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Vogt, Bettina
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Wahlström, N., Adolfsson, C.-H. & Vogt, B. (2019). Making Social Studies in Standards-Based Curricula.. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Education Research Conference, Uppsala, March 6-8..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making Social Studies in Standards-Based Curricula.
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, a knowledge debate was initiated in the early 1990s through the official report School for Bildung (SOU 1992:94). The purpose of the report was two-fold: to widen the concept of knowledge from a one-sided cognitive meaning and to offer ‘new’ concepts of knowledge adapted to a performance model (Bernstein 2000) of school curriculum. Since this debate, school reforms, including new grading systems, have been continuous but the knowledge base in curriculum has remained the same. In Sweden, there is currently a major debate on the status of "facts" in the school's knowledge concept. One line of argument claims that the students do not get the opportunity to learn enough factual knowledge. Instead, the abilities have been dominating. However, factual knowledge is embedded in the abilities, because without factual knowledge the abilities become empty, the other argument goes. This debate, as well as a debate of the failure of the current “knowledge requirements” in curriculum to provide tools for equivalent grading, has led to an initiative from the Swedish National Agency for Education (NAE). The NAE has initiated a curriculum reform aiming at strengthen the clarity and equivalence in the content as well as in the knowledge requirements in the syllabi.

Aim

The purpose of this paper is to reintroduce a theoretically based dialogue on the relevance of current knowledge concepts in curricula in general, and the expressions of knowledge progression in particular. In this explorative study, we investigate the following research questions: How can factual knowledge be emphasized without being instrumental? How can the school's overarching goals and values be reflected in the syllabi? With what knowledge expressions can an equivalent assessment be promoted?

Theoretical framework and method

In the theoretical framework, we draw on Bernstein’s (2000) two pedagogical models, as well as his understanding of horizontal and vertical to place the Swedish curricula Lgr 11 and Lgy 11 in a broader typology. Following Deng & Luke (2008), we specifically discuss the knowledge concepts in the syllabi of civics for compulsory school and upper secondary school. To discuss the knowledge expressions in the knowledge requirements in terms of increased clarity and equivalence, we distinguish between knowledge in relation to content and achieved competences in relation to different levels of grading (Carlgren et al. 2009). In the result section, we present a revised version of syllabi in civics for Year 6 and 9 in compulsory school and Year 1 in upper secondary school.

Expected conclusions

We suggest that achieved competences need to be related to content in the knowledge requirements for increased clarity of what different forms of knowing that should be achieved.  Moreover, we introduce alternative terms for how different levels of competences could be expressed in the grading system to increase equivalence.

Keywords
curriculum making, social studies, typology, competences
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-87037 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Education Research Conference, Uppsala, March 6-8.
Available from: 2019-07-30 Created: 2019-07-30 Last updated: 2019-07-30
Vogt, B. (2018). Assessing assessment: Students’ conceptions of justice in relation to assessment in Germany and Sweden. In: Presented at CIES 2018: . Paper presented at 62nd annual conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, South-North Dialogue,25 - 29 March, Mexico City..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing assessment: Students’ conceptions of justice in relation to assessment in Germany and Sweden
2018 (English)In: Presented at CIES 2018, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-72050 (URN)
Conference
62nd annual conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, South-North Dialogue,25 - 29 March, Mexico City.
Available from: 2018-03-30 Created: 2018-03-30 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B. (2018). Das Beurteilen der Beurteilung - Gerechtigkeitsüberzeugungen von SchülerInnen in Schweden und Deutschland zur schulischen Leistungsbeurteilung. In: : . Paper presented at 26. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft vom 18. bis 21. März 2018 – Universität Duisburg-Essen.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Das Beurteilen der Beurteilung - Gerechtigkeitsüberzeugungen von SchülerInnen in Schweden und Deutschland zur schulischen Leistungsbeurteilung
2018 (German)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-71593 (URN)
Conference
26. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Erziehungswissenschaft vom 18. bis 21. März 2018 – Universität Duisburg-Essen
Note

Ej belagd 20181218

Available from: 2018-03-19 Created: 2018-03-19 Last updated: 2018-12-18Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B. (2017). Calculated justice? Swedish and German pupils´ justice conceptions regarding grading between arithmetic logic and qualitative complexity. In: : . Paper presented at Teachers Matter - But Where, When and Why?International research conference at Linnaeus University, Kalmar, 17-18 May 2017..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Calculated justice? Swedish and German pupils´ justice conceptions regarding grading between arithmetic logic and qualitative complexity
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64273 (URN)
Conference
Teachers Matter - But Where, When and Why?International research conference at Linnaeus University, Kalmar, 17-18 May 2017.
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2017-07-25Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B., Falkenberg, K. & Waldow, F. (2017). Effizienz durch Vermarktlichung?: Zur Entwicklung und den Konsequenzen der Einführung von Bildungsmärkten am Beispiel Schwedens.. In: S. Hartong, B. Hermstein, & T. Höhne (Ed.), Ökonomisierung von Schule: Aktuelle Transformationen des schulischen Feldes in nationaler und internationaler Perspektive. Weinheim: Juventa Verlag
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effizienz durch Vermarktlichung?: Zur Entwicklung und den Konsequenzen der Einführung von Bildungsmärkten am Beispiel Schwedens.
2017 (German)In: Ökonomisierung von Schule: Aktuelle Transformationen des schulischen Feldes in nationaler und internationaler Perspektive / [ed] S. Hartong, B. Hermstein, & T. Höhne, Weinheim: Juventa Verlag, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Weinheim: Juventa Verlag, 2017
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49867 (URN)978-3-7799-3493-6 (ISBN)
Note

Ej belagd 20170726

Available from: 2016-02-22 Created: 2016-02-22 Last updated: 2017-07-26Bibliographically approved
Falkenberg, K., Vogt, B. & Waldow, F. (2017). Ständig geprüft oder kontinuierlich unterstützt? Schulische Leistungsbeurteilung in Schweden zwischen formativem Anspruch und summativer Notwendigkeit: [Constant examination or continuous support? Assessment practices in Sweden between formative aspiration and summative necessity]. Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, 63(3), 317-333
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ständig geprüft oder kontinuierlich unterstützt? Schulische Leistungsbeurteilung in Schweden zwischen formativem Anspruch und summativer Notwendigkeit: [Constant examination or continuous support? Assessment practices in Sweden between formative aspiration and summative necessity]
2017 (German)In: Zeitschrift für Pädagogik, ISSN 0044-3247, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 317-333Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [de]

 An die Stelle punktueller Überprüfungen in Form von (Abschluss-)Prüfungen tritt im schwedischen Bildungssystem die fortlaufende schulische Leistungsbeurteilung während des Schuljahres (formative Beurteilung). Schüler_innen erhalten erst mit den Zeugniszensuren - beginnend ab Klasse 6 - eine summative Beurteilung in Form einer Note. Das Abschlusszeugnis der neunjährigen Grundschule ist relevant für den Übergang an die weiterführende Schule, das Abschlusszeugnis der weiterführenden Schule wiederum für den Hochschulzugang bzw. den Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt. Der Beitrag beleuchtet, wie sich die formative und summative Leistungsbeurteilung in Schweden in den Regularien darstellt und kontrastiert dies mit den Beurteilungspraxen von Lehrkräften und den Beurteilungserfahrungen der Schüler_innen bezüglich der beiden Funktionen der Leistungsbeurteilung und ihrer Wechselwirkungen. Es zeigt sich, dass in der Beurteilungspraxis die formativ gedachten Rückmeldungen zum Lernstand teilweise durch die summativen Beurteilungselemente überlagert werden, wodurch sich widersprüchliche Anforderungen für die Lehrkräfte ergeben, die diese versuchen auszubalancieren. Bei den Schüler_innen scheint die kontinuierliche Rückmeldung ebenfalls andere Effekte zu haben als die primär intendierten, u. a. die Erzeugung eines Gefühls des ständigen Geprüftwerdens.

Abstract [en]

In the Swedish school system, there are no final exams at the end of lower and upper secondary school. Rather, there is continuous formative assessment during the school year. Pupils only receive summative assessments (starting with year 6) at the end of each term. School leaving certificates play a role for access to the different branches of higher secondary schooling, to higher education and to working life. The article discusses the rules and regulations of formative and summative assessment. It then juxtaposes these rules with the assessment practices of teachers on the one hand and the way in which pupils experience assessment on the other. As a result, we find that teachers´ formative assessment practices during the school year are partially superimposed by summative elements, which results in conflicting demands on teachers that they then seek to bring back into balance. Among pupils, the continuous formative feedback seems to lead to effects that differ from the intended ones, among them a feeling of constantly being in an examination situation.

Keywords
formative assessment, summative assessment, Sweden, individualisation, examination, formative Leistungsbeurteilung, summative Leistungsbeurteilung, Schweden, Individualisierung, Prüfung
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58779 (URN)10.3262/ZP1703317 (DOI)000402227400005 ()
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B. (2016). ´Aber ich hab´ mich doch so angestrengt´: Zum Zusammenhang von Anstrengung und gerechter Leistungsbeurteilung aus SchülerInnensicht. In: DGfE-Kongress 2016. Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.  Kassel, Germany, 13 - 16 March, 2016: . Paper presented at DGfE-Kongress 2016, Kassel, Germany, 13 - 16 March, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>´Aber ich hab´ mich doch so angestrengt´: Zum Zusammenhang von Anstrengung und gerechter Leistungsbeurteilung aus SchülerInnensicht
2016 (German)In: DGfE-Kongress 2016. Räume für Bildung. Räume der Bildung.  Kassel, Germany, 13 - 16 March, 2016, 2016Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50782 (URN)
Conference
DGfE-Kongress 2016, Kassel, Germany, 13 - 16 March, 2016
Projects
Just assessment in schools - pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany
Available from: 2016-03-15 Created: 2016-03-15 Last updated: 2016-05-31Bibliographically approved
Falkenberg, K., Vogt, B. & Waldow, F. (2015). Bildungsmarkt in Bullerbü: Zur aktuellen Debatte über die "Schulkrise“ in Schweden.. Die Deutsche Schule (DDS), 107(2), 104-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bildungsmarkt in Bullerbü: Zur aktuellen Debatte über die "Schulkrise“ in Schweden.
2015 (German)In: Die Deutsche Schule (DDS), ISSN 0012-0731, Vol. 107, no 2, p. 104-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [de]

Seit einigen Jahren hat sich in der schwedischen Öff entlichkeit der Eindruck verfestigt, das schwedische Schulsystem sei in der Krise. Dies hat zu einer lebhaften Bildungsdebatte geführt. Im vorliegenden Artikel geben wir einen Einblick in diese Debatte und einige der dieser Debatte zugrunde liegenden Entwicklungen. Insbesondere konzentrieren wir uns auf die Auswirkungen von Bildungsmärkten bzw. der Dezentralisierung und auf die Profession der Lehrkräfte.

Abstract [en]

Currently, large parts of the Swedish public perceive Sweden’s school system to be in a state of crisis. Th is has led to a lively debate on educational matters in Sweden. Th e article discusses some particularly prominent aspects of this debate as well as some of its underlying developments in the Swedish school system. It focuses on the eff ects of educational markets and decentralization on the one hand and the situation of the teaching profession on the other

Keywords
Sweden, marketization, teaching profession
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45085 (URN)000441837500002 ()
Available from: 2015-06-25 Created: 2015-06-25 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B. (2015). Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany.. In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, Marketisation and differentiation in education.: 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015: . Paper presented at NERA 2015, 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany.
2015 (English)In: Abstract book. NERA 2015, Marketisation and differentiation in education.: 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To get assessed is an everyday experience for pupils and of high relevance for the individual as grades and certificates allow or restrict the access to further educational opportunities and thereby future life chances. On the normative level, the allocation of life chances is in Sweden, as in all modern and democratic societies, based on the meritocratic principle (Hadjar, 2008) and on the other hand do ascriptive aspects like gender, socioeconomic or sociocultural background continue to play a massive role for Swedish pupils’ results in school (Skolverket, 2013). Due to the far-reaching consequences for the individual, assessment has to be perceived as fair. But what is perceived as fair assessment can differ between individuals and different contexts pupils are involved in. The Ph.D. project “Just assessment in school – pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany” investigates what pupils perceive as fair assessment by using a “contextual comparison” (Steiner-Khamsi, 2010) .The study wants to contribute to a better understanding of which conceptions of justice Swedish and German pupils have regarding assessment, how pupils perceive getting assessed and under which conditions the assessment is considered as fair in different contexts. In addition to the contextual comparison as methodological frame, the Grounded Theory Methodology (Strauss/Corbin, 1990) is applied in combination with Focus Group interviews (Morgan, 1988). Besides the presentation of the Ph.D. project, first preliminary findings from Focus Group interviews with Swedish pupils attending grade nine shall be presented. These will provide a first insight in parts of Swedish pupils’ justice conceptions about assessment since the implementation of the new grading scale as a part of the wide school reform in Sweden year 2011.

National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41034 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2015, 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association (NERA), Gothenburg, March 4-6, 2015.
Available from: 2015-03-19 Created: 2015-03-19 Last updated: 2015-10-27Bibliographically approved
Vogt, B. (2015). Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany. Patterns of interactional justice.. In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research, Network: 7. Social Injustice and Intercultural Education: . Paper presented at European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Budapest, September 7-11, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Just assessment in school: Pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany. Patterns of interactional justice.
2015 (English)In: ECER 2015, Education and Transition. Contributions from Educational Research, Network: 7. Social Injustice and Intercultural Education, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For pupils, being assessed and receiving grades is an everyday experience. At the same time, it is one of the most relevant sources of perceived injustice at school (Fan, Chan 1999). Besides the pedagogical purposes of pupil assessment grades are used for selection purposes when it comes to the distribution of access to further educational opportunities. Pupils use and need grades, summarized in certificates, in order to compete for e.g. access to further educational opportunities or attractive employment. In this way, school certificates and grades are exchanged for life chances (Waldow 2010). The grades’ relevance for the further life chances becomes most obvious at certain transition points within the educational system. For example, in Sweden, pupils´ grades at the end of lower secondary schooling are important in terms of which further upper secondary schooling track pupils can attend – an academic track that qualifies for higher educational studies or a vocational track that qualifies for non-academic employment.

Therefore, school achievement, expressed in grades, as an indicator for supposed qualification is used to legitimize the selective distribution of life chances (Hadjar 2008). This is common to meritocratic societies that follow the normative ideal of distribution by merit, as it is considered illegitimate letting ascriptive criteria like e.g. gender and sociocultural background steer the distribution. 

Though western societies strive for the distribution of life chances on the basis of merit, research shows that ascriptive criteria and non-performance criteria matter in teachers´ assessment practice (Lindahl 2007). This fact raises the question about justice and how assessment and grading are perceived by those who are directly concerned with the consequences - the pupils. Too little is known about how pupils perceive assessment and grading (Brown 2008), particularly when it comes to the dimension of justice. There is a need for more detailed knowledge about which justice conceptions pupils hold regarding assessment and in how far contextual aspects matter.

This paper will present the objectives and the approach of an ongoing study on “Just assessment in school – pupils´ conceptions in Sweden and Germany”. The project investigates which justice conceptions pupils from both contexts hold regarding assessment, what can be seen as the relevant aspects and conditions of perceived (in-)justice and why just assessment in general is perceived as important.

The paper will present the study along with some preliminary results based on six Focus Group Interviews with Swedish pupils attending grade nine, focusing on the role of interaction for pupils´ justice conceptions (Bies, Moag 1986).

Method

Due to the explorative character of the study and the assumed contextuality of pupils´ justice conceptions, the study that is presented is on the one hand framed by the principles applying for contextual comparative educational research (Steiner-Khamsi 2010) and on the other hand by those which apply to qualitative educational research in common and Grounded Theory Methodology (Glaser, Strauss 1967; Strauss, Corbin 1990) in particular. It is assumed that the diverging contexts in which Swedish and German pupils´ assessment experiences are embedded have an impact on their justice conceptions (Greenberg 2001). Therefore, the comparison has to be done in a contextually sensitive way (Steiner-Khamsi 2010). This should also help the researcher to avoid oversimplifications through comparison. The aim of the study is to develop a middle-range theory about pupils´ justice conceptions that is grounded in data (Glaser, Strauss 1967; Strauss, Corbin 1990). The research process is an iterative one, where the researcher is constantly moving back and forth between data collection and analysis, successively developing theoretical abstractions. As the end of lower secondary schooling marks an important transition point in both countries, where grades play a vital role, the sample includes pupils attending this level in both countries. The data are collected through Focus Group interviews (Krueger 1994; Morgan 1988), meaning that data are collected where the issue is normally discussed – in the peer group.

Expected Outcomes

The comparative study is expected to provide a theory about pupils´ justice conceptions regarding assessment that allows us to understand more about how pupils perceive assessment and grading in terms of justice and which conditions contribute to a perception of (in-)justice. As the study is still ongoing, first preliminary findings about Swedish pupils´ justice conceptions will be presented.

References

Bies, R.; Moag, J. S. (1986): Interactional justice: Communication criteria of fairness. In Roy Lewicki, Blair et al (Ed.) Sheppard (Eds.): Research on negotiation in organizations, pp. 43–55. Brown, Gavin T. L. (2008): Conceptions of Assessment: Understanding What Assessment Means to Teachers and Students. New York: Nova Science Publishers. Fan, Ruth M.; Chan, Silver (1999): Students’ perceptions of just and unjust experiences in school. In Educational and Child Psychology 16 (4), pp. 32–50. Glaser, Barney G.; Strauss, Anselm L. (1967): The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Strategies for Qualitative Research. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co. Greenberg, Jerald (2001): Studying Organizational Justice Cross-Culturally: Fundamental Challenges. In International Journal of Conflict Management 12 (4), pp. 365–375. Krueger, Richard A. (1994): Focus groups. A Practical Guide for Applied Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage Publications. Lindahl, Erica (2007): Gender and ethnic interactions among teachers and students: Evidence from Sweden. IFAU - Institute for Labour Market Policy Evaluation (25). Available online at http://www.ifau.se/Upload/pdf/se/2007/wp07-25.pdf, checked on 23/11/2014. Morgan, David L. (1988): Focus Groups as Qualitative Research. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications. Steiner-Khamsi, Gita (2010): The Politics and Economics of Comparison. In Comparative Education Review 54 (3), pp. 323–342. Strauss, Anselm L.; Corbin, Juliet M. (1990): Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. 3rd ed. Los Angeles, Calif: Sage Publications. Waldow, Florian (2010): Bedömningens roll i fördelningen av livschanser i Tyskland och Sverige. In Folke-Fichtelius, Lundahl (Eds.): Bedömning i och av skolan. Praktik, principer, politik. 1st ed. Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, pp. 111–128.

This proposal is part of a master or doctoral thesis.

Keywords
justice, assessment, conceptions, interaction
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Pedagogics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46325 (URN)
Conference
European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Budapest, September 7-11, 2015
Available from: 2015-09-15 Created: 2015-09-15 Last updated: 2015-10-20Bibliographically approved
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