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Hagner, M., Romantschuk, M., Penttinen, O.-P. -., Egfors, A., Marchand, C. & Augustsson, A. (2018). Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests. Science of the Total Environment, 613, 30-38
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing toxicity of metal contaminated soil from glassworks sites with a battery of biotests
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 613, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study addresses toxicological properties of metal contaminated soils, using glassworks sites in south-easternl Sweden as study objects. Soil from five selected glassworks sites as well as from nearby reference areas were analysed for total and water-soluble metal concentrations and general geochemical parameters. A battery of biotests was then applied to assess the toxicity of the glassworks soil environments: a test of phytotoxicity with garden cress (Lepidium sativum); the BioTox(TM) test for toxicity to bacteria using Vibrio fischeri; and analyses of abundancies and biomass of nematodes and enchytraeids. The glassworks-and reference areas were comparable with respect to pH and the content of organic matter and nutrients (C, N, P), but total metal concentrations (Pb, As, Ba, Cd and Zn) were significantly higher at the former sites. Higher metal concentrations in the water-soluble fraction were also observed, even though these concentrations were low compared to the total ones. Nevertheless, toxicity of the glassworks soils was not detected by the two ex situ tests; inhibition of light emission by V. fischeri could not be seen, nor was an effect seen on the growth of L. sativum. A decrease in enchytraeid and nematode abundance and biomass was, however, observed for the landfill soils as compared to reference soils, implying in situ toxicity to soil-inhabiting organisms. The confirmation of in situ bioavailability and negative effects motivates additional studies of the risk posed to humans of the glassworks villages. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Metal contamination, Glassworks sites, Enchytraeids, Biotests, Bioavailability
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68897 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.121 (DOI)000414160500004 ()2-s2.0-85029170913 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F., Hijri, M. & Hogland, W. (2018). Physicochemical and Ecotoxicological Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Trace Elements Contaminated Soil. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (Print)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physicochemical and Ecotoxicological Characterization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Trace Elements Contaminated Soil
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2018 (English)In: Polycyclic aromatic compounds (Print), ISSN 1040-6638, E-ISSN 1563-5333Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Underground storage tanks used for auto oil spill waste contain many hazardous materials, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) trace elements. These compounds pose a significant threat to the environment and affect negatively human health. The aim of this study was to characterize the soil of a former auto scrap yards in which oil spill tank leakage occurred in Sweden. The soil samples were collected from an area of 5 m2 around an oil the tank which was highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and trace elements (cobalt and lead). Another soil samples were collected from a nearby area that was not contaminated by PHC and they were considered as controls. The characterization of these soil samples was performed using two approaches. Analysis of the relevant physico-chemical soil properties included texture, organic matter, contaminant concentration and pH, while biological analyses were performed using three independent ecotoxicological tests with plant (Lepidium sativum), earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and soil microorganisms. Toxicity tests showed that contaminants had strongly negative effects on earthworm’s development and L. sativum shoots dry biomass in both PHC contaminated and control soils. These two parameters were the most sensitive in reflecting toxicity of study soils. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) in aqueous phase was four times higher than that of the solid phase even though a similar trend was observed in both phases (aqueous and solid). Moreover, microorganism’s respiration was high in PHC contaminated soils in comparison to control soils due to the mineralization of readily available OM and/or organic pollutants as well as the inhibitory effect of TE on soil respiration. The results clearly demonstrated that combination of chemical analyses with three toxicity tests was appropriate to characterize mixed PHC and TE contaminated soils.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
Cobalt, lead, oxygen uptake rate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, toxicity tests
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60830 (URN)10.1080/10406638.2018.1517101 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2019-05-03
Marchand, C., Mench, M., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F., Notini, P., Hijri, M. & Hogland, W. (2018). Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil. Science of the Total Environment, 618, 753-764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot scale aided-phytoremediation of a co-contaminated soil
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2018 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pilot scale experiment was conducted to investigate the aided-phytoextraction of metals and the aided-phytodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) in a co-contaminated soil. First, this soil was amended with compost (10% w/w) and assembled into piles (Unp-10%C). Then, a phyto-cap of Medicago sativa L. either in monoculture (MS-10%C) or co-cropped with Helianthus annuus L. as companion planting (MSHA-10%C) was sown on the topsoil. Physico-chemical parameters and contaminants in the soil and its leachates were measured at the beginning and the end of the first growth season (after five months). In parallel, residual soil ecotoxicity was assessed using the plant species Lepidium sativum L. and the earthworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, 1826, while the leachate ecotoxicity was assessed using Lemna minor L. After 5 months, PH C10-C40, PAH-L, PAH-M PAH-H, Pb and Cu concentrations in the MS-10%C soil were significantly reduced as compared to the Unp-10% C soil. Metal uptake by alfalfa was low but their translocation to shoots was high for Mn, Cr, Co and Zn (transfer factor (TF) >1), except for Cu and Pb. Alfalfa in monoculture reduced electrical conductivity, total organic C and Cu concentration in the leachate while pH and dissolved oxygen increased. Alfalfa co-planting with sunflower did not affect the extraction of inorganic contaminants from the soil, the PAH (M and H) degradation and was less efficient for PH C10-C40 and PAH-L as compared to alfalfa monoculture. The co-planting reduced shoot and root Pb concentrations. The residual soil ecotoxicity after 5 months showed a positive effect of co-planting on L. sativum shoot dry weight (DW) yield. However, high contaminant concentrations in soil and leachate still inhibited the L. sativum root DW yield, earthworm development, and L. minor growth rate. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Phytotechnologies, Helianthus annuus, Lepidium sativum, Toxicity test, Compost
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71547 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.143 (DOI)000424130500078 ()29054647 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85031705403 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-16 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., St-Arnaud, M., Hogland, W., Bell, T. H. & Hijri, M. (2017). Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 116, 48-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Petroleum biodegradation capacity of bacteria and fungi isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil
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2017 (English)In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 116, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigated the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation by 95 bacterial and 160 fungal strains isolated from a former petrochemical plant. We tested whether soil origin, culture media type, and strain taxonomy influenced the degradation of added petroleum hydrocarbon compounds. Preliminary screening was based on two colorimetric tests using 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and piodonitrotetrazolium indicators, to assess microbial strain tolerance to crude oil. Top-performing strains in these screening assays were then assessed for their ability to mineralize a mixture of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) for 49 days, using GC-MS quantification. The aerobic activity of these candidate strains was also assessed by respirometry over the first 24 days of incubation. On average, PAH degradation by microbial isolates from soil that was lightly, moderately, and highly contaminated with petroleum was equally efficient, and the type of culture medium used did not significantly impact mean biodegradation. Phylogenetic affiliation had a strong and significant effect on PAH biodegradation. Fungal isolates belonging to the group Sordariomycetes, and bacterial isolates belonging to the groups Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria showed high potential for PAH degradation. Three of the strains tested by GC-MS, Rhodococcus sp., Trichoderma tomentosum, and Fusarium oxysporum, significantly degraded all four PAH compounds in the mixture compared to the control. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Bioremediation, Respirometry, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), Crude oil, Colorimetric tests
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-59808 (URN)10.1016/j.ibiod.2016.09.030 (DOI)000390498700006 ()2-s2.0-84991043173 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-16 Created: 2017-01-13 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C. (2017). Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and trace elements
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The rapid urbanization and industrialization has led to an increase of disposal petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and trace elements (TE) into the environment. These pollutants are considered as the most toxic contaminants in the world due to their persistence in the environment, and the long range of toxicological effects for living beings.

Recent concerns regarding the environmental contamination have initiated the development of several remediation technologies, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. In this thesis, gentle soil remediation options (GRO) were investigated at different scales for the reclamation of PHC and TE co-contaminated soil. In the first part of this thesis, laboratory experiments were performed to characterize PHC and TE contaminated soil as well as the indigenous microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) present inside these contaminated soil. It was found that the studied aged contaminated soil had a negative effect on earthworm’s development and L. sativum biomass. Moreover, a high respiration of microorganisms attributed to the transformation/ mineralization of organic matter or/and organic pollutants was observed. This presence of viable microorganisms suggested an adaptation of microorganisms to the contaminant. Further results showed that the long-term exposure of soil microorganisms to high PHC concentration and the type of isolation culture media did not influence the ability of isolates to effectively degrade PHC. However, phylogenic affiliation had a strong on PHC biodegradation. In the second part of this thesis, preliminary studies in greenhouse were assessed to investigate the ability of M. sativa assisted by compost in the greenhouse aided-phytoremediation of PHC and TE. It was found that compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and phytoextraction of TE. Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial also showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. Pilot scale ecopile experiment carried out in the third part of this thesis allow a reduction of up to 80% of PHC and 20% of metals after 17 months. This research demonstrated that M. sativa and H. annus were suitable for phytodegradation of PHC and phytoextraction of TE.  Results from this thesis are helpful for further full-scale phytoremediation studies. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2017. p. 212
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 279/2017
Keywords
Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Trace Elements, Gentle Soil Remediation Options, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Respirometry, Ecopile, Bacteria, Fungi
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60839 (URN)978-91-88357-63-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-10, N2007, Västergård, Kalmar, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2017-03-16Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., Hogland, W., Kaczala, F., Jani, Y., Marchand, L., Augustsson, A. & Hijri, M. (2016). Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests. International journal of phytoremediation, 18(11), 1136-1147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Medicago sativa L. and compost on organic and inorganic pollutant removal from a mixed contaminated soil and risk assessment using ecotoxicological tests
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2016 (English)In: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 18, no 11, p. 1136-1147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several Gentle Remediation Options (GRO), e.g. plant-based options (phytoremediation), singly and combined with soil amendments, can be simultaneously efficient for degrading organic pollutants and either stabilizing or extracting trace elements (TE). Here, a 5-month greenhouse trial was performed to test the efficiency of Medicago sativa L., singly and combined with a compost addition (30% w/w), to treat soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC), Co and Pb collected at an auto scrap yard. After five months, total soil Pb significantly decreased in the compost-amended soil planted with M. sativa, but not total soil Co. Compost incorporation into the soil promoted PHC degradation, M. sativa growth and survival, and shoot Pb concentrations (3.8 mg/kg DW). Residual risk assessment after the phytoremediation trial showed a positive effect of compost amendment on plant growth and earthworm development. The O2 uptake by soil microorganisms was lower in the compost-amended soil, suggesting a decrease in microbial activity. This study underlined the benefits of the phytoremediation option based on M. sativa cultivation and compost amendment for remediating PHC and Pb contaminated soils.

Keywords
Cobalt, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Phytoremediation, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Lead
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52380 (URN)10.1080/15226514.2016.1186594 (DOI)000381015200010 ()27216854 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84978230447 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-05-04 Created: 2016-05-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Hagner, M., Romantschuk, M., Penttinen, O.-P., Egfors, A., Marchand, C. & Augustsson, A. (2016). Environmental toxicity of glassworks landfill soils. In: Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland (Ed.), Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016: Book of Abstracts : The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World.. Paper presented at Linnaeus ECO-TECH '16 (pp. 241-242). Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental toxicity of glassworks landfill soils
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2016 (English)In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH 2016: Book of Abstracts : The 10th International Conference on Establishment of Cooperation between Companies and Institutions in the Nordic Countries, the Baltic Sea Region and the World. / [ed] Stina Alriksson, Jelena Lundström, William Hogland, Linnaeus University Press, 2016, p. 241-242Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Following over 200 years of industrialization, soil contamination is a widespread problem in many countries. Contaminants, especially heavy metals and persistent organic compounds, can still be found at high concentrations decades after the emissions have ceased. One important part of this industrial heritage is the heavy metal contamination of soil and landfills around glass factories, with complex relationships between contaminants, the natural hydrogeochemical environment and biota. In southeastern Sweden lies the so called “Kingdom of Crystal”, with a long tradition of artistic glass production and elevated concentrations of a range of metals found in soil and landfills of the glassworks sites. Because high total concentrations may not always translate into a high mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity, research on biological effects has been deemed necessary to delineate the severity of contamination.

For the present study, soil samples from landfills and control areas were collected at five glassworks in the Kingdom of Crystal (Bergdala, Målerås, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors). Each landfill site was heavily contaminated with various metals. As, Ba, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were the major contaminants, exceeding the guideline values of Swedish legislation. Total concentrations were found in the range 64-7800 mg As kg-1, 30- 600 mg Ba kg-1, 0.16- 3 mg Cd kg-1, 160-38000 mg Pb kg-1, 0.40-56 mg Sb kg-1, and 45-1100 mg Zn kg-1. To test for biotoxicity, a battery of tests with species of varying sensitivities and exposure pathways were applied. Evaluation of plant toxicity to Lepidium sativum demonstrated the lack of difference between biomass production between the soils from contaminated landfill sites and control areas. Similarly, elutriates from both metal contaminated and reference soils implied low toxicity to the photobacterium Vibrio fisheri. However, significant reduction in the numbers and biomass of enchytraeids was observed in the landfill sites of Bergdala, Kosta, Johansfors and Orrefors. Also the numbers of nematodes tended to be reduced in landfill sites. Altogether, the obtained results provide a better understanding of the complex historical contamination by evaluating biological responses at different levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Press, 2016
Keywords
Metal contamination, Glass industry, Biotoxicity, Heavy metals
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-66926 (URN)
Conference
Linnaeus ECO-TECH '16
Available from: 2017-07-13 Created: 2017-07-13 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Stefani, F. O. P., Bell, T. H., Marchand, C., de la Providencia, I. E., El Yassimi, A., St-Arnaud, M. & Hijri, M. (2015). Culture-Dependant and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils. PLoS ONE, 10(6), Article ID e0128272.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Culture-Dependant and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 6, article id e0128272Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

National Category
Microbiology Soil Science
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60834 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0128272 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., Mohamed, H., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F. & Hogland, W.Long-term phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60838 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Marchand, C., Mohamed, H., Jani, Y., Kaczala, F., Mench, M., Notini, P. & Hogland, W.Pilot scale ecopiling of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot scale ecopiling of petroleum hydrocarbons and metals contaminated soil
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-60837 (URN)
Available from: 2017-02-22 Created: 2017-02-22 Last updated: 2018-05-02Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6288-4022

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