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Dodoo, Ambrose
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Truong, N. L., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2018). Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply. Energy, 142, 1114-1127
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of energy efficiency measures in district-heated buildings on energy supply
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 142, p. 1114-1127Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we estimate the final and primary energy savings for different energy efficiency measures in a multi-apartment building when heated by small-, medium- or large-scale district-heat production systems (DHSs). The small-scale system is based on heat-only boilers, whereas the other two also include cogeneration of district heat and electricity. In the systems with cogeneration units, a change in building's heat demand may influence cogenerated electricity and hence the overall power system. For the building analyzed, the estimated annual total final heat and electricity savings were 136 (54%) and 30 MWh (52%), respectively, giving total annual primary energy savings of 177–289 MWh. This varies as the ratio of primary and final heat savings depends on the type of energy efficiency measure and the energy supply. For the same heat savings measure, a system with a heat-only boiler gave the highest primary energy savings, whereas a system based mostly on cogeneration of district heat and electricity in combination with averaged-efficiency standalone power plants gave the lowest primary energy savings. When the energy supply is based on energy-efficient renewable-based system, the differences in primary energy savings between large- and small-scale DHSs are minor for the same energy efficiency measure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Energy efficiency; District-heated building; Primary energy use; District heat; Renewable energy system
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69549 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.071 (DOI)000424854900094 ()
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-03-02Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Truong, N. L. (2018). Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems. Energy, 143, 69-90
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Primary energy benefits of cost-effective energy renovation of a district heated multi-family building under different energy supply systems
2018 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 143, p. 69-90Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The European Union's Directive on energy performance of buildings emphasizes the need to take cost-effectiveness into account when measures are implemented for improved building energy efficiency. In this study, we investigate cost-effective energy renovation measures for a district heated building under different contexts, including varied locations, energy supply systems and economic scenarios. We determine the final and primary energy savings of cost-effective energy renovation packages for the building in the different contexts. The measures analysed include: improved insulation for attic floor, basement walls, and exterior walls; improved windows and doors; resource-efficient taps; heat recovery of exhaust ventilation air; energy-efficient household appliances and lighting. We consider three existing Swedish energy supply systems of varying district heat production scale and tariffs, and also plausible renewable-based energy supply systems. Our analysis calculates the final energy savings of the measures including the cost-effective renovation packages on hourly basis and links these to the different energy supply systems. The cost-effectiveness analysis is based on a double-stage optimization method, considering total and marginal investment costs of renovation measures as well as associated net present values of total and marginal cost savings. The results show that significant final and primary energy savings can be achieved when energy renovation measures are implemented for the building in the different contexts. This study shows that heat demand in existing Swedish building could be about halved while electricity use may be reduced considerably with cost-effective energy renovation measures. The economic viability of the renovation measures is sensitive to the economic regimes especially discount rates and energy price increase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68615 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.10.113 (DOI)000425565700007 ()
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate. In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits. Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France. (pp. 1185-1195). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design strategies to minimise heating and cooling demands for passive houses under changing climate
2017 (English)In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1185-1195Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we analyse the heating and cooling demands of a multi-storey residential building version, designed to the passive house criteria in Southern Sweden and explore various design strategies to minimise these demands under different climate change scenarios. The analysis is performed for recent (1996–2005) and future climate periods of 2050–2059 and 2090–2099 based on the Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios, downscaled to conditions in South of Sweden. Design strategies include efficient household equipment and technical installations, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit, window solar shading, building orientation, window size and properties, besides mechanical cooling. Results show that space heating demand reduces, while cooling demand increases as the risk of overheating under the future climate scenarios. The most important design strategies are efficient household equipment and technical installations, solar shading, bypass of ventilation heat recovery unit and window u-values and g-values. Total annual final energy demand decreased by 40–51 % and overheating is avoided or significantly reduced under the considered climate scenarios when all the strategies are implemented. Overall, the total annual primary energy for operating the building versions decreased by 49–54 % This study emphasises the importance of considering different design strategies and measures in minimising the operation energy use and the potential risks of overheating in low-energy residential buildings under future climate scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keywords
climate change, space heating, cooling, primary energy, passive houses, overheating, design strategies
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65682 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France.
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Gustavsson, L. & Dodoo, A. (2017). Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building. In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits. Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères,
 France. (pp. 1064-1073). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of different techno-economic regimes on viability of deep energy renovation of an existing Swedish multi-family building
2017 (English)In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1064-1073Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents and demonstrates a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures for buildings. Based on the method, cost-optimal energy efficiency measures are calculated considering total and marginal investment costs as well as net present value of energy savings for the measures under different technical and economic scenario. The method is applied to a 1970s Swedish multi-family building to explore the profitability of different energy renovation measures when implemented individually or in packages. The measures analysed include improved thermal insulation for exterior and basement walls as well as attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electrical appliances, efficient water taps, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. Our results show that the economic viability of the retrofit measures is sensitive to the techno-economic parameters used including, real discount rates, energy price increases and technical lifetime of retrofit measures. Still, about 34–51 % reduction of final heat demands is economically viable for the analysed building. Resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure while improved thermal envelope insulation for exterior walls is the least cost-effective among the measures analysed for the studied building. This study shows the significance of different technical and economic parameters in achieving deep-energy savings from renovation of a building in a cold climate. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keywords
deep renovations, energy savings, refurbishment, deep renovations, energy efficiency measures, existing buildings, cost effectiveness
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science; Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65679 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères,
 France.
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates. Energy, 138, 846-860
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy use implications of different design strategies for multi-storey residential buildings under future climates
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, p. 846-860Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of climate change on the final and primary energy use of versions of a multi-storey residential building have been analysed. The building versions are designed to the Swedish building code (BBR 2015) and passive house criteria (Passive 2012) with different design and overheating control strategies under different climate scenarios. Future climate datasets are based on Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios for 2050–2059 and 2090–2099. The analysis showed that strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the Passive 2012 building version remained the same under all climate scenarios. In contrast, strategies giving the lowest space heating and cooling demands for the BBR 2015 version varied, as cooling demand became more significant under future climate scenarios. Cooling demand was more dominant than heating for the Passive 2012 building version under future climate scenarios. Household equipment and technical installations based on best available technology gave the biggest reduction in total primary energy use among considered strategies. Overall, annual total operation primary energy decreased by 37–54% for the building versions when all strategies are implemented under the considered climate scenarios. This study shows that appropriate design strategies could result in significant primary energy savings for low-energy buildings under changing climates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Climate change, Representative concentration pathways (RCPs), Design strategies and overheating control measures, Space heating and cooling, Primary energy, Residential building
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-67345 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.07.123 (DOI)000415769300069 ()
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2017). Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building. Energy, 135, 563-576
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Final energy savings and cost-effectiveness of deep energy renovation of a multi-storey residential building
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 135, p. 563-576Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we present a method for analysis of cost-effectiveness of end-use energy efficiency measures and demonstrate its application for modelling a wide range of energy renovation measures for a typical 1970s multi-family building in Sweden. The method integrates energy balance and bottom-up economic calculations considering total and marginal investment costs of energy efficiency measures as well as net present value of total and marginal savings of the measures. The energy renovation measures explored include additional insulation to basement walls, exterior walls, and attic floor, improved new windows, efficient electric appliances and lighting, efficient water taps, glazed enclosed balcony systems, and exhaust air ventilation heat recovery systems. The measures are analysed first individually and then designed to form economic packages. Our results show that improved windows give the biggest single final energy savings while resource-efficient taps is the most cost-effective measure for the building. We find that the cost-effectiveness of the energy renovation measures is sensitive to real discount rates and energy price increases. Cost-optimal final heat savings varies between 34% and 51%, depending on the choice of real discount rate and energy price increase. The corresponding electricity savings varies between 35% and 43%. This study shows a method and the significance of various technical and economic-related parameters in achieving deep energy savings cost-efficiently.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2017
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65678 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2017.06.123 (DOI)000412043300050 ()
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Tettey, U. Y., Dodoo, A. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Impacts of parameter values interactions on simulated energy balance of residential buildings. In: Stig Geving, Berit Time (Ed.), 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway: . Paper presented at 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 57-62). Elsevier, 132
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of parameter values interactions on simulated energy balance of residential buildings
2017 (English)In: 11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] Stig Geving, Berit Time, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 132, p. 57-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this study we use dynamic simulation to explore the interactive impacts of different uncertain parameter values in energy balance modelling of existing and improved variants of a Swedish multi-storey residential building. We modelled variations as well as interactive influence of different simulation assumptions and parameters encompassing outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and technical installations including household equipment. The results indicate that the interactive influence of the parameters on calculated space heating of buildings seems to be small and relatively more evident for a low-energy building than for a conventional building. The influence of the interactions between the parameter combinations becomes more evident as several parameters are varied simultaneously. The results also indicate that calculated space heating demand of a building is noticeably influenced by how heat gains from household equipment and technical installations are modelled. The calculated final energy for space heating for the analysed building versions varied between 13-43% depending on the energy efficiency levels for household equipment and technical installations as well as their interactions with other parameter values variations. This study shows the importance of appropriate input parameters and assumptions for building energy balance calculation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102
Keywords
Energy balance simulation, input data, parameters, assumptions, residential buildings, space heating demand
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65683 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.09.631 (DOI)000426435500010 ()
Conference
11th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics, NSB2017, 11-14 June 2017, Trondheim, Norway
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Tettey, U. Y. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings. Energy, 120(1), 718-730
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings
2017 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, no 1, p. 718-730Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9-14 kWh/m(2) depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58638 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.11.124 (DOI)000395953000062 ()
Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2017-05-22Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Gustavsson, L. & Tettey, U. Y. (2017). Life cycle primary energy use of nearly-zero energy building and low-energy building. In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits. Paper presented at ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France. (pp. 1075-1081). European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life cycle primary energy use of nearly-zero energy building and low-energy building
2017 (English)In: ECEEE 2017 Summer Study: Consumption, Efficiency & Limits, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017, p. 1075-1081Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy legislations are increasingly driving towards buildings with very low operation final energy use as part of efforts to reduce energy use and climate impact of the built environment. In this study we analyse the life cycle primary energy use of a recently constructed Swedish conventional 6-storey apartment building and compare it to variants designed as nearly-zero energy building or as low-energy building with a combination of improved thermal envelope and passive design strategies. We maintain the architectural design of the constructed building and improve the thermal properties of the envelope to achieve a low-energy building and also nearly-zero energy building including solar thermal collectors. We consider scenarios where the building variants are heated with renewable energy using cogenerated district heating, also complemented with solar heating system. We follow the life cycle of the building versions and analyse their total primary energy use, considering the production, operation and end-of-life phases. The results show that the relative significance of the production phase increases as buildings are made to achieve very low operational energy use. The production phase accounts for 17 % of the total primary energy use for production, operation and demolition of the constructed building for a 50-year lifespan. The corresponding values for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants ranges between 30 to 31 %. Overall, the life cycle primary energy use for the nearly-zero energy and low-energy building variants are about 30–35 % lower compared to the constructed building.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2017
Keywords
zero-carbon technologies, life cycle analysis, primary energy, optimisation
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65680 (URN)
Conference
ECEEE 2017 Summer Study of energy efficiency. 29 May – 3 June 2017. Hyères, 
France.
Available from: 2017-06-20 Created: 2017-06-20 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
Dodoo, A., Tettey, U. Y. & Gustavsson, L. (2017). On input parameters, methods and assumptions for energy balance and retrofit analyses for residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 137, 76-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On input parameters, methods and assumptions for energy balance and retrofit analyses for residential buildings
2017 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 137, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we explore key parameter values, methods and assumptions used for energy balance modelling of residential buildings in the Swedish context and analyse their effects on calculated energy balance of a typical multi-storey building from 1970s and on energy savings of energy efficiency retrofit measures. The parameters studied are related to microclimate, building envelope, occupancy behaviour, ventilation, and heat gains from electric appliances and persons. Our study shows that assumed indoor air temperature, internal heat gains and efficiency of ventilation heat recovery units have significant effect on the simulated energy performance of the studied building and energy efficiency measures. Of the considered microclimate parameter values and assumptions, the outdoor temperature, ground solar reflection and window shading have significant impact on the simulated space heating and cooling demands. On the contrary, the simulated energy performances are less affected by the variations in air pressure outside and the percentage of wind load that hits the building. We found that input data and assumptions used for energy balance calculations and energy saving analyses vary significantly in the Swedish context. These result in significantly different calculated final energy performance of buildings and energy efficiency measures. To inform accurate analysis of energy performance of building and energy saving measures, input parameters used in simulation models need to be appropriate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Building Technologies Energy Systems
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Civil engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-58941 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.12.033 (DOI)000393260000007 ()
Available from: 2016-12-13 Created: 2016-12-13 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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