far-reaching changes in the way energy is used. Forest management is expected to support carbon sequestration and provide biomass for various uses, including energy. In this paper, we combine two energy scenarios with four forest scenarios and quantify GHG balances associated with energy-use for heat, electricity, and road transport, and with forest management and production, use, and end-of-life management of various forest products, including products for export. The aggregated GHG balances are evaluated in relation to the 2-degree target and an allocated Swedish CO2 budget. The production of biofuels in the agriculture sector is considered but not analyzed in detail.

The results suggest that Swedish forestry can make an important contribution by supplying forest fuels and other products while maintaining or enhancing carbon storage in vegetation, soils, and forest products. The GHG neutrality goal is not met in any of the scenarios without factoring in carbon sequestration. Measures to enhance forest productivity can increase output of forest products (including biofuels for export) and also enhance carbon sequestration. The Swedish forest sector can let Sweden reach net negative emissions, and avoid “using up” its allocated CO2 budget, thereby increasing the associated emissions space for the rest of the world.

National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50775 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2016.07.015 (DOI)000389163500008 ()
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Subramanian, N., Bergh, J., Johansson, U., Nilsson, U. & Sallnäs, O. (2016). Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change. Forests, 7(1), Article ID 8.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptation of Forest Management Regimes in Southern Sweden to Increased Risks Associated with Climate Change
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2016 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Even though the growth rates of most tree species in Sweden is expected to increase in the near future as a result of climate change, increased risks of damage by storms and various pests and pathogens, notably root rot and bark beetles, may also occur. Thus, forest management practices such as changes to thinning regimes, reductions in rotation lengths, and switching to other species (native or exotic) may represent adaptive management strategies to increase the resistance and resilience of Swedish forests to climate change. Clearly, thorough analyses examining the effects of anticipated climatic changes on damage levels, and the potentially relieving effects of possible management adaptations are needed before implementing such changes. In this study, damage caused by storms, root rot and bark beetles (single and in various combinations) under selected climate and management scenarios were simulated in Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) stands. The results indicate that reductions in thinning intensity and rotation lengths could improve both volume production and profitability in southern Sweden. In addition, cultivation of rapidly growing species, such as hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii Coaz.) and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.), could be as profitable as Norway spruce cultivation, or even more profitable. However, slow-growing species, such as Silver birch (Betula pendula Roth), Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) indicated low economic output in terms of Land Expectation Value.

Keywords
storm-felling, bark beetle, root rot, simulation model, forest production, profitability, land expectation value
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-42069 (URN)10.3390/f7010008 (DOI)000369493400003 ()2-s2.0-84957573899 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-04-10 Created: 2015-04-09 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Keskitalo, E. C., Bergh, J., Felton, A., Björkman, C., Berlin, M., Axelsson, P., . . . Boberg, J. (2016). Adaptation to Climate Change in Swedish Forestry. Forests, 7(2), Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptation to Climate Change in Swedish Forestry
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2016 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 7, no 2, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adaptation to climate change in forestry has become a growing concern, in part due to the impact of storms and other events that have raised the awareness of such risks amongst forest owners. Sweden is one of Europe's most densely-forested countries, with this sector playing a major role economically. However adaptation has, to a large extent, been limited to the provision of recommendations to forest managers, most of which have only been partially implemented. This paper summarizes research with direct implications for adaptation to climate change within the forestry sector in Sweden. The focus is based in particular on providing examples of adaptations that illustrate the specific Swedish orientation to adaptation, in line with its relatively intensive forest management system. The paper thus illustrates a specific Swedish orientation to adaptation through active management, which can be contrasted with approaches to adaptation in other forestry systems, in particular those with limited management or management based on maintaining natural forests in particular.

Keywords
adaptation to climate change, forestry, Sweden
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52001 (URN)10.3390/f7020028 (DOI)000371896900017 ()2-s2.0-84960358420 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, T., Bergh, J., Nordin, A., Fahlvik, N. & Poudel, B. C. (2016). Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden. Ambio, 45(supplement 2), S203-S213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of carbon balances between continuous-cover and clear-cut forestry in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, no supplement 2, p. S203-S213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous-cover forestry (CCF) has been recognized for the production of multiple ecosystem services, and is seen as an alternative to clear-cut forestry (CF). Despite the increasing interest, it is still not well described how CCF would affect the carbon balance and the resulting climate benefit from the forest in relation to CF. This study compares carbon balances of CF and CCF, applied as two alternative land-use strategies for a heterogeneous Norway spruce (Picea abies) stand. We use a set of models to analyze the long-term effects of different forest management and wood use strategies in Sweden on carbon dioxide emissions and carbon stock changes. The results show that biomass growth and yield is more important than the choice of silvicultural system per se. When comparing CF and CCF assuming similar growth, extraction and product use, only minor differences in long-term climate benefit were found between the two principally different silvicultural systems.

National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50898 (URN)10.1007/s13280-015-0756-3 (DOI)000372300000012 ()2-s2.0-84953398343 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-17 Created: 2016-03-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Nordström, E.-M., Forsell, N., Lundström, A., Korosuo, A., Bergh, J., Havlik, P., . . . Nordin, A. (2016). Impacts of global climate change mitigation scenarios on forests and harvesting in Sweden. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 46(12), 1427-1438
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of global climate change mitigation scenarios on forests and harvesting in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 46, no 12, p. 1427-1438Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Under climate change, the importance of biomass resources is likely to increase and new approaches are needed to analyze future material and energy use of biomass globally and locally. Using Sweden as an example, we present an approach that combines global and national land-use and forest models to analyze impacts of climate change mitigation ambitions on forest management and harvesting in a specific country. National forest impact analyses in Sweden have traditionally focused on supply potential with little reference to international market developments. In this study, we use the global greenhouse gas concentration scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change to estimate global biomass demand and assess potential implications on harvesting and biodiversity in Sweden. The results show that the short-term demand for wood is close to the full harvesting potential in Sweden in all scenarios. Under high bioenergy demand, harvest levels are projected to stay high over a longer time and particularly impact the harvest levels of pulpwood. The area of old forest in the managed landscape may decrease. This study highlights the importance of global scenarios when discussing national-level analysis and pinpoints trade-offs that policy making in Sweden may need to tackle in the near future.

Keywords
forest impact analysis, forest product demand, scenario analysis, Swedish National Forest Inventory (NFI), wood supply potential
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59003 (URN)10.1139/cjfr-2016-0122 (DOI)000388094000003 ()2-s2.0-84994852234 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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