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Eklöf Amirell, StefanORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1782-1572
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Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2019). Fredens och barmhärtighetens budbärare? [The harbingers of peace and mercy?]: Hugh Lenox Scott och den amerikanska arméns relationer med Oklahomas indianer under 1890-talet [Hugh Lenox Scott and US Army−Indian relations in Oklahoma in the 1890s]. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(3), 455-481
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fredens och barmhärtighetens budbärare? [The harbingers of peace and mercy?]: Hugh Lenox Scott och den amerikanska arméns relationer med Oklahomas indianer under 1890-talet [Hugh Lenox Scott and US Army−Indian relations in Oklahoma in the 1890s]
2019 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 3, p. 455-481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Three tense events involving the US Army and the Kiowa, Comanche and Apache nations in Oklahoma in the decades after the end of the Great Plains Wars seemed destined to end in violence: The Ghost Dance in 1890−91, the death of three Kiowa boys in a blizzard in 1891 and the transfer of Geronimo and around three hundred Chiricahua Apache Indians to Oklahoma in 1895. In all of these events a US Cavalry officer, Hugh Lenox Scott, played a key role as a soldier-diplomat. Through his linguistic skills and inter-cultural competence, Scott, assisted by Iseeo, a Kiowa army scout and close friend of Scott’s, managed to prevent the three situations from erupting in violence. These outcomes are in stark contrast to what happened around the same time in the Northern Plains, where violence erupted on several occasions, most conspicuously at Wounded Knee in December 1890, when US troops killed between 150 and 200 Lakota Indians. The purpose of this micro historical study is to highlight how the military, in concrete action, could promote peace and development in their dealings with American Indians and to explore the significance of personal relations, tolerance and trust for the maintenance of peace. These factors were crucial for the more peaceful development on the Southern Plains compared with in the north. In promoting peace, moreover, Scott not only acted as a diplomat in relation to the Indians; he also successfully advised his superior commanders not to send troops into the field in order to uphold order and quell any possible unrest. Such deployment of troops, Scott was convinced, was like putting a keg of gunpowder in front of an open fire and risked sparking uncontrolled and lethal violence between the soldiers and the Indians, to the detriment of the latter, as happened at Wounded Knee. Based on his long service as a soldier-diplomat, Scott later in life developed a general theory about the military as a peacemaking institution. According to Scott, it was politicians and the people who made war and the task of the military was to conquer the peace. His styling of the US soldier as the ”harbinger of peace and mercy”, however, depended on Scott ignoring the many instances when the US military had failed to maintain peace and order, both in relation to the American Indians and in colonies overseas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2019
Keywords
Hugh Lenox Scott, I-See-O, US Army, micro history, military diplomacy, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache Reservation, Ghost Dance, Wounded Knee Massacre, S.D., 1890
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89101 (URN)
Projects
Förmedlare i imperialistisk expansion: Möten och kontakter i USA:s gränsland (1876−1916)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03068
Available from: 2019-09-13 Created: 2019-09-13 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2019). Förtroende och vänskap: Militär diplomati i Kiowa-, Comanche- och Washita-reservatet, Oklahoma, 1891. In: Susanna Erlandsson, Sari Nauman (Ed.), Tillit och diplomati: En diskussionsbok om personliga relationer och diplomatiska processer 1670-1990 (pp. 97-114). Uppsala: Historiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Förtroende och vänskap: Militär diplomati i Kiowa-, Comanche- och Washita-reservatet, Oklahoma, 1891
2019 (Swedish)In: Tillit och diplomati: En diskussionsbok om personliga relationer och diplomatiska processer 1670-1990 / [ed] Susanna Erlandsson, Sari Nauman, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet , 2019, p. 97-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Historiska institutionen vid Uppsala universitet, 2019
Series
Opuscula Historica Upsaliensia, ISSN 0284-8783 ; 56
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89034 (URN)9789198450910 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03068
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2019). Pirates of Empire: Colonisation and Maritime Violence in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pirates of Empire: Colonisation and Maritime Violence in Southeast Asia
2019 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The suppression of piracy and other forms of maritime violence was a keystone in the colonisation of Southeast Asia. Focusing on what was seen in the nineteenth century as the three most pirate-infested areas in the region - the Sulu Sea, the Strait of Malacca and Indochina - this comparative study in colonial history explores how piracy was defined, contested and used to resist or justify colonial expansion, particularly during the most intense phase of imperial expansion in Southeast Asia from c.1850 to c.1920. In doing so, it demonstrates that piratical activity continued to occur in many parts of Southeast Asia well beyond the mid-nineteenth century, when most existing studies of piracy in the region end their period of investigation. It also points to the changes over time in how piracy was conceptualised and dealt with by each of the major colonial powers in the region - Britain, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United States.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019. p. 266
Keywords
Global History, Area Studies, South-East Asian History, Asian Studies, History
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89033 (URN)10.1017/9781108594516 (DOI)9781108484213 (ISBN)9781108594516 (ISBN)
Projects
Sovereignty and the Suppression of Piracy
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1392:1
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2018). Civilizing Pirates: Nineteenth Century British Ideas about Piracy, Race and Civilization in the Malay Archipelago. HumaNetten (41), 25-45
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Civilizing Pirates: Nineteenth Century British Ideas about Piracy, Race and Civilization in the Malay Archipelago
2018 (English)In: HumaNetten, E-ISSN 1403-2279, no 41, p. 25-45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article investigates how British officials and observers of the Malay Archipelago in the nineteenth century explained the prevalence of piracy in the region, particularly in terms of race and civilization. The writings by, among others, Thomas Stamford Raffles, John Crawfurd, James Brooke and Peter Benson Maxwell on contemporary Malay piracy are analysed. Whereas there was broad agreement among these observers that the alleged lack of civilization on the part of the Malays was a major reason for the prevalence of piracy in the region, there was considerable disagreement about the Malays’ capacity for civilizational progress and improvement. The degree to which the Malays were deemed capable of civilization in turn influenced the policies and measures implemented by the British to suppress piracy, ranging from the promotion of free trade to the wholesale extermination of entire villages and communities of suspected pirates. Criticism from humanitarians and liberals in London against the brutality of the latter tactics, however, led to a more restrained British deployment of violence in the Malay Archipelago from the middle of the nineteenth century.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnéuniversitetet, 2018
Keywords
Piracy, Southeast Asia, Malay Archipelago, Great Britain, Race, Civilization, Colonialism, Violence
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79458 (URN)10.15626/hn.20184102 (DOI)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-07-08Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2018). Därför ifrågasätts hjältebilden av upptäckaren James Cook. Dagens Nyheter (2018-07-11)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Därför ifrågasätts hjältebilden av upptäckaren James Cook
2018 (Swedish)In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2018-07-11Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: AB Dagens nyheter, 2018
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79455 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2018). Regenter runt Indiska oceanen. Historiskan (4), 60-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regenter runt Indiska oceanen
2018 (Swedish)In: Historiskan, ISSN 2002-150X, no 4, p. 60-65Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Malmö: Systerskapet AB, 2018
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79457 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2018). Svartvit svensk debatt om "Den svarte mannens börda": Bokrecension. Dagens Nyheter (2018-10-25)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svartvit svensk debatt om "Den svarte mannens börda": Bokrecension
2018 (Swedish)In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2018-10-25Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: AB Dagens nyheter, 2018
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79456 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-01-30Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2017). När kyrkan manade till blodbad och heligt krig. Svenska Dagbladet (2017-04-19)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>När kyrkan manade till blodbad och heligt krig
2017 (Swedish)In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2017-04-19Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-63746 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-06-14Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2017). Pirates and pearls: Jikiri and the challenge to maritime security and American sovereignty in the Sulu Archipelago, 1907–1909. International Journal of Maritime History, 29(1), 44-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pirates and pearls: Jikiri and the challenge to maritime security and American sovereignty in the Sulu Archipelago, 1907–1909
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Maritime History, ISSN 0843-8714, E-ISSN 2052-7756, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 44-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1908–1909, maritime commerce, fishing and traffic in the Sulu Archipelago in the southern Philippines almost came to a standstill due to a surge in piracy and coastal raids that challenged US colonial rule in the area. The leader of the outlaws was a renegade subject of the Sultan of Sulu, a Samal named Jikiri. Together with his followers, Jikiri was responsible for the murders of at least 40 people in numerous raids on small trading vessels, pearl fishers, coastal settlements and towns throughout the archipelago. In spite of the concerted efforts of the US Army, the Philippine Constabulary and private bounty hunters, Jikiri was able to avoid defeat for more than one and half years, before he was eventually killed in July 1909. His decision to take to piracy was triggered by the failure of the US authorities to pay compensation for the loss of the traditional claims that many families in the Sulu Archipelago had to the pearl beds of the region, as stipulated by a law on pearl fishing adopted in 1904. The law was in several respects disadvantageous to the native population of Sulu and this – together with the high-handed behaviour of the local officers in charge of the Sulu district from 1906 – fuelled widespread discontent with colonial rule and led several of the leading headmen of Sulu covertly to sympathize with, and protect, Jikiri and his followers. This sponsorship combined with the general reluctance of the population to cooperate with the US military explains why Jikiri was able to defy the vastly superior US forces for so long. American officers at the time tended to attribute the depredations to the allegedly piratical nature of the Sulus, but this article argues that the so-called 'decay theory', first proposed by Raffles a century earlier, is a more appropriate explanation of this surge in piracy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
Piracy, Maritime History, Philippine History, United States Colonial History
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-63744 (URN)10.1177/0843871416678170 (DOI)000394953200004 ()2-s2.0-85011817562 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1392:1
Available from: 2017-05-10 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Eklöf Amirell, S. (2017). Ruptures, empires, revolutions: Femte ENIUGH-konferensen, Budapest, 31 augusti – 3 september 2017. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 137(4), 749-751
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ruptures, empires, revolutions: Femte ENIUGH-konferensen, Budapest, 31 augusti – 3 september 2017
2017 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 749-751Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69092 (URN)000418623500021 ()
Available from: 2017-12-05 Created: 2017-12-05 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1782-1572

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