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Nordin, Andreas, DocentORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8503-2655
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Pettersson, D. & Nordin, A. (2024). Taming chance in education: Control, prediction and comparison. Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taming chance in education: Control, prediction and comparison
2024 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This volume centres the notion of "chance" in education as a key concept in contemporary education – relating to aspects like accountability, datafication, or international large-scale assessments – and discusses the impact that the historical desire to "tame" this notion has had on present-day educational policy and practice.

Encouraging readers to widen their educational imagination, chapters combine secondary research from the fields of cybernetics, systems thinking, and comparative education with issues of control, prediction, and comparison as ways to tame chance in education. Using the theoretical lenses of reasoning, notions, and addendums for legitimacy to foster a critical awareness of rarely discussed educational matters, the book explores how these notions are central to the taming of chance within education. Ultimately, the authors determine the styles of reasoning that are foundational and frame how we think about, and act on, education, and thereby address one of the top priorities in educational policy, politics, and practice today.

This timely book, with its unique perspective on the debates around education, will be of interest to students, researchers, and scholars in the fields of education policy and politics, international and comparative education, and theory of education. Those involved with the philosophy of education will also find the book valuable.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024. p. 163
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123343 (URN)10.4324/9781003370550 (DOI)2-s2.0-85166167540 (Scopus ID)9781032438931 (ISBN)9781003370550 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-24 Created: 2023-07-24 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. & Sundberg, D. (2024). Transnational competence frameworks and national curriculum-making: the case of Sweden. In: Kathryn Anderson-Levitt & Meg Gardinier (Ed.), Contextualizing Global Flows of Competency-Based Education: Polysemy, Hybridity and Silences. Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transnational competence frameworks and national curriculum-making: the case of Sweden
2024 (English)In: Contextualizing Global Flows of Competency-Based Education: Polysemy, Hybridity and Silences / [ed] Kathryn Anderson-Levitt & Meg Gardinier, Routledge, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Competence-based approaches (CBAs) in education have becomean internationally important educational policy concept in recentdecades. However, a substantial body of research has suggestedthat in order to understand and explain the evolution of CBAs,there is a need to analyse curriculum-making as a complex andmulti-layered practice. To contribute to this research field, thispaper makes use of Vivien Schmidt’s concept of discursiveinstitutionalism(DI), which focuses on ideas and discourse. First,we compare ideas of competences as expressed in four influentialCBA frameworks, and second, we exemplify how these ideas, withspecial reference to the Organisation for Economic Co-operationand Development, have been translated when re-contextualisedwithin Swedish curriculum policy-making. The results show thatwhen re-contextualised within national borders, transnationalideas of competences are reconfigured. In the case of Sweden,this process has led to a national interpretation of CBAs,discussed in this paper as ‘hybrid competences.’

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2024
Keywords
Competences/competencies; competence-based approaches in education; knowledge; discursive institutionalism; curriculum policy; transnational
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123702 (URN)9781032563800 (ISBN)9781003435242 (ISBN)
Note

This chapter was originally published in the journal Compatative Education. When citing it please use the orginal citiation as follows:

Nordin, A., Sundberg, Daniel. 2021. Comparative Education, 57(1):19-34

Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. (2023). Curriculum theory and new institutionalism (4thed.). In: Rob Tierney, Fazal Rizvi, Kadriye Ercikan (Ed.), International Encyclopedia of Education: (pp. 126-131). Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Curriculum theory and new institutionalism
2023 (English)In: International Encyclopedia of Education / [ed] Rob Tierney, Fazal Rizvi, Kadriye Ercikan, Elsevier, 2023, 4th, p. 126-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this article is to build an analytical argument for the use of new institutionalism, and especially its latest branch—discursive institutionalism—as a point of departure for a dynamic analysis of curriculum change in a globalized world. Discursive institutionalism offers a theoretical language for analyzing change taking place within and/or between any curriculum level, from transnational to local. Furthermore, discursive institutionalism acknowledges the possibility of agency as a force that not only maintains but also alters institutions and thus adds explanatory power to the analysis of both institutional change and continuity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023 Edition: 4th
Keywords
Curriculum, Curriculum change, Curriculum research, Curriculum theory, Education, Education policy, Education politics, Discourse, Discursive institutionalism, New institutionalism
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117693 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-12-818630-5.03020-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150546067 (Scopus ID)9780128186299 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-11-25 Created: 2022-11-25 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. (2023). International Legitimations of the Swedish School Reform 2015/2018. In: Daniel Tröhler, Bernadette Hörmann, Sverre Tveit, Inga Bostad (Ed.), The Nordic Education Model in Context: Historical Developments and Current Renegotiations (pp. 291-307). Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International Legitimations of the Swedish School Reform 2015/2018
2023 (English)In: The Nordic Education Model in Context: Historical Developments and Current Renegotiations / [ed] Daniel Tröhler, Bernadette Hörmann, Sverre Tveit, Inga Bostad, Routledge, 2023, p. 291-307Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter examines the use of international references as a source of legitimation in Swedish educational policy making from 1950 to 2018. Special attention is directed to the 2015/2018 Swedish school reform and the expanding role of the OECD in setting the political agenda. The discussion mainly draws on empirical findings from the POLNET-project funded by the Norwegian research council analyzing the references making up the official evidence base for the 2015/2018 school reform.  Using bibliometric analysis, citations and references in white-, and green papers have been analyzed in order to find patterns in the way references are used as a source of legitimation. The preliminary result shows that transnational exchange has been an important part of Swedish schooling since the 1950’s onwards. However, moving into a context of global competition the importance of international references seems to increase. In the 2015/2018 school reform the OECD plays a central role as the Swedish government turns to the OECD for help. Externalization becomes the dominant strategy among insecure politicians to regain legitimacy. However, the result indicates that externalization is not a linear process, but rather a complex act of balancing internal and external pressures in a way that enables for national politicians to maintaining public legitimacy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Series
Studies in Curriculum Theory Series
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-115744 (URN)10.4324/9781003218180-20 (DOI)2-s2.0-85153131487 (Scopus ID)9781032110462 (ISBN)9781003218180 (ISBN)
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, 283467
Available from: 2022-08-15 Created: 2022-08-15 Last updated: 2023-08-16Bibliographically approved
Sivesind, K., Nordin, A. & Ydesen, C. (2023). Internationalization of Nordic school reform: a two country comparison. In: : . Paper presented at ReNEW 2023/ReNEW 6th. Nordic Challenges and Identities: Pasts, Presents, Futures, Oslo 24–26 May 2023.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internationalization of Nordic school reform: a two country comparison
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

International comparisons play a decisive role in education policy. Undoubtedly, major international surveys have altered the expectations of national governments’ policymakers over the last decades and urged implementation of international standards and best practices (Nordin & Sundberg, 2014; Waldow & Steiner-Khamsi, 2019; Ydesen, 2019). The paper synthesises findings and interpretations from a Nordic research project on evidence-based policymaking (Sivesind & Karseth, 2022). Moreover, itidentifies distinct patterns of references to international knowledge sources in national policydocuments from three of the national cases during the 2000s. Our analysis examines how international and national experts interact in reform processes and draw on the authority of international references to develop and legitimate their own reform solutions for basiceducation (grades 1–10). In the joint research project, Policy Knowledge and Lesson Drawing in Nordic School Reform in an Era of International Comparisons (POLNET), the research teams selected a comparable set of policy documents and their associated sources published by the governments of the five Nordic countries. The papers prepared school reforms for the level K9/10 and addressed broad themes, such as renewing national curricula, redesigning assessment systems and amending legislative procedures. The teams systematised the metadata and created a shared bibliometric database of the references. We also conducted interviews with national and international experts in all five countries. In the study based on data material from three of the countries (Finland, Iceland and Denmark), Ydesen et al. (2022) found that all policy documents in the three countries adhere to the demands and tenets of evidence-based policy. The OECD policy instruments tended to be more authoritative than the other references, and the authors solidified the conclusion that bibliometric references signify more than merely conveying information as they legitimize knowledge of significance in policy processes. This paper will extend the study and explore differences between the Swedish, Norwegian and the Danish case by including data from the qualitative study.

References:Cairney, P. (2016). The politics of evidence-based policy making. Springer.Freeman, R., & Sturdy, S. (2015). Knowledge in policy: Embodied, inscribed, enacted. Policy Press.Karseth, B., Sivesind, K., & Steiner-Khamsi, G. (Eds.). (2022). Evidence and Expertise in Nordic EducationPolicy. A Comparative Network Analysis. Palgrave McMillan.Nordin, A., & Sundberg, D. (2014). Introduction: The making and governing of knowledge in theeducation policy field. In A. Nordin & D. Sundberg (Eds.), Transnational Policy Flows in EuropeanEducation (pp. 9-19). Symposium Books.Segerholm, C., Rönnberg, L., Lindgren, J., & Hult, A. (2019). Governing by Evaluation: Setting the Scene.In C. Segerholm, A. Hult, J. Lindgren, & L. Rönnberg (Eds.), The Governing-Evaluation-KnowledgeNexus (pp. 1-23). Springer, Cham.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-120939 (URN)
Conference
ReNEW 2023/ReNEW 6th. Nordic Challenges and Identities: Pasts, Presents, Futures, Oslo 24–26 May 2023
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, 283467
Available from: 2023-05-25 Created: 2023-05-25 Last updated: 2023-06-09Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. (2023). On the Normativity of Data-Driven Curriculum Policy-Making: A Discursive and Non-affirmative Approach. In: Michael Uljens (Ed.), Non-affirmative Theory of Education and Bildung: . Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Normativity of Data-Driven Curriculum Policy-Making: A Discursive and Non-affirmative Approach
2023 (English)In: Non-affirmative Theory of Education and Bildung / [ed] Michael Uljens, Springer, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper raises a critical argument on the normativity of data-driven curriculum policy-making in shaping and reshaping education at all levels along an evaluative rationale. The critique evolves in two steps, the first step is deconstructive in character and draws on the work of Porter (Trust in numbers: The pursuit of objectivity in science and public life. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995) and research on data-driven education. The second step is reconstructive in character, making use of the non-affirmative theory in education (Benner, On affirmativity and non-affirmativity in the context of theories of education and Bildung. In M. Uljens (Ed.), Non-affirmative Theory of Education and Bildung. Springer, 2023; Uljens, Revista Tempos e Espaços em Educação 18(9): 121–132, 2016; Trans Curric Inquiry 15(2): 4–25, 2018; Uljens & Ylimaki, Nord J Stud Educ Policy 1, 30–43, 2015; Bridging educational leadership, curriculum theory and didaktik: Non-affirmative theory of education. Springer, Cham, 2017) to elaborate on a more reflexive position. The critical examination shows how competitiveness, objectivity, and distance operate as educational ideals within the discourse of data-driven curriculum policy-making, narrowing the educational imagination to what can be expressed in league tables and ranking lists and promoting easy answers to complex questions of what works. These ideals are challenged by non-affirmative theory, which proposes a more reflexive approach to curriculum policy-making, emphasising process rather than outcome and questions rather than answers as drivers of such processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Curriculum policy-making, Discursive institutionalism, Non- affirmative theory, Normativity, Numerical data
National Category
Educational Sciences Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-123287 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-30551-1_14 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165960990 (Scopus ID)9783031305504 (ISBN)9783031305511 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-07-15 Created: 2023-07-15 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Baek, C. & Nordin, A. (2023). "Silent borrowing" and beyond: A comparative analysis of reference societies in Norwegian and Swedish school reform. In: Presented at NERA Conference 2023 15. – 17. March Oslo: . Paper presented at NERA Conference 2023 15. – 17. March Oslo.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>"Silent borrowing" and beyond: A comparative analysis of reference societies in Norwegian and Swedish school reform
2023 (English)In: Presented at NERA Conference 2023 15. – 17. March Oslo, 2023Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In comparative education, scholars have long tried to understand why and when policy actors make international references. They have found that policy actors often externalize when they need to form alliances or seek for greater legitimacy and that the actual practice is shaped by national political contexts and the institutionalized policy process in each country (Steiner‐Khamsi, 2004). In particular, each country has its own “reference societies” where they borrow policies and practices from or refer to positively and negatively in the policy process (Bendix, 1978).

In the Nordic region, it has been perceived that each Nordic country serves as reference society of each other within the region. This perception may have been based on the rich communication and cooperation among the Nordic countries in education. Despite the common perception, little has been empirically examined regarding to what extent policy actors actually make reference to other Nordic countries and why (not). This study looks into the references in the policy documents prepared for the most recent education reforms in two Nordic countries: Norway and Sweden. They are particularly interesting cases to compare because of the similarities with regard to their institutionalized policymaking process as well as geographical and cultural proximity.

We examined the bibliographic references in the white papers and green papers (NOUs and SOUs) prepared for the 2016/2020 renewal of the Knowledge Promotion Reform in Norway and the 2015/2018 Knowledge Achievement Reform in Sweden. In total, our sample includes 19 policy documents and 4,260 references. Additionally, we interviewed ten policy experts who participated in the preparation of the policy documents analyzed in this study.

The results show that while Norway drew extensively on knowledge from its neighbors, especially from Sweden, Sweden seldom referenced knowledge produced in other Nordic countries. Policy actors in Norway described that using knowledge produced in other Nordic countries is “quite natural” in the policy process while policy actors in Sweden shared that there has been little formal exchange with these countries in the policy process. Building on the concept of “silent borrowing” coined by Waldow (2009), we interpret the difference in the way Norway and Sweden use knowledge produced in their Nordic neighbors within the broader framework on which bodies of knowledge have greater accessibility or legitimacy (Nordin & Wahlström, 2022). Furthermore, we find that the difference was influenced by reform contexts (e.g., timing of the competency-based curriculum adoption) as well as the membership composition of expert commissions (e.g., larger commission vs. one-person commission).

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-119847 (URN)
Conference
NERA Conference 2023 15. – 17. March Oslo
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, NRC 283467
Available from: 2023-03-18 Created: 2023-03-18 Last updated: 2023-06-09Bibliographically approved
Nordin, A. & Wahlström, N. (2023). The interdependence between the OECD and the nation-state in legitimizing educational reforms. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 2023, Nordic Educational Research Association, 15-17 March, 2023, Oslo, Norway.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The interdependence between the OECD and the nation-state in legitimizing educational reforms
2023 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the role of the organization is to “work on establishing evidence-based international standards” in education by providing “a unique forum and knowledge hub for data and analysis, exchange of experiences, best-practice sharing, and advice on public policies” (OECD, 2022).  However, nation-states also participate in this work of setting up new frameworks of international standards and serve as places for the negotiation of transnational policies and national adaptations. A consequence of greater demands on transnational cooperation is an increased interdependence between transnational and national arenas (Steiner-Khamsi, 2004; Sassen 2013). 

The purpose of this paper is to explore the national government and the OECD as two arenas depending on each other for their exercise of power and legitimization of education reforms. The research question is “How do the government and the political parties in Sweden use the OECD to legitimize their policy, and how does the OECD use Swedish education policy to promote its policy ideals”?    

The study draws on discursive institutionalism for a theoretical conceptualization (Carstensen & Schmidt, 2016). From this theoretical perspective, ideas, discourses, and human agency are central for understanding how social institutions both can be maintained and change. Ideas are here seen as represented through discourse that is the interactive process by which ideas are processed, changed, and conveyed. 

The data consists of Swedish policy documents and reports from the OECD between the years from 2014 to 2021. The analytical approach to the policy texts is critical discourse analysis (Fairclough, 2010). Critical discourse analysis distinguishes between three steps in the analysis: the descriptive, interpretive and explanatory phases (Fairclough, 2001). The result reveals an interdependent, although ambivalent, relationship between the nation-state and the OECD in legitimizing educational reforms. The same political parties that emphasizes the OECD as a world-leading and neutral educational expert when being in government, a few years later argues that the OECD is partisan and ignorant in when being in opposition. The OECD, on their side, proposes a central governing of the school system in line with its ambition to influence the outcome of the national education system.  

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-120046 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2023, Nordic Educational Research Association, 15-17 March, 2023, Oslo, Norway
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, NRC 283467
Available from: 2023-04-02 Created: 2023-04-02 Last updated: 2023-06-08Bibliographically approved
Baek, C. & Nordin, A. (2023). Understanding implicit reference societies in education policy. Journal of education policy, 1-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding implicit reference societies in education policy
2023 (English)In: Journal of education policy, ISSN 0268-0939, E-ISSN 1464-5106, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study examines the reference societies of Norway and Sweden embedded in their education policy documents. We examined 4,260 bibliographic references in 19 white papers and green papers prepared for the 2016/2020 renewal of the Knowledge Promotion Reform in Norway and the 2015/2018 Knowledge Achievement Reform in Sweden. In addition, we interviewed 10 policy experts who participated in the preparation of the analyzed policy docu-ments. The results show that the reference societies overall reflect the existing knowledge production and dissemination mechanisms in education policy; however, they significantly differed between Norway and Sweden regarding whether and to what extent they reference knowledge produced in other Nordic countries. Specifically, while Norway drew extensively on knowledge from its neighbors, particularly Sweden, Sweden seldom referenced knowl-edge produced in other Nordic countries. Policy actors identified similarity, relevance, accessibility, reform contexts, and institutional arrangements as reasons for (not) referencing neighbors. This study calls for further consideration of the political, social, and cultural embeddedness of the ‘socio-logic’ to understand implicit reference societies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Reference societies, education policy, comparative education, Norway, Sweden
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-125770 (URN)10.1080/02680939.2023.2282456 (DOI)001103089100001 ()2-s2.0-85176931932 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Research Council of Norway, 283467
Available from: 2023-11-22 Created: 2023-11-22 Last updated: 2023-12-08
Pettersson, D. & Nordin, A. (2022). Curriculum policy making by control, prediction, and comparison. In: Education between Hope and Happening – Developing Powerful Curriculum Theorizing in Challenging Times, 9:e Nordiska Läroplansteorikonferensen, Linnéuniversitetet, 20-21 oktober 2022, Abstracts: . Paper presented at 9:e Nordiska Läroplansteorikonferensen, Linnéuniversitetet, 20-21 oktober 2022 (pp. 11-12). Linnéuniversitetet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Curriculum policy making by control, prediction, and comparison
2022 (English)In: Education between Hope and Happening – Developing Powerful Curriculum Theorizing in Challenging Times, 9:e Nordiska Läroplansteorikonferensen, Linnéuniversitetet, 20-21 oktober 2022, Abstracts, Linnéuniversitetet , 2022, p. 11-12Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Taming chance in education has become one of the top priorities in curriculum policy making. Inthis presentation we ask the explorative question; how come we ended up here? There is of courseno easy answer to such a question. We acknowledge three notions of importance in understandingthe political quest for taming chance in education. These are control, prediction, and comparison.At first, they may seem like ordinary concepts but by historicizing on them we are trying toillustrate that they in no sense of the word are everyday concepts, rather they come embedded in ahistorically developed reasoning on education with a story to tell on how to tame chance ineducation. Here we make use of Tröhlers (2011) concept of “languages of education” to betterunderstand how people have come to share convictions identifying some social phenomenon aseducational issues. We use the reauthorization of the American No Child Left Behind Act, theinternational firm of McKinsey & Company and the OECD as empirical examples in our discussionof the contemporary international language of education. What is demonstrated in the differentexamples is that they all in some respect direct their communication to an audience, and that they,for being successful, must align to a contemporary language built around concepts such as,accountability, test, efficacy, effectiveness, achievements, assessments, measurements, inclusion,best-practice and evidence. Furthermore, this is a language built around specifically designednumbers (cf. Porter, 1995) and images such as graphs, tables, and spreadsheets (cf. Halpern, 2014).We argue that this is a language that comes with a story based on a desire to tame chance ineducation.In addition, our examination shows that the notions under scrutiny are also attached with, whatwe refer to as, addendums for legitimacy. These addendums for legitimacy are in turn connected to highly prized qualities within science and society on how to ‘tell the truth’ and how to make useof trustworthy knowledge. The addendums we observe as being attached to our notions areobjectivity, certainty, and applicability. As for objectivity we follow the historical development ofthe addendum and show how objectivity instantiated into society and science came to beinterpreted as the rule of law instead of men (Porter, 1995) where the rule of law implies asubordination of personal interests and prejudices to public standards. As for certainty, we arguethat the strivings to transform uncertainties into certainties derives from a human wish toinfluence, control, and predict the present as well as the future (Hacking, 1990). Finally, we followthe historical lines of the addendum applicability up until its current accentuation within thecurriculum policy discourse of ‘what works’.Based on our examination we conclude with a critical discussion about the contemporary strivesto tame chance in education through control, predication and comparison and its consequences foreducational research and practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnéuniversitetet, 2022
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117092 (URN)
Conference
9:e Nordiska Läroplansteorikonferensen, Linnéuniversitetet, 20-21 oktober 2022
Available from: 2022-10-24 Created: 2022-10-24 Last updated: 2022-12-13Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8503-2655

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