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Svensson, C., Bader, M.-F. K. F., Forsmark, B., Nilsson, U., Lundmark, T., Nordin, A. & Bergh, J. (2023). Early and repeated nutrient additions support far greater stemwood production in Norway spruce than traditional late-rotation fertilisation. Forest Ecology and Management, 549, Article ID 121425.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early and repeated nutrient additions support far greater stemwood production in Norway spruce than traditional late-rotation fertilisation
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2023 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 549, article id 121425Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Silvicultural techniques aimed at promoting forest biomass production can help meet the growing demand for renewable materials and mitigate climate change. One-time nitrogen (N) addition late in the rotation is a well-established method to stimulate growth in coniferous forests in northern Europe, but the potential gains from earlier and repeated fertiliser application remain uncertain. Here, we tested the impact of repeated fertilisation in juvenile Norway spruce stands across 9 sites covering a wide range of growing conditions over a 700 km stretch from central to southern Sweden. We tested the fertilisation effects using two separate studies: i) an interval trial with a fertilisation frequency of one (F1), two (F2), or three years (F3) performed at plot-level across five sites (2002–2014), and ii) a practice-oriented trial with a two-year fertilisation interval (F2) applied at stand-level and replicated at four sites (2003–2013). The composition of the nutrient mix in each plot was optimised based on foliar nutrient analyses. In the interval trial, all three fertilisation schedules strongly increased periodic annual increment (PAI) (F1: 105 %, F2: 93 %, F3: 79 %) relative to the unfertilised control, resulting in more than a doubling of stem volume yield in the F1 and F2 treatments (120 % and 110 %, respectively) and a significantly smaller but still sizeable yield stimulation of 82 % in the F3 treatment. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, stemwood volume increase per unit mass of N added) was similar among fertilisation intervals (on average 130 m3 ha−1 1000 kg N−1), indicating that the extra N provided through yearly fertilisation (F1) is redundant given the similar stemwood yields in the F2 treatment. In the practice-oriented trial, the sole F2 treatment increased PAI by 95 % over the control, translating into a yield stimulation of 114 % and an almost identical NUE to that of the interval trial. NUE greatly exceeded the figures typically observed with traditional late-rotation fertilisation and correlated inversely with baseline site productivity (using site index as a proxy) in the F1 and F2 treatments (the latter pooled across the two trials). Our results clearly indicate that nutrient limitation restricts growth and carbon (C) capture in young Norway spruce plantations in northern Europe to less than half of their potential, highlighting repeated fertilisation at nutrient-poor sites as an effective management tool to support a growing bioeconomy and enhance C sequestration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Nutrient-limitation, Forest fertilisation, Picea abies, Operational forestry, Stem biomass yield, Carbon sequestration
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-125244 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2023.121425 (DOI)001098435700001 ()2-s2.0-85174492605 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-10-20 Created: 2023-10-20 Last updated: 2023-12-07Bibliographically approved
Svensson, C., Bader, M.-F. K. F., Löf, M., Johansson, U. & Bergh, J. (2023). Fertilisation and irrigation have no effects on growth of oak (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) stands on abandoned farmland in southwest Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 529, Article ID 120700.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fertilisation and irrigation have no effects on growth of oak (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) stands on abandoned farmland in southwest Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 529, article id 120700Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low nutrient availability often limits productivity in northern forests. In a nutrient optimisation trial, we investigated the effects of fertilisation and irrigation on soil moisture, leaf area index (LAI) as well as height and radial growth in 25-year-old stands of pedunculate and sessile oak (Quercus robur L., Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) growing on abandoned farmland in southwestern Sweden. Control (C), fertilisation (F), irrigation (I), and irrigation +fertilisation (IF) treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. End of growing season analysis of foliar nutrients guided the quantitative composition of next year’s fertiliser mix. Volumetric soil moisture (VWC) was significantly higher in the I and IF treatments compared to the C and F treated stands of both oak species. We did not observe a fertiliser-related reduction in VWC (except for 2015, when VWC in F- treated Q. robur stands was significantly lower than the control by about 18 %). This is in line with the unaffected LAI estimates (5.3–5.9) suggesting no stimulation of leaf production that could drive increases in transpiration with subsequent soil moisture depletion. There was no treatment ×year interaction for any of the growth-related variables. Treatments had no significant effects on basal area growth, which increased annually by 1.72 and 1.54 m2 ha-1 on average for Q. petraea and Q. robur, respectively. Pre-treatment height differences in Q. petraea stands (7–12 % taller trees in the C and IF plots) persisted throughout the study resulting in significant effects, while no significant differences in height occurred in Q. robur. Periodic annual volume increment varied more strongly following drier periods but there were no significant differences among treatments. Our findings indicate that fertilisation causes no or only minor increases in oak water use, suggesting that nutrient addition in oak stands within this precipitation regime does not require simultaneous irrigation. Most importantly, our data implies that the soil nutrient legacies of past agricultural use suffice to maximise the productivity of oak stands on abandoned farmland typical of the main oak growing region in southwestern Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
nutrient-limitation, nutrient addition, soil water availability, soil nutrient availability, forest productivity
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117955 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120700 (DOI)000909705600001 ()2-s2.0-85145253583 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-12-16 Created: 2022-12-16 Last updated: 2023-04-20Bibliographically approved
Grelle, A., Hedwall, P.-O., Strömgren, M., Håkansson, C. & Bergh, J. (2023). From source to sink: recovery of the carbon balance in young forests. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 330, Article ID 109290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From source to sink: recovery of the carbon balance in young forests
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2023 (English)In: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, ISSN 0168-1923, E-ISSN 1873-2240, Vol. 330, article id 109290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyzed ecosystem carbon fluxes from eddy-covariance measurements in five young forests in southernSweden where the previous stand had been harvested by clear-cutting or wind-felled: three stands with Norwayspruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), one with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one with Larch (Larix x eurolepis A.Henry). One of the spruce stands had the stumps harvested, one was fertilized and one without any specialtreatments. These stands returned from positive (sources) to negative (sinks) annual carbon fluxes 8–13 yearsafter disturbance, depending on site productivity and management. This corresponds to approximately 15% ofthe rotation periods at these sites. Extrapolation in combination with chronosequence data suggests thatconventionally regenerated stands reach a neutral carbon balance after approximately 30% of the rotationperiod. The lowest carbon emissions and shortest recovery time was observed in a stand where the stumps of thetrees, in addition to the stems and logging residues, were removed after harvest. This stand not only returned to acarbon sink within this time period but the total carbon gains since disturbance also equaled the total losses afteronly 11 years. These results stress that production stands in southern Sweden are carbon sources during arelatively small part of the rotation period, and that this part can be considerably shortened by measures thatincrease productivity or reduce the amount of woody debris left after disturbance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Carbon balance, Carbon sink, Carbon source, Eddy flux, Norway spruce, Silviculture
National Category
Climate Research Environmental Management Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-118172 (URN)10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109290 (DOI)000921476900001 ()2-s2.0-85146018871 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 942-2015-1322Swedish Energy Agency, P36139-1
Available from: 2023-01-08 Created: 2023-01-08 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Fagerberg, N., Seifert, S., Seifert, T., Lohmander, P., Alissandrakis, A., Magnusson, B., . . . Bader, M.-F. K. F. (2023). Prediction of knot size in uneven-sized Norway spruce stands in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 544, Article ID 121206.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of knot size in uneven-sized Norway spruce stands in Sweden
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2023 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 544, article id 121206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The size of knots is negatively correlated with bending strength in sawn timber and it is therefore used as a quality grading criterion in national roundwood grading standards. Some standards even use the size of the largest knot as the sole estimate for individual log knottiness. The size of knots is determined by crown horizontal extension, which in turn is dependent on the impact of competing trees. Thus, with knot size models that are competition-dependent, roundwood quality due to knottiness can be simulated for different management al-ternatives. However, these types of models, calibrated on uneven-sized Norway spruce in Fennoscandia, are currently not available. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a competition-dependent model framework for prediction of the largest knot size per stem height section, for application within uneven-sized Norway spruce stands. Data from terrestrial laser scanning of an uneven-sized stand in southern Sweden are used to calibrate a modular prediction framework, consisting of interlinked allometric statistical models. Alternative framework sub-models are presented and the preferred model combination can be selected according to context and available input data. The flexible modular format enables further development of separate sub-components for adaptation to growing conditions not covered by the current calibration range.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Branch model, Stem quality, Uneven-aged, Picea abies, Continuous cover forestry, Crown shape
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-124635 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2023.121206 (DOI)001056125800001 ()2-s2.0-85163563754 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-09-15 Created: 2023-09-15 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, L. O. & Bergh, J. (2022). A Tool for Long-Term Forest Stand Projections of Swedish Forests. Forests, 13(6), Article ID 816.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tool for Long-Term Forest Stand Projections of Swedish Forests
2022 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 816Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of forest management strategies at landscape and regional levels forms a vital part of finding viable directions that will satisfy the many services expected of forests. This article describes the structure and content of a stand simulator, GAYA, which has been adapted to Swedish conditions. The main advantage of the GAYA implementation compared to other resources is that it generates a large number of management programmes within a limited time frame. This is valuable in cases where the management programmes appear as activities in linear programming (LP) problems. Two methods that are engaged in the projections, a climate change response function and a soil carbon model, are designed to complement other methods, offering transparency and computational effectiveness. GAYA is benchmarked against projections from the Heureka system for a large set of National Forest Inventory (NFI) plots. The long-term increment for the entire NFI set is smaller for GAYA compared with Heureka, which can be attributed to different approaches for modelling the establishment of new forests. The carbon pool belonging to living trees shows the same trend when correlated to standing volume. The soil carbon pool of GAYA increases with increased standing volume, while Heureka maintains the same amount over the 100-year projection period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
growth and yield, biomass, soil carbon, increment, forest treatments, climate change response function, natural mortality, ingrowth
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-115262 (URN)10.3390/f13060816 (DOI)000816422400001 ()2-s2.0-85131370294 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-07-08 Created: 2022-07-08 Last updated: 2023-02-16Bibliographically approved
Fagerberg, N., Lohmander, P., Eriksson, O., Olsson, J.-O., Poudel, B. C. & Bergh, J. (2022). Evaluation of individual-tree growth models for Picea abies based on a case study of an uneven-sized stand in southern Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 37(1), 45-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of individual-tree growth models for Picea abies based on a case study of an uneven-sized stand in southern Sweden
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2022 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To develop recommendations for tree selection in Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF), access to valid tools for simulating growth at individual tree-level is necessary. To assist efforts to develop such tools, in this study, long-term observation data from two uneven-sized Norway spruce plots in southern Sweden are used to evaluate old and new individual-tree growth models (two established Swedish models, two new preliminary models and included as a reference, a Finnish model). The plots' historical management records and site conditions are the same, but their last thinning treatment differs. Observed diameter increment at tree-level is investigated in relation to treatment. Individual tree growth residuals of tested models are evaluated in relation to tree diameter, treatment, projection length and sensitivity to the predictor mean stand age. Furthermore, the relations between displayed residuals and basal area local competition are analysed. The analyses indicate that active thinning made annual diameter increment independent of tree diameter above a threshold level, while the absence of thinning supported a concave relationship. All tested models displayed a significant linear bias leading to overestimation of small trees' growth and increasing underestimations of larger trees' growth with tree diameter. All distance-independent models displayed residual trends related to local competition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Continuous Cover Forestry, single-tree growth models, selective cutting, uneven-aged, single-tree selection, growth prediction
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-110866 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2022.2037700 (DOI)000763179300001 ()2-s2.0-85125992696 (Scopus ID)2022 (Local ID)2022 (Archive number)2022 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-03-18 Created: 2022-03-18 Last updated: 2023-02-16Bibliographically approved
Fagerberg, N., Olsson, J.-O., Lohmander, P., Andersson, M. & Bergh, J. (2022). Individual-tree distance-dependent growth models for uneven-sized Norway spruce. Forestry (London), 95, 634-646
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual-tree distance-dependent growth models for uneven-sized Norway spruce
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2022 (English)In: Forestry (London), ISSN 0015-752X, E-ISSN 1464-3626, Vol. 95, p. 634-646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual tree selection (ITS) is one option to manage uneven-sized forest ecosystems. However, scientifically based field guidelines adapted to ITS and economic profitability are rare, often because there is a lack of suitable tree models to use in growth and treatment simulations. The objective of this study is to develop individual-tree distance-dependent growth models focusing on Norway spruce dominated uneven-sized stands. Three models of different complexity, but with the same structural basis, are presented, followed by some examples of growth patterns for the subject trees. The data include 1456 trees (307 sample trees) collected from five sites in southern Sweden. The basic model (S) depends on subject tree size as the predictor, the second model (SD) adds distance to competitors as a predictor, and the third model (SDC) adds crown ratio as a predictor to the structure. R-Adj(2) increases with number of predictors from 0.48 to 0.58 to 0.62. The levels of RMSE improve accordingly from 5.02 cm(2) year(-1) (S) to 4.43 cm(2) year(-1) (SD) and 4.26 cm(2) year(-1) (SDC). The present calibration range and model structures primarily make the models suitable for management simulation of individual-tree selection of Norway spruce in southern Sweden. The format of the models allows for further extension with additional predictors and calibration data with greater coverage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-112972 (URN)10.1093/forestry/cpac017 (DOI)000791200100001 ()2-s2.0-85158008435 (Scopus ID)2022 (Local ID)2022 (Archive number)2022 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-05-23 Created: 2022-05-23 Last updated: 2023-08-17Bibliographically approved
Persson, M., Trubins, R., Eriksson, L. O., Bergh, J., Sonesson, J. & Holmström, E. (2022). Precision thinning: a comparison of optimal stand-level and pixel-level thinning. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 37(2), 99-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Precision thinning: a comparison of optimal stand-level and pixel-level thinning
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2022 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Precision forestry allows decision-making on tree level or pixel level, as compared to stand-level data. However, little is known about the importance of precision in thinning decisions and its long-term effects on within-stand variation, stand economy and growth. In this study, silviculture was optimized for Net Present Value (NPV) in 20 conifer-dominated forest stands in hemi-boreal southern Sweden. The precision-thinning approach, Precision Thinning (PT), is compared with a stand-level approach, Stand Level Thinning (SLT) that is optimized for the same criteria but based on stand-level data. The results suggest no substantial long-term benefit or drawback in implementing thinning decisions based on pixel-level data as compared to stand-level data when optimizing stand economy. The result variables NPV and Mean annual increment of living stem volume (MAI(net)) were not higher for PT than for SLT. The within-stand variation in basal area (m(2)/ha(-1)) was lower at the end of the rotation compared to the start of the simulation for both SLT and PT. At the end of the rotation, SLT had higher variation in basal area compared to PT. However, pixel-level information enables adapting the silviculture to the within-stand variation which may favour other forest management goals than strictly financial goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Thinning, within-stand variation, stand economy, NPV, Norway spruce, precision forestry, Scots pine
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-111112 (URN)10.1080/02827581.2022.2044902 (DOI)000770476300001 ()2-s2.0-85126771529 (Scopus ID)2022 (Local ID)2022 (Archive number)2022 (OAI)
Available from: 2022-04-07 Created: 2022-04-07 Last updated: 2023-02-16Bibliographically approved
Håkansson, C., Hedwall, P.-O., Strömgren, M., Axelsson, M. & Bergh, J. (2021). Effects of fertilization on soil CH4 and N2O fluxes in young Norway spruce stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 499, Article ID 119610.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of fertilization on soil CH4 and N2O fluxes in young Norway spruce stands
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2021 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 499, article id 119610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change mitigation strategies have increased the demand for wood products, resulting in an urgent needto increase wood production. One approach is to fertilize forest land, but this can influence greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes within the ecosystem. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of forest N fertilization onsoil CH4 and N2O fluxes in young Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in southern Sweden. The gasfluxes were measured using flow-through non-steady-state dark chambers. In the first, long-term, experiment,half of the stand was fertilized twice (once in 2014 and once in 2016) with 150 kg ha-1 of N, and gas fluxmeasurements were taken throughout 2014–2017. In the second, dose, experiment, 0, 150, 300, or 450 kg ha-1 of N was added to the stand in April 2016, and gas flux measurements were taken during April-December 2016.The dose experiment showed that the sink strength of CH4 decreased with increasing amounts of N; the long-termexperiment indicated that repeated fertilization decreased the CH4 sink strength over time. Additionally, thelong-term experiment indicated that, while significantly higher N2O emissions were recorded in the fertilizationyears, this was not detected in subsequent years, suggesting the effect to be short-lived. In the dose experiment,fertilization tended to increase the N2O emissions relative to the amount of fertilizer. However, despite thesignificant effects of fertilization on these GHGs, the summed fluxes were a fraction of the net uptake of C at thesites, as recorded in another study. These findings suggest that fertilizing forest land with commercial NP or NPKfertilizers corresponding to 150 kg ha-1 of N, the level used in operational forestry in Sweden today, can beconducted without changing CH4 and N2O fluxes to any great extent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2021
Keywords
Climate change mitigation, Forest management, GHG, Nitrogen availability
National Category
Climate Research Forest Science Soil Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology; Environmental Science, Natural Resources Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-106152 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119610 (DOI)000694706000006 ()2-s2.0-85112361101 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyCarl Tryggers foundation , 13:448, 15:474Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Highlights

•Fertilization on mineral soil only causes small short-lived N2O emissions

•High levels of N fertilizer do not change mineral forest soils to CH4 sources

•Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes are minor compared with the net ecosystem uptake of CO2.

Available from: 2021-08-13 Created: 2021-08-13 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, J. A., Jones, G., Håkansson, C., Blom, Å. & Bergh, J. (2021). Effects of Fertilization on Wood Formation in Naturally Regenerated Juvenile Silver Birch in a Norway Spruce Stand in South Sweden. Forests, 12(4), Article ID 415.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Fertilization on Wood Formation in Naturally Regenerated Juvenile Silver Birch in a Norway Spruce Stand in South Sweden
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2021 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates wood density and anatomy of juvenile silver birch stems in Sweden,grown in mixed conifer stands. Our aim is to investigate if fertilization provides increased growth, aswell as an eventual reduction in stem wood density. Measurements of basic density, ring width, cellwall thickness, and vessels are analyzed for 20 birch trees. Bark to pith radial sections are analyzedusing a light microscope and the freeware ImageJ to compare treatments and ages. The results showthat trees with fertilizer treatment have wider growth rings and thinner cell wall thickness comparedto unfertilized trees. The fertilized trees also have a lower cambium age at the same height and thesame diameter, and a slightly lower stem mean density (420 kg m3) than the unfertilized stems(460 kg m3). Fertilizer is a significant determinant of density and cell wall thickness in nonlinearmodels. The fertilized trees have increased growth and reached a fixed diameter earlier. The agedifference between the trees likely explains some of the differences in cell wall thickness. This studysupports the use of fertilizer as a silvicultural option for increasing the growth rate of silver birch fora relatively small reduction of wood density.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2021
Keywords
Betula pendula, wood density, growth rate, cell wall thickness
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-101862 (URN)10.3390/f12040415 (DOI)000643054100001 ()2-s2.0-85104515823 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Available from: 2021-03-30 Created: 2021-03-30 Last updated: 2022-07-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4723-1626

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