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Torpsten, Ann-ChristinORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5882-4112
Publications (10 of 78) Show all publications
Berggren, J. & Torpsten, A.-C. (2019). Knowledge I brought with me could not be used, it was not in Swedish. In: : . Paper presented at Translanguage in the Individual, at School and in society, 11/4-12/4 2019, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge I brought with me could not be used, it was not in Swedish
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In recent years the Swedish education system has experienced a rise in the number of newly arrived students speaking different languages and with different school backgrounds. A newly arrived student is according to school legislation (Skollagen, 2010:800) a student under 18 years of age, who has migrated to Sweden lacking basic skills in the Swedish language.

This paper aims to shed light on a group of newly arrived students’ perspectives on conditions for learning in the Swedish upper secondary education system. Using Bourdieu’s concept of capital we critically discuss organisational and pedagogical responses in the education system as experienced by 19 newly arrived students.

Findings indicate that students’ performances using Swedish for academic purposes and being able to analyse Swedish culture are crucial skills. Simultaneously, unsuccessful students have to remain in Language introduction focusing on learning Swedish. Some students show resistance to current demands in mainstream teaching, which can be traced in students who resent not being able to make use of their previous learning and skills in different languages without using Swedish. As individuals, they are left with an experience of deficit, having no or little knowledge about Swedish culture and language. This is expressed by one student saying that sometimes knowledge from her native country cannot be used because it is in another language and that subject teaching often stipulates knowledge about Swedish history and Swedish kings.

At stake is newly arrived students’ educational careers, and their chances in society. “Education is my passport”, one student says. The authors argue for acknowledging students’ various language knowledge and cultural backgrounds in teaching, thereby improving students’ opportunities to receive recognition of their existing cultural capital while offering them a gateway to continued education and social inclusion.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81987 (URN)
Conference
Translanguage in the Individual, at School and in society, 11/4-12/4 2019, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-16 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Lundin, M. & Torpsten, A.-C. (2018). The ’flawless’ school and the problematic actors: research on policy documents to counteract discrimination and degrading treatment in schools in Sweden. European Journal of Education, 53(4), 574-585
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ’flawless’ school and the problematic actors: research on policy documents to counteract discrimination and degrading treatment in schools in Sweden
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 574-585Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, the anti‐discrimination initiatives and the efforts against degrading treatment are promoted by two laws indicating self‐regulatory and transparent actions toward preventing both. To be successful, it is important that everybody involved in the work has the same understanding of the task and that everybody understands written formulations of local policy documents, here labelled eq‐uity plans, in order not to reinforce inequalities when counteracting discrimination and degrading treatment. Our aim is to explore the world‐views that are expressed by the schools in their equity plans. We ask what are the perceived causes of discrimination and degrading treat‐ment within the schools, what solutions in the equity plans emerge and which subject positions are constructed and made possible. The analysis rendered three discourses of which we can see recurring signs in the material and these have been labelled The perfect school discourse, The desig‐nated discourse and The educational discourse. These dis‐courses are different in how they relate to discrimination and degrading treatment in school and they also provide different opportunities for students. We conclude that policy‐making is important as a means to change discrimi‐natory patterns and we suggest how to avoid drawing on discourses that are likely to counteract the goals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
discrimination policy work
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Pedagogics and Educational Sciences; Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78208 (URN)10.1111/ejed.12306 (DOI)000449687800012 ()2-s2.0-85054547970 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. (2018). Translanguaging in a Swedish Multilingual Classroom. Multicultural Perspectives, 20(2), 104-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translanguaging in a Swedish Multilingual Classroom
2018 (English)In: Multicultural Perspectives, ISSN 1521-0960, E-ISSN 1532-7892, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 104-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overarching aim of this article is to investigateperceptions regarding linguistic potentialand language competence in relation to translanguagingstrategies. The data presented consistsof classroom activities, texts, and picturesproduced by eleven-year-old pupils and theirteacher in a multilingual classroom context.The pupils have varying lengths of in-countryresidence, from being born in Sweden to beingnewly arrived. At many schools only the targetlanguage is supposed to be used in teaching(Cummins, 2007). But the simultaneous use ofmultiple languages, also called translanguaging,in the classroom leads to broader anddeeper knowledge of language and subjects(Williams, 1996). Teaching based on pupils’resources is crucial for multilingual pupils’thinking and learning (Meier & Conteh, 2014).The results show that the pupils have large linguisticpotential, but there are great differencesin estimating and perceiving theirlanguages. A pattern stands out: Those pupilswho have given their languages high ratingsare considerably more positive to the teachers’initiative by shaping new relationships andcontributing to the mutual development ofknowledge than those with discrepancies intheir ratings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
translanguaging, linguistic potential, language competence, multilingualism
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74463 (URN)10.1080/15210960.2018.1447100 (DOI)000432953300008 ()2-s2.0-85047265956 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. (2017). Att tillvarata och utveckla tillgängliga språkliga resurser. In: : . Paper presented at Skriv! Les! Trondheim, Norway, 9-11 May 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att tillvarata och utveckla tillgängliga språkliga resurser
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet är att synliggöra och problematisera tillvaratagande av flerspråkiga elevers tillgängliga språkliga och kognitiva resurser i pedagogisk praktik. Jag undrar över lärares och elevers förhållningssätt, hur elevers tidigare kompetenser tas till vara och blir betydelsefulla i undervisningen.

De pedagogiska kontexter som här studeras närmare är undervisning i samhällskunskap och matematik inom IMS (introduktionsprogram språk) på en gymnasieskola. Materialet omfattar intervjuer med elever och lärare i IMS-klasser. Samtliga elever inom IMS är i gymnasieåldern och räknas som nyanlända. De har olika skolbakgrund, talar olika språk, svenska på en ganska grundläggande nivå. De intervjuade IMS-lärarna har alla flerårig erfarenhet av att undervisa på introduktionsprogram på gymnasienivå.

Etikprövning är genomförd och godkänd när det gäller intervjuer med IMS-elever och eleverna har skrivit under medgivandeblanketter. Alla deltagande lärare har muntligen lämnat medgivande. Det insamlade materialet har anonymiserats och redovisas konfidentiellt. På så vis följs VR:s (2002) forskningsetiska principer.

För analys av förhållningssätt används Ryans m.fl (1988) två typer av underlag och tillvägagångssätt. Det handlar om analys av dokument och observationer för användning och behandling av språk samt analys av intervjuer. Resultatet från analysen speglas mot forskning om framgångsfaktorer för flerspråkiga elever.

Forskning (Kramsch, 2008, 2009) visar att flerspråkiga talare inte håller sina språk åtskilda när de är verksamma i flerspråkiga och mångkulturella miljöer. Flerspråkiga individer har i stället en förmåga att välja språk, betecknad en symbolisk kompetens (a.a.). Kramsch (2008) talar om ekologisk strategi när det handlar om språkinlärning och språkundervisning. En ekologisk strategi grundas i mänsklig interaktion mellan medfödda egenskaper och miljöer som människor lever i och utveckling som sker i harmoni med miljön. Barn och unga utvecklar sina språkliga färdigheter både med hjälp av undervisning och när de umgås med kamrater som talar språket eller språken som ska utvecklas (Cummins, 2006; Cummins, 2007; Cummins & Schecter, 2003). Fyra faktorer betonas som grundläggande (Axelsson, 2013) när det handlar om flerspråkiga barns möjlighet att utveckla tänkande och lärande. Den ena faktor är en socialt och kulturellt stödjande miljö, en annan är språkutveckling i både modersmål och i det andra språket, en tredje är utvecklingen av skolämnen och den fjärde faktorn är kognitiv utveckling som är starkt kopplad till de tre andra faktorerna.

Av intervjuerna framgår att lärarna i sin undervisning systematiskt försöker ta tillvara elevernas tidigare kunskaper och erfarenheter av undervisning. Det framgår att eleverna arbetar i språkgrupper för att lösa uppgifter och att de både gör individuella och gruppresentationer i klassen. Det framgår också att vårdnadshavare/föräldrar/godemän och boendepersonal är behjälpliga i skolarbetet.

Referenser

Axelsson, M. (2013). Flerspråkighet och lärande. I Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger (red.) Svenska som andraspråk – i forskning, undervisning och samhälle. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Cummins, J. & Schecter, S. R. (2003). School Based language Policy in Cultural Diversity Contexts. In S. R. Schecter & J. Cummins (Eds.). Multilingual Education in Practice. Using diversity as a resource. Portsmouth: Heinemann.

Cummins, J. (2006). Förord. I P. Gibbons. Stärk språket stärk lärandet. Stockholm: Fallgren & Hallgren.

Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking Monolingual Instructional Strategies in Multilingual Classrooms. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10 (2), pp. 221–240.

Denscombe, M. (2016). Forskningshandboken – för småskaliga forskningsprojekt inom samhällsvetenskaperna. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Garcia, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: a global perspective. New Jersey, USA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Kramsch, C. (2008). Ecological perspectives on foreign language education. Language Teaching. 41(3), 389–408.

Kramsch, C. (2009). The Multilingual Subject. What language learners say about their experience and why it matters. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ryan, E.B. Giles, H. & Sebastian, R.J. An integrative perspective for the study of attitudes toward language variation. I: Ryan, E.B. & Giles, H. Attitudes toward language variation . London: Arnold. 1–19.

Svensson, Gudrun & Torpsten, Ann-Christin (2013). Makt och litteracitet. Modersmålslärare skriver om modersmålsundervisning. I: Skjelbred, Dagrun og Veum, Aslaug (red.):  2013: Literacy i læringskontekster. Oslo: CapplenDamm Akademisk. 166–176.

Torpsten, A.-C. (2010). I hela Malmö stad är det bara en skola som erbjuder modersmålsundervisning inom skolans ram.(In all the city of Malmö only one school offers mother tongue instruction within the school.) Kalmar: Linneuniversitetet.

Torpsten, A.-C. (2013). Second-Language Pupils tell about school Life. How Pupils relate to Instruction in a Multi-Lingual School. Citizenship, Social and Economics Education, (12)1, 37-47.

Torpsten, A.-C. & Betzholtz. M. (2013). Preschool – a Diverse and Multilingual Arena. The International Journal of Education for Diversities. E-tidskrift 2013(2)1-21.

Utbildningsdepartementet (2011). Läroplan för grundskolan, förskoleklassen och fritidshemmet 2011. (Curriculum for primary schools, pre-school and after-school leisure program 2011.) Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet (Ministry of Education).

Vetenskapsrådet (2002) Forskningsetiska principer inom humanistisk-samhällsvetenskaplig forskning. Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

Williams, C. (1996). Secondary education: teaching in the bilingual situation. In C. Williams, G. Lewis and C. Baker (Eds). The language policy: Taking stock. Llangefni (Wales): CAI.

National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences; Education, Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-75737 (URN)
Conference
Skriv! Les! Trondheim, Norway, 9-11 May 2017
Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. & Svensson, G. (2017). Jag tycker det är bra med translanguaging: Elevattityder till flerspråkighet (1ed.). In: Åsa Wedin (Ed.), Språklig mångfald i klassrummet: (pp. 61-88). Stockholm: Lärarförlaget
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Jag tycker det är bra med translanguaging: Elevattityder till flerspråkighet
2017 (Swedish)In: Språklig mångfald i klassrummet / [ed] Åsa Wedin, Stockholm: Lärarförlaget , 2017, 1, p. 61-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Lärarförlaget, 2017 Edition: 1
National Category
Educational Sciences Languages and Literature
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences; Humanities, Swedish as a Second Language
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71814 (URN)9789188149183 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-03-27 Created: 2018-03-27 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. (2017). Multilingual students strategies for participation in language contexts: Students tell about language, language development and language competence in a school practice. Creative Education, 8(5), 678-692
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multilingual students strategies for participation in language contexts: Students tell about language, language development and language competence in a school practice
2017 (Swedish)In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 678-692Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to increase knowledge and understanding of school as language practice,a life story approach is used to study multilingual pupils’ narratives abouttheir nine years in compulsory school. Texts with the heading My SchoolYears are interpreted. Experiences of being outside and initially lacking accessto the linguistic contexts in school as well as approaches to linguistic competenceor incompetence emerge from the analysis. The pupils’ overall languagepotential is invisible. Other findings are efforts toward what can be describedas linguistic uniformity, school and education and development of the pupils’social and cultural capital and linguistic competence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Scientific Research Publishing, 2017
Keywords
Multilingual Practice, Life Story, Linguistic Uniformity, Competence, Incompetence
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62938 (URN)10.4236/ce.2017.85053 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2019-09-06Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. (2017). Newly arrived young people’s introductory program – becoming qualified for national program. In: : . Paper presented at Translanguaging – researchers and practitioners in dialogue, Örebro University, Sweden, 28-29 March, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Newly arrived young people’s introductory program – becoming qualified for national program
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aim of the project is to develop knowledge of introductory program courses to promote newly arrived girls 'and boys' language development, learning and conditions for incorporation into national upper secondary school programs. What form of teaching and content do promote newcomers' ability to successfully incorporate into national upper secondary school, in which way the training builds on young people's prior knowledge and what knowledge and skills that are selected for teaching are questions asked.

Education is a fundamental resource for adolescents and young adults’ future establishment in the labor market and participation in society. The Swedish school system is therefore a challenge in creating teaching with an organization and a content which promotes young newcomers integration and success in the Swedish school system. Asylum seekers young people have the right to education in secondary schools if they start their education before the age of 18 years. In this context, there is the introduction program "Language Introduction" with the aim to give young people who have recently arrived in Sweden an education that allows them to go on to secondary school national programs or other training in Sweden.

Ryan et al (1988), three types of substrates and methods are used in the analysis. They deal with the analysis of documents, observations and ethnographic studies of the use and treatment of language, analysis of interviews and questionnaires for the direct measurement and analysis of subconscious attitudes by indirect measurements.

Research (Kramsch, 2008, 2009) shows that multilingual speakers do not keep their languages apart when they are operating in multilingual and multicultural environments. Multilingual individuals have in place the ability to select a language, designated a symbolic skills (a.a). Children and young people develop their language skills by means of both teaching and when they socialize with peers who speak the language or languages ​​to be developed (Cummins, 2006; Cummins, 2007; Cummins & Schecter, 2003). Four factors are highlighted as basic (Axelsson, 2013) when it comes to multilingual children the opportunity to develop thinking and learning. One factor is a socially and culturally supportive environment, a different language development in both the native language and in the other language, a third is the development of school subjects and the fourth factor is cognitive development that is strongly linked to the other three factors.

The study is conducted as action research in the form of classroom observations, group and individual interviews with newly arrived young people involved in induction programs or national programs, IMS, and upper secondary school teachers in the same program. Ethical Review is approved when it comes to interviews with IMS pupils and students have signed consent forms. All participating teachers have been verbally have given authorization. The collected material is anonymized and reported confidentially. Thus it follows VR's (2002) research ethics.

The interviews indicate that teachers in their teaching systematically are trying to take advantage of students 'prior knowledge and experience of teaching. It appears that students work in language groups to solve problems and that they both do individual and group presentations in class. It also appears that the guardians / parents / trustee and accommodation personnel staff will help with homework.

Keywords
Newly arrived, introductory program, upper secondary school, language and knowledge development.
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61537 (URN)
Conference
Translanguaging – researchers and practitioners in dialogue, Örebro University, Sweden, 28-29 March, 2017
Available from: 2017-03-21 Created: 2017-03-21 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. & Lundin, M. (2017). Policy documents to counteract discrimination and degrading treatment in schools. In: : . Paper presented at 10 nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Akureyri 20-21 October.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy documents to counteract discrimination and degrading treatment in schools
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden the anti-discrimination initiatives and the efforts against degrading treatment are promoted by two laws (SFS, 2008:567; SFS 2010:800). Our aim is to explore and understand the self-regulatory efforts to prevent discrimination and degrading treatment in school. We examine Swedish school equity plans asking what the causes of discrimination and degrading treatment within the schools are and what solutions emerge and which subject positions are constructed and made possible? Documents from all compulsory schools in six municipalities are collected.

In a discourse analysis we focus on how the phenomenon is expressed. We constructed a definition of a problem and or each problem we search for possible subject positions. At a first stage, various recurring ideas were found in the texts. These were gathered with respect to their expressions of degrading treatment and discrimination in their own educational setting. To uncover the ways of understanding the reasons for the occurring school problems, we searched for solutions that are related to the school problems presented. As a second step, we addressed the identified discourses to find out what subject positions are made possible.

The analysis has rendered three discourses. The perfect school discourse – rejects the occurrence of degrading treatment and discrimination. Everybody feels safe and there are no needs for solutions. In this perfect school the only subject position is the perfect student. In The designated discourse, non-complying students cause problems and the solution is to educate these students. In this discourse there are two subject positions, the non-complier and the functioning student. In The educational discourse, problems are dominant norms that provide inequalities and the solutions are questioning and criticizing norms, taking care of each other’s and self-reflection. In this discourse there is one subject position, the active fellow. 

National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68460 (URN)
Conference
10 nordiska konferensen om språk och kön, Akureyri 20-21 October
Available from: 2017-10-26 Created: 2017-10-26 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. (2017). Preschool, Multilingualism and Translanguaging: Linguistic Diversity, Language Strategies and Participation. US-China Foreign Language, 15(2), 81-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschool, Multilingualism and Translanguaging: Linguistic Diversity, Language Strategies and Participation
2017 (English)In: US-China Foreign Language, ISSN 1539-8080, E-ISSN 1935-9667, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 81-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This text focuses on multilingual children’s education and language development in the Swedish preschool contextdiscussing linguistic strategies, language diversity, native language, and native language support. Speaking Swedishin the Swedish preschool is the norm; it is the major language in Sweden and it is also the native language of themajority of the children. However, speaking about native language in the Swedish school context, it is often aboutnative languages other than Swedish. We are speaking about the children with a native language other than Swedish,the multilingual children. Research shows that interaction between the children and the teachers is crucial for thechildren’s learning, language acquisition, and identity development. The interaction, expectations, and attitudes thatthe child, the teacher, and others in the surroundings have both to the language or languages that should be learnedand to the child who should learn, are also critical for success in language development. When a child in thepreschool pedagogical practice develops the native language, the child becomes less subordinate, can play togetherin many settings, and get access to the world in the preschool and in the society that is expressed and understoodthrough language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
David Publishing Company, 2017
Keywords
preschool, translanguaging, linguistic diversity, language norm, language development
National Category
Educational Sciences Specific Languages
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education; Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61193 (URN)10.17265/1539-8080/2017.02.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Torpsten, A.-C. & Svensson, G. (2017). Translanguaging space and and bilingual development in the Swedish school. In: : . Paper presented at Translanguaging - researchers and practitioners in dialogue,Örebro University, Sweden, 28-29 March, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Translanguaging space and and bilingual development in the Swedish school
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Swedish schools bilingual students are given the opportunity of developing their heritage language by lessons in mother tongue instruction. The students are supposed to “receive credence in their language ability possibilities to develop their cultural identity and become multilingual” (Skolverket 2011:87,our translation).  The saying of the syllabi implies that the students are expected to be able to be functional bilinguals, which however seem to be impossible in the Swedish-centered school where almost all lessons are performed in Swedish. The uneven proportions between the educational languages disadvantage bilinguals and split up their language experiences, and so considerably reduce their chances to become coequally bilingual.

Following Baker (2001) that translanguaging may help the developing of the weaker language the aim of this study is to investigate and discuss the possibilities of becoming coequally bilingual after having had both mother tongue subject and three years’ of strategically planned translanguaging in the classroom.

Translanguaging researchers (i.e. Garcia 2009; Garcia & Wei, 2014) regard language ability as an inwrought and complex proficiency that is compounded by all language experiences, and languages cannot be regarded as defined entities. Skills in the mother tongue are shown to support both second language development and learning in other areas. Access to mother tongue instruction has significance for multilingual pupils’ literacy development as well as personal and cultural identity, emotional and social maturity, and cognitive development (Cummins & Schecter, 2003; Janks, 2010). They suggest that students’ linguistic potential should be utilized in all teaching in order to strengthen their identity and for them to achieve optimal learning and development in their languages.

This study includes nine 12 years old students who have studied mother tongue subject in Russian, Bosnian or Arabic all through their start in the Swedish school. They have also participated in translanguaging education activities for three years in other school subjects. The conclusion of this is that they have been exposed to an unusual amount of bilingual education compared to other bilingual students in Swedish compulsory schools.

The material consists of suveys, interviews and a collection of written texts from a period of three years. To evaluate the written language development the texts have been analyzed quantitatively with lexical and syntactic variables. The quantitative results of the text analysis have been compared and  reflected to other variables as onset of Swedish, students' evaluations of the afforded learning and assessments of   own language skills. 

Results display large variations in bilingual development between the students. The time of onset does not seem to be a decisive factor, while students' confidence in their own language skills plays a major role. According to the answers in the survey the confidence can be both strengthened and weakened by the parents' and teachers' attitudes towards the value of multilingual skills. The survey also show that translanguaging elements in education have mattered regarding the students’ possibilities to assimilate factual subjects. 

Keywords
Bilingual, language development, language ability, multilingual, translanguaging
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences; Humanities, Swedish as a Second Language
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62770 (URN)
Conference
Translanguaging - researchers and practitioners in dialogue,Örebro University, Sweden, 28-29 March, 2017
Note

Ej belagd 170505

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2019-01-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5882-4112

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