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Atterby, C., Osbjer, K., Tepper, V., Rajala, E., Hernandez, J., Seng, S., . . . Jarhult, J. D. (2019). Carriage of carbapenemase- and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in humans and livestock in rural Cambodia; gender and age differences and detection of bla(OXA-48 )in humans. Zoonoses and Public Health, 66(6), 603-617
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carriage of carbapenemase- and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in humans and livestock in rural Cambodia; gender and age differences and detection of bla(OXA-48 )in humans
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2019 (English)In: Zoonoses and Public Health, ISSN 1863-1959, E-ISSN 1863-2378, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 603-617Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended-spectrum cephalosporinase-producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal samples were obtained from 307 humans and 285 livestock including large ruminants, pigs and poultry living in 100 households in rural Cambodia in 2011. Each household was interviewed, and multilevel logistic model determined associations between household practices/meat consumption and faecal carriage of ESCE/K. CPE and ESCE/K were detected and further screened for colistin resistance genes. Results CPE/K isolates harbouring bla(OXA-48 )were identified in two humans. The community carriage of ESCE/K was 20% in humans and 23% in livestock. The same ESBL genes: bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-14), bla(CTX-M-27), bla(CTX-M-55), bla(SHV-2), bla(SHV-12), bla(SHV-28); AmpC genes: bla(CMY-2), bla(CMY-42,) bla(DHA-1); and colistin resistance genes: mcr-1-like and mcr-3-like were detected in humans and livestock. ESCE/K was frequently detected in women, young children, pigs and poultry, which are groups in close contact. The practice of burning or burying meat waste and not collecting animal manure indoors and outdoors daily were identified as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K. Conclusions Faecal carriage of E. coli and K. pneumoniae harbouring extended-spectrum cephalosporinase genes are common in the Cambodian community, especially in women and young children. Exposure to animal manure and slaughter products are risk factors for intestinal colonization of ESCE/K in humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
AmpC, Cambodia, carbapenemase, colistin, ESBL, risk factors, rural population, zoonoses
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-86955 (URN)10.1111/zph.12612 (DOI)000473968900001 ()31264805 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85070192709 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-24 Created: 2019-07-24 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved
Ramey, A. M., Hernandez, J., Tyrlöv, V., Uher-Koch, B. D., Schmutz, J. A., Atterby, C., . . . Bonnedahl, J. (2018). Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Migratory Birds Inhabiting Remote Alaska. EcoHealth, 15(1), 72-81
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Migratory Birds Inhabiting Remote Alaska
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2018 (English)In: EcoHealth, ISSN 1612-9202, E-ISSN 1612-9210, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We explored the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli among migratory birds at remote sites in Alaska and used a comparative approach to speculate on plausible explanations for differences in detection among species. At a remote island site, we detected antibiotic-resistant E. coli phenotypes in samples collected from glaucous-winged gulls (Larus glaucescens), a species often associated with foraging at landfills, but not in samples collected from black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla), a more pelagic gull that typically inhabits remote areas year-round. We did not find evidence for antibiotic-resistant E. coli among 347 samples collected primarily from waterfowl at a second remote site in western Alaska. Our results provide evidence that glaucous-winged gulls may be more likely to be infected with antibiotic-resistant E. coli at remote breeding sites as compared to sympatric black-legged kittiwakes. This could be a function of the tendency of glaucous-winged gulls to forage at landfills where antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections may be acquired and subsequently dispersed. The low overall detection of antibiotic-resistant E. coli in migratory birds sampled at remote sites in Alaska is consistent with the premise that anthropogenic inputs into the local environment or the relative lack thereof influences the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among birds inhabiting the area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Antibiotic resistance, Bacteria, E. coli, Gull, Migratory bird, Waterfowl
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74121 (URN)10.1007/s10393-017-1302-5 (DOI)000435527600008 ()29230612 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85037681192 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-09 Created: 2018-05-09 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Retamal, P., Llanos-Soto, S., Moreno Salas, L., Lopez, J., Vianna, J., Hernandez, J., . . . Gonzalez-Acuna, D. (2017). Isolation of drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis strains in gentoo penguins from Antarctica. Polar Biology, 40(12), 2531-2536
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Isolation of drug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis strains in gentoo penguins from Antarctica
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2017 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 2531-2536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic activity in Antarctica constitutes a continuous risk for the introduction of infectious diseases into indigenous wildlife populations. Penguin colonies living close to human settlements or inhabiting in areas considered for tourism could be facing a greater threat of infection. Fecal samples from Pygoscelis penguins (Pygoscelis spp.) were collected from different sites within Antarctic Peninsula and South Shetlands Islands in order to assess the presence of Salmonella enterica. Bacterial identification and characterization was performed applying biochemical and molecular techniques. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance by the disk diffusion method, and PCR analyses were used for detection of resistance and virulence-associated genes. Four samples (1.74%) from P. papua were found to be positive to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis strains. All of them showed phenotypic antimicrobial resistance to at least three antimicrobials, and shared a similar gene profile through PCR. Results in this study urgently call for improvements in sanitary standards for waste disposal and sewage treatment in Antarctica. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report antimicrobial resistance in S. enterica isolated from Antarctic wild species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Salmonella enterica, Antimicrobial resistance, Antarctica, Gentoo penguins
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Biomedical Sciences, Virology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69767 (URN)10.1007/s00300-017-2163-7 (DOI)000418386500017 ()2-s2.0-85022011351 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Hasan, B., Laurell, K., Rakib, M. M., Ahlstedt, E., Hernandez, J., Caceres, M. & Jarhult, J. D. (2016). Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli. Microbial Drug Resistance, 22(8), 682-687
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fecal Carriage of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in Healthy Humans, Poultry, and Wild Birds in Leon, NicaraguaA Shared Pool of bla(CTX-M) Genes and Possible Interspecies Clonal Spread of Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases-Producing Escherichia coli
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2016 (English)In: Microbial Drug Resistance, ISSN 1076-6294, E-ISSN 1931-8448, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 682-687Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern in the healthcare of today, especially the increasing number of gram-negative bacteria producing -lactamases such as extended-spectrum -lactamases (ESBLs). However, little is known about the relationship of ESBL producers in humans and domestic and wild birds, especially in a low-income setting. Therefore, we studied the fecal carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in healthy humans, poultry, and wild birds in the vicinity of Leon, Nicaragua. Three hundred fecal samples were collected during December 2012 from humans (n=100), poultry (n=100) and wild birds (n=100). The samples were examined for ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae, revealing the prevalence of 27% in humans, 13% in poultry, and 8% in wild birds. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing isolates was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (NDM, CTX-M), epidemiological typing (ERIC2-PCR), multilocus sequence typing, and sequencing. ESBL producers harbored bla(CTX-M-2), bla(CTX-M-15), bla(CTX-M-22), and bla(CTX-M-3) genotypes. The bla(CTX-M-15) constituted the absolute majority of ESBL genes among all samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated highly related E. coli clones among humans, poultry, and wild birds. Clinically relevant E. coli clone ST648 was found in humans and poultry. There is a shared pool of bla(CTX-M) genes between humans and domesticated and wild birds in Nicaragua, and the results suggest shared clones of ESBL-producing E. coli. The study adds to the notion that wild birds and poultry can pick up antibiotic-resistant bacteria of human origin and function as a melting pot of resistance. Structured surveillance programs of antimicrobial resistance and a more regulated prescription of antibiotics are warranted in Nicaragua.

Keywords
ESBL, E. coli, CTX-M-15, Nicaragua, wild birds, environment
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59811 (URN)10.1089/mdr.2015.0323 (DOI)000390414700009 ()2-s2.0-85002626949 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-13 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Stedt, J., Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Waldenström, J., McMahon, B. J., Tolf, C., . . . Drobni, M. (2015). Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 57, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe
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2015 (English)In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), a group of enzymes conferring resistance to third generation cephalosporins have rapidly increased in Enterobacteriacae and pose a major challenge to human health care. Resistant isolates are common in domestic animals and clinical settings, but prevalence and genotype distribution varies on a geographical scale. Although ESBL genes are frequently detected in bacteria isolated from wildlife samples, ESBL dissemination of resistant bacteria to the environment is largely unknown. To address this, we used three closely related gull species as a model system and collected more than 3000 faecal samples during breeding times in nine European countries. Samples were screened for ESBL-producing bacteria, which were characterized to the level of ESBL genotype groups (SHV, TEM), or specific genotypes (CTX-M). Results: ESBL-producing bacteria were frequently detected in gulls (906 of 3158 samples, 28.7 %), with significant variation in prevalence rates between countries. Highest levels were found in Spain (74.8 %), The Netherlands (37.8 %) and England (27.1 %). Denmark and Poland represented the other extreme with no, or very few positive samples. Genotyping of CTX-M isolates identified 13 different variants, with bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-14) as the most frequently detected. In samples from England, Spain and Portugal, blaCTX-M-14 dominated, while in the rest of the sampled countries blaCTX-M-1 (except Sweden where bla(CTX-M-15) was dominant) was the most frequently detected genotype, a pattern similar to what is known from studies of human materials. Conclusions: CTX-M type ESBLs are common in the faecal microbiota from gulls across Europe. The gull ESBL genotype distribution was in large similar to published datasets from human and food-production animals in Europe. The data suggests that the environmental dissemination of ESBL is high from anthropogenic sources, and widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria in common migratory bird species utilizing urban and agricultural areas suggests that antibiotic resistance genes may also be spread through birds.

Keywords
ESBL, CTX-M, Wildlife, Birds, Gulls, Antibiotic resistance, E. coli, Europe
National Category
Microbiology Veterinary Science
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47378 (URN)10.1186/s13028-015-0166-3 (DOI)000363921100001 ()26526188 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84945962826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Stedt, J., Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., McMahon, B. J., Hasan, B., Olsen, B., . . . Waldenström, J. (2014). Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 4, Article ID 21565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries
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2014 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, article id 21565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria.

METHODS: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine.

RESULTS: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources.

CONCLUSION: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33715 (URN)10.3402/iee.v4.21565 (DOI)24427451 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Stedt, J., Waldenström, J., Olsen, B. & Drobni, M. (2014). Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA [Letter to the editor]. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 897-899
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamases in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in Gulls, Alaska, USA
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2014 (English)In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 897-899Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
National Category
Immunology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-34642 (URN)10.3201/eid2005.130325 (DOI)000335124900031 ()2-s2.0-84898881765 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-06-04 Created: 2014-06-04 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Hernandez, J., Johansson, A., Stedt, J., Bengtsson, S., Porczak, A., Granholm, S., . . . Drobni, M. (2013). Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile. PLoS ONE, 8(9), Article ID e76150.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) Resistance Genotypes and Population Structure of Escherichia coli Isolated from Franklin's Gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) and Humans in Chile
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e76150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the general level of antibiotic resistance with further analysis of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence, as well as the population structure of E. coli in fecal flora of humans and Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) in central parts of Chile. We found a surprisingly high carriage rate of ESBL-producing E. coli among the gulls 112/372 (30.1%) as compared to the human population 6/49 (12.2%.) Several of the E. coli sequence types (STs) identified in birds have previously been reported as Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) human pathogens including the ability to produce ESBLs. This means that not only commensal flora is shared between birds and humans but also STs with pathogenic potential. Given the migratory behavior of Franklin's gulls, they and other migratory species, may be a part of ESBL dissemination in the environment and over great geographic distances. Apart from keeping the antibiotic use low, breaking the transmission chains between the environment and humans must be a priority to hinder the dissemination of resistance.

National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30651 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0076150 (DOI)000325423500144 ()2-s2.0-84884781295 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-11-22 Created: 2013-11-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gonzalez-Acuna, D., Hernandez, J., Moreno, L., Herrmann, B., Palma, R., Latorre, A., . . . Olsen, B. (2013). Health evaluation of wild gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology, 36(12), 1749-1760
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Health evaluation of wild gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in the Antarctic Peninsula
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2013 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 1749-1760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Historically wildlife conservation was based on habitat protection and exploitation control. Only recently have diseases been considered an important issue. However, pathogens are usually described during or after disease outbreaks, but to determine which pathogens may be emerging, surveys of wildlife health are critical in a given time. This study deals with the health status of gentoo penguins Pygoscelis papua in two localities at the Antarctica Peninsula and one at Ardley Island off the South Shetland Islands. Cloacal swaps, fresh fecal samples, ectoparasites, and blood smears were collected. We examined and dissected 14 penguin corpses found dead. Fecal samples were positive for Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and in the carcasses four endoparasitic species were found: Diphyllobothrium sp. and Parorchites zederi, Corynosoma shackletoni and Stegophorus adeliae. The tick Ixodes uriae occurred in five of the examined penguins, and the louse Austrogoniodes gressitti on six birds. From the colony grounds, we collected 1,184 I. uriae. We recorded antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as E. coli, in ecosystems where gentoo penguins breed. Cloacal samples (300) were negative for Chlamydia, as well as for Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli, Newcastle and Influenza viruses.

Keywords
Health, Gentoo penguins, Antarctica, Pathogens, Endoparasites, Ectoparasites
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Natural Science, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-31318 (URN)10.1007/s00300-013-1394-5 (DOI)000327393700004 ()2-s2.0-84921836676 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-19 Created: 2013-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hernandez, J., Lindberg, P., Waldenström, J., Drobni, M. & Olsen, B. (2012). A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala). Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 2(1), Article ID 7373.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel Salmonella serovar isolated from Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in Sweden: Salmonella enterica enterica serovar Pajala (Salmonella Pajala)
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2012 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 7373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel Salmonella serovar was isolated from Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) nestlings in northern Sweden in 2006. Three isolates of the same clone was retrieved from three falcon siblings and characterized as Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica: O-phase 13, 23:-: e, n, z 15 and the H-phase was not present. We propose the geographical name Salmonella enterica, sub-species enterica serovar Pajala to this novel Salmonella.

Keywords
Salmonella, epidemiology, ecology, peregrine falcon, novel serovar
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-63768 (URN)10.3402/iee.v2i0.7373 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
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