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Wollak, B., Forss, J. & Welander, U. (2018). Evaluation of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) as substrate for biogas production in Kalmar County (Sweden). Biomass and Bioenergy, 111, 96-102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) as substrate for biogas production in Kalmar County (Sweden)
2018 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 111, p. 96-102Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Baltic Sea is an over-fertilized inland sea; the blue mussels have potential to absorb nutrients as well as being a source of renewable energy in the form of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate technology to utilize blue mussels for biogas production in a pilot scale. Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were anaerobically digested in a two-stage digestion process (430 L), consisting of a percolation bed and an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Frozen mussels with shells were placed in the percolation bed and digestion was performed at 36 oC during 37 days. The methane potential achieved with this technique was 310 L kg-1 volatile solid substances (273.15 K, 101.3 kPa). This result suggests that blue mussels can be efficiently digested in a larger scale and have the potential of contributing to a sustainable energy mix in the Baltic region and at the same time decrease the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea.  No addition of nutrients and no pretreatment of the mussels (peeling) were needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Renewable Bioenergy Research
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71121 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.02.008 (DOI)000426994100012 ()
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Available from: 2018-02-27 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Forss, J., Lindh, M. V., Pinhassi, J. & Welander, U. (2017). Microbial biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous sequential rice husk biofilter and the microbial community involved. PLoS ONE, 12(1), Article ID e0170562.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial biotreatment of actual textile wastewater in a continuous sequential rice husk biofilter and the microbial community involved
2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0170562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Textile dying processes often pollute wastewater with recalcitrant azo and anthraquinone dyes. Yet, there is little development of effective and affordable degradation systems for textile wastewater applicable in countries where water technologies remain poor. We determined biodegradation of actual textile wastewater in biofilters containing rice husks by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. The indigenous microflora from the rice husks consistently performed >90% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of 67 h. Analysis of microbial community composition of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene fragments in the biofilters revealed a bacterial consortium known to carry azoreductase genes, such as Dysgonomonas, and Pseudomonas and the presence of fungal phylotypes such as Gibberella and Fusarium. Our findings emphasize that rice husk biofilters support a microbial community of both bacteria and fungi with key features for biodegradation of actual textile wastewater. These results suggest that microbial processes can substantially contribute to efficient and reliable degradation of actual textile wastewater. Thus, development of biodegradation systems holds promise for application of affordable wastewater treatment in polluted environments.

National Category
Water Treatment
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61528 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0170562 (DOI)000396129000068 ()28114377 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Pechsiri, J. S., Thomas, J.-B., Risén, E., Ribeiro, M. S., Malmström, M. E., Nylund, G., . . . Gröndahl, F. (2016). Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden. Science of the Total Environment, 573, 347-355
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Swedish macroalgae cultivation, Saccharina latissima, biorefinery, energy returm om investment (EROI), EURED GHG savings, economy of scale
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-56386 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.220 (DOI)000390071000032 ()2-s2.0-84983638479 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Seafarm
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2013-11209-24630-54
Available from: 2016-09-06 Created: 2016-09-06 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Jansson, A., Rupar-Gadd, K., Forss, J. & Welander, U. (2016). Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery. In: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016. Paper presented at 24th European Biomass Conference : Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016 (pp. 627-629). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot-Scale Experiments Using Cultivated Macro Algae for Biogas Production, Part of a Future Seafarm Biorefinery
2016 (English)In: 24th EUBCE Online Proceedings 2016: Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2016, p. 627-629Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The research is focused on evaluation of substrates not commonly used for biogas production and the development and optimization of processes adjusted to these substrates. This study deals with evaluation of sea weeds (Saccharina Lattisima and Laminaria digitata). Biomethane potential tests (BMP) have shown the methane potential of the algae to be 180-440 l CH4/kg organic material. These potentials are in the same range as potentials found for commonly used substrates such as sewage sludge and slaughterhouse waste. Sampling of produced biogas, substrate and digest were performed by using Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) followed by analysis by a Gas Chromatograph with a Mass Spectrometrer (GC-MS) in order to develop a method to be able to characterize, monitor and possibly control the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2016
Series
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ISSN 2282-5819
Keywords
energy balance, harvesting, nitrogen/carbon ratios, circular economy
National Category
Bioenergy
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61616 (URN)10.5071/24thEUBCE2016-2DO.7.6 (DOI)9788889407165 (ISBN)
Conference
24th European Biomass Conference : Setting the course for a biobased economy. Held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6 - 9 June 2016
Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2017-03-22Bibliographically approved
Santos, G. C., Forss, J., Welander, U. & Corso, C. R. (2015). Redox mediator evaluation in the azo dye biodegradation. In: : . Paper presented at BioMicroWorld 2015. Boca Raton, USA: BrownWalker Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Redox mediator evaluation in the azo dye biodegradation
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Azo dye degradation occurs by means of the oxidation–reduction reactions which have the azo dye acting as final electron acceptor. Some carbon sources can act as electron donors because the products of their metabolism act as redox mediators. In order to enhance the dye biodegradation process, the present study aims to evaluate the decolorization of an artificial wastewater, containing the azo dye Direct Red 75 (DR75), led by a microbial consortium from rice husks, testing the effect in the process of glucose and yeast extract as carbon sources. Samples with and without 0.1 M Sodium phosphate buffer were also analysed. The decolorization was measured by means UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The percentage of decolorization of the samples over the time indicates that the sample with yeast extract, rinse water of rice husks and without buffer presented the best decolorization rate, about 80%. Therefore, the results presented in this study may also suggest that yeast extract is a better carbon source for dye biodegradation than glucose.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton, USA: BrownWalker Press, 2015. p. 4
Keywords
Textile dye, azoreductase, biodegradation, Azo dye, direct red 75, waste water treatment
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Sustainable Built Environment; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Environmental Biotechnology; Natural Science, Environmental Science; Chemistry, Biotechnology; Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51791 (URN)
Conference
BioMicroWorld 2015
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Risén, E., Gregeby, E., Tartarchenko, O., Blidberg, E., Malmström, M., Welander, U. & Gröndahl, F. (2013). Assessment of biomethane production from maritime common reed. Journal of Cleaner Production, 53, 186-194
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of biomethane production from maritime common reed
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several ongoing projects are harvesting maritime biomass from the Baltic Sea for eutrophication mitigation and utilisation of the recovered biomass. Some of this biomass comprises common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most widespread vascular plants on Earth. Reed utilisation from eutrophied coastal areas needs to be evaluated. Therefore, a system analysis was performed of reed harvesting for biofuel and biofertiliser production. The specific objectives of the analysis were to: investigate the methane yield associated with anaerobic co-digestion of reed; make a primary energy assessment of the system; quantify Greenhouse Gas (GHG) savings when a fossil reference system is replaced; and estimate the nutrient recycling potential of the system. The results from energy and GHG calculations are highly dependent on conditions such as system boundaries, system design, allocation methods and selected indicators. Therefore a pilot project taking place in Kalmar County, Sweden, was used as a case study system. Laboratory experiments using continuously stirred tank reactor digesters indicated an increased methane yield of about 220 m3 CH4/t volatile solids from co-digestion of reed. The energy balance for the case study system was positive, with energy requirements amounting to about 40% of the energy content in the biomethane produced and with the non-renewable energy input comprising about 50% of the total energy requirements of the system. The net energy value proved to be equivalent to about 40 L of petrol/t reed wet weight. The potential to save GHG emissions compared with a fossil reference system was considerable (about 80%). Furthermore an estimated 60% of the nitrogen and almost all the phosphorus in the biomass could be re-circulated to arable land as biofertiliser. Considering the combined benefits from all factors investigated in this study, harvesting of common reed from coastal zones has the potential to be beneficial, assuming an appropriate system design, and is worthy of further investigations regarding other sustainability aspects.

Keywords
Phragmites australis, Anaerobic digestion, Energy balance, Baltic sea, System analysis, Nutrient recycling
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-26321 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.03.030 (DOI)000321409100020 ()2-s2.0-84878913954 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-06-11 Created: 2013-06-11 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Forss, J., Pinhassi, J., Lindh, M. V. & Welander, U. (2013). Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5. Bioresource Technology, 130, 681-688
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microbial diversity in a continuous system based on rice husks for biodegradation of the azo dyes Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Black 5
2013 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 130, p. 681-688Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study the degradation of two common azo dyes used in dye houses today, Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 was evaluated in biofilters. In two experiments, bioreactors performed over 80% decolorization at a hydraulic retention time of only 28.4 h with little production of metabolites. Molecular analyses showed a diverse and dynamic bacterial community composition in the bioreactors, including members of the Bacteroidetes, Acinetobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Clostridium (Firmicutes) that possess the capacity to reduce azo dyes. Collectively, the results indicate that the development of mixed bacterial communities from natural biomaterials contributes to an efficient and robust degradation performance in bioreactors even at high concentration of dyes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
biodegradation, textile dyes, azodyes, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-22899 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2012.12.097 (DOI)000316032300091 ()2-s2.0-84872408869 (Scopus ID)
Projects
decolorization, industrial wastewater, lignocellulosic material, indigenous 27 decolorizers, l
Available from: 2012-12-14 Created: 2012-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gregeby, E. & Welander, U. (2012). Provrötning av marina substrat i laboratorie- och pilotskala: Delstudie i projektet Biogas – Nya substrat från havet. Växjö: Linnaeus University, School of Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Provrötning av marina substrat i laboratorie- och pilotskala: Delstudie i projektet Biogas – Nya substrat från havet
2012 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Denna rapport omfattar delstudie 4 av projektet Biogas-Nya substrat från havet. Inom delstudien har ett antal provrötningar av substrat från havet (vass, musslor, alger och skrapsill) genomförts. Syftet med delstudien var att få fram metanpotentialen för de olika substraten och att öka kunskapen kring hur dessa substrat uppför sig i en biogasprocess. Projektet var ett samverkansprojekt delfinansierat av EU Regionala fonden för Småland och öarna. Projektledare var Regionförbundet i Kalmar län. Inledningsvis genomfördes ett antal satsvisa försök med samtliga substrat. Metanpotentialerna för vassen, musslorna, algerna respektive skarpsillen var 400, 270, ca 210 och 460 Ndm3/kg VS. Ymp hämtades från Kalmar Biogas ABs industriella rötkammare. Vassen samrötades också med industriellt avfall i ett kontinuerligt våtrötningsförsök. Försöket genomfördes i två total omrörda tankreaktorer med volymen 30 l/st. Tillsatsen av vass gav en utökad metanproduktion med 220 Ndm3/kgVS.

Vassen och musslorna studerades också i torrötningsförsök. Försöken i laboratorieskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioteknik i Lund medan försöket med musslor i pilotskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik, Linnéuniversitet. Metanpotentialen för vassen var i torrötningsförsöket ca 220 Ndm3/kg VS vilket är lika med potentialen i våtrötningsförsöket. För musslorna erhölls en metanpotential på 330 Ndm3/kg VS i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Pilotskaleförsöket visade att hydrolysen etablerades på likartat sätt som i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Metanhalten var ca 70 %. En visuell inspektion av musslorna efter rötningen visade också att endast skalen återstod. Det är dock inte möjligt att ange en metanpotential från detta försök beroende på ett antal tekniska problem med processen. Processen byggdes inför detta försök och det fanns inte tid att testköra den samma före försökets start.Arbetet med de satsvisa försöken och det kontinuerliga våtrötningsförsöket av vass genomfördes i samarbete med Kalmar Biogas AB. Detta bland annat genom att Kalmar Biogas AB tillhandahöll sin försöksanläggning med satsvisa och kontinuerliga reaktorer till projektet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University, School of Engineering, 2012. p. 17
Series
Report ; 16
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-57523 (URN)978-91-86983-97-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-10-21 Created: 2016-10-21 Last updated: 2017-01-13
Forss, J. & Welander, U. (2011). Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 65(1), 227-237
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biodegradation of azo and anthraquinone dyes in continuous systems
2011 (English)In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 227-237Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose is to develop a complete microbiological model system for the treatment of wastewater

from textile mills in developing countries. Arti

fi

cial wastewater was treated by microorganisms growing

on wood shavings from Norway spruce during unsterile conditions. The microorganisms were inoculated

from forest residues. Mixtures of the azo dyes Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 2 were degraded in

batch as well as continuous experiments. Reactive Red 2 mixed with the anthraquinone dye Reactive

Blue 4 was also treated in the continuous system. The system consisted of three reservoirs

 

 

e the fi

rst two

with an anaerobic environment and the third with an aerobic. The dye concentrations were 200 mg l

 

 

1

of

each dye in the continuous system and the retention time was approximately 4 days and 20 h per

reservoir. Samples from the process were analysed with spectrophotometer and LC/MS to monitor the

degradation process. 86-90% of the colour was removed after a treatment of 4 days and 23 h in the

continuous process. Two metabolites were found in the outlets of reactors one and two, but they were

degraded to below the detection limit in the aerobic reactor.

 

 

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
textile dye, industrial wastewater, lignocellulosic materia, native microflora fromforest residues
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-10268 (URN)10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.11.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-78650678059 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-01-20 Created: 2011-01-20 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Türgay, O., Ersöz, G., Atalay, S., Forss, J. & Welander, U. (2011). Treatment of Azo Dyes in Textile Industry Wastewater by Biological and/or Chemical Methods. Separation and Purification Technology, 79(1), 26-33
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of Azo Dyes in Textile Industry Wastewater by Biological and/or Chemical Methods
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2011 (English)In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 26-33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
anaerobic microbial treatment, catalytic wet peroxide oxidation, azo dyes, textile industry wastewater
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-16598 (URN)10.1016/j.seppur.2011.03.007 (DOI)2-s2.0-79955579603 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-01-04 Created: 2012-01-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0841-7065

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