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Olsen, Björn
Publications (10 of 144) Show all publications
Sandelin, L. L., Tolf, C., Larsson, S., Wilhelmsson, P., Salaneck, E., Jaenson, T. G. T., . . . Waldenström, J. (2015). Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden. PLoS ONE, 10(7), Article ID e0133250.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0133250Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-45823 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0133250 (DOI)000358622000071 ()2-s2.0-84941985188 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Stedt, J., Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., Waldenström, J., McMahon, B. J., Tolf, C., . . . Drobni, M. (2015). Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 57, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carriage of CTX-M type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) in gulls across Europe
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2015 (English)In: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, ISSN 0044-605X, Vol. 57, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs), a group of enzymes conferring resistance to third generation cephalosporins have rapidly increased in Enterobacteriacae and pose a major challenge to human health care. Resistant isolates are common in domestic animals and clinical settings, but prevalence and genotype distribution varies on a geographical scale. Although ESBL genes are frequently detected in bacteria isolated from wildlife samples, ESBL dissemination of resistant bacteria to the environment is largely unknown. To address this, we used three closely related gull species as a model system and collected more than 3000 faecal samples during breeding times in nine European countries. Samples were screened for ESBL-producing bacteria, which were characterized to the level of ESBL genotype groups (SHV, TEM), or specific genotypes (CTX-M). Results: ESBL-producing bacteria were frequently detected in gulls (906 of 3158 samples, 28.7 %), with significant variation in prevalence rates between countries. Highest levels were found in Spain (74.8 %), The Netherlands (37.8 %) and England (27.1 %). Denmark and Poland represented the other extreme with no, or very few positive samples. Genotyping of CTX-M isolates identified 13 different variants, with bla(CTX-M-1) and bla(CTX-M-14) as the most frequently detected. In samples from England, Spain and Portugal, blaCTX-M-14 dominated, while in the rest of the sampled countries blaCTX-M-1 (except Sweden where bla(CTX-M-15) was dominant) was the most frequently detected genotype, a pattern similar to what is known from studies of human materials. Conclusions: CTX-M type ESBLs are common in the faecal microbiota from gulls across Europe. The gull ESBL genotype distribution was in large similar to published datasets from human and food-production animals in Europe. The data suggests that the environmental dissemination of ESBL is high from anthropogenic sources, and widespread occurrence of resistant bacteria in common migratory bird species utilizing urban and agricultural areas suggests that antibiotic resistance genes may also be spread through birds.

Keywords
ESBL, CTX-M, Wildlife, Birds, Gulls, Antibiotic resistance, E. coli, Europe
National Category
Microbiology Veterinary Science
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47378 (URN)10.1186/s13028-015-0166-3 (DOI)000363921100001 ()26526188 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84945962826 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Isaksson, J., Christerson, L., Blomqvist, M., Wille, M., Alladio, L. A., Sachse, K., . . . Herrmann, B. (2015). Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium, but no Chlamydia psittaci, in sea birds from Antarctica. Polar Biology, 38(11), 1931-1936
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium, but no Chlamydia psittaci, in sea birds from Antarctica
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2015 (English)In: Polar Biology, ISSN 0722-4060, E-ISSN 1432-2056, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1931-1936Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the growing order of Chlamydiales, there are a number of pathogens. One is Chlamydia psittaci, a zoonotic pathogen, with birds as natural hosts that may be transmitted to humans and cause severe respiratory disease, psittacosis. The prevalence of this pathogen in Antarctic birds is almost unknown as well as the ramifications of its potential spread in na < ve bird populations. To investigate the prevalence of chlamydia organisms, cloacal and fecal samples were collected from 264 penguins and 263 seabirds on the Antarctic Peninsula and in Southern Chile. No C. psittaci could be detected by 23S rRNA real-time PCR. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA 298-bp signature sequence revealed a Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium previously found in seabirds from the subarctic zone, demonstrating that this not yet fully characterized bacterium is widespread. In conclusion, the prevalence of C. psittaci among wild birds on the Antarctic Peninsula seems to be low, but other types of chlamydial organisms are common. Further studies are required to taxonomically define and finally understand the role of these non-classified Chlamydiae.

Keywords
Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydiaceae, Pygoscelis antarcticus, Spheniscus magellanicus, Stercorarius antarcticus, Antarctic
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47686 (URN)10.1007/s00300-015-1748-2 (DOI)000364023800012 ()2-s2.0-84945486322 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2015-12-01 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Bonnedahl, J., Stedt, J., Waldenström, J., Svensson, L., Drobni, M. & Olsen, B. (2015). Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile. PLoS ONE, 10(10), Article ID e0141315.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Extended-Spectrum beta-Lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M Genotypes in Franklin Gulls from Canada and Chile
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2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0141315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Migratory birds have been suggested to contribute to long-distance dispersal of antimicrobial resistant bacteria, but tests of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study we determined resistance profiles and genotypes of ESBL-producing bacteria in randomly selected Escherichia coli from Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) at breeding sites in Canada and compared with similar data from the gulls' wintering grounds in Chile. Resistant E. coli phenotypes were common, most notably to ampicillin (30.1%) and cefadroxil (15.1%). Furthermore, 17.0% of the gulls in Canada carried ESBL producing bacteria, which is higher than reported from human datasets from the same country. However, compared to gulls sampled in Chile (30.1%) the prevalence of ESBL was much lower. The dominant ESBL variants in Canada were bla(CTX-M-14) and bla(CTX-M-15) and differed in proportions to the data from Chile. We hypothesize that the observed differences in ESBL variants are more likely linked to recent exposure to bacteria from anthropogenic sources, suggesting high local dissemination of resistant bacteria both at breeding and non-breeding times rather than a significant trans-hemispheric exchange through migrating birds.

National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47229 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0141315 (DOI)000363309200092 ()26496629 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84949488537 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Lewis, N. S., Verhagen, J. H., Javakhishvili, Z., Russell, C. A., Lexmond, P., Westgeest, K. B., . . . de Graaf, M. (2015). Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data. Journal of General Virology, 96, 2050-2060
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influenza A virus evolution and spatio-temporal dynamics in Eurasian wild birds: a phylogenetic and phylogeographical study of whole-genome sequence data
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2015 (English)In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 96, p. 2050-2060Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) have a natural host reservoir in wild waterbirds and the potential to spread to other host species. Here, we investigated the evolutionary, spatial and temporal dynamics of avian IAVs in Eurasian wild birds. We used whole-genome sequences collected as part of an intensive long-term Eurasian wild bird surveillance study, and combined this genetic data with temporal and spatial information to explore the virus evolutionary dynamics. Frequent reassortment and co-circulating lineages were observed for all eight genomic RNA segments over time. There was no apparent species-specific effect on the diversity of the avian IAVs. There was a spatial and temporal relationship between the Eurasian sequences and significant viral migration of avian lAVs from West Eurasia towards Central Eurasia. The observed viral migration patterns differed between segments. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges faced when analysing these surveillance and sequence data, and the caveats to be borne in mind when drawing conclusions from the apparent results of such analyses.

National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46907 (URN)10.1099/vir.0.000155 (DOI)000362243000007 ()25904147 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84938127397 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-26 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Nykvist, M., Muradrasoli, S., Söderström, H., Wille, M., Daggfeldt, A., . . . Jarhult, J. D. (2015). Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59(9), 5196-5202
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Acquires Resistance-Related Neuraminidase I222T Substitution When Infected Mallards Are Exposed to Low Levels of Oseltamivir in Water
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2015 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 9, p. 5196-5202Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and new human IAVs often contain gene segments originating from avian IAVs. Treatment options for severe human influenza are principally restricted to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs), among which oseltamivir is stockpiled in preparedness for influenza pandemics. There is evolutionary pressure in the environment for resistance development to oseltamivir in avian IAVs, as the active metabolite oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) passes largely undegraded through sewage treatment to river water where waterfowl reside. In an in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) model, we tested if low-pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus might become resistant if the host was exposed to low levels of OC. Ducks were experimentally infected, and OC was added to their water, after which infection and transmission were maintained by successive introductions of uninfected birds. Daily fecal samples were tested for IAV excretion, genotype, and phenotype. Following mallard exposure to 2.5 mu g/liter OC, the resistance-related neuraminidase (NA) I222T substitution, was detected within 2 days during the first passage and was found in all viruses sequenced from subsequently introduced ducks. The substitution generated 8-fold and 2.4-fold increases in the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OC (P < 0.001) and zanamivir (P = 0.016), respectively. We conclude that OC exposure of IAV hosts, in the same concentration magnitude as found in the environment, may result in amino acid substitutions, leading to changed antiviral sensitivity in an IAV subtype that can be highly pathogenic to humans. Prudent use of oseltamivir and resistance surveillance of IAVs in wild birds are warranted.

National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47716 (URN)10.1128/AAC.00886-15 (DOI)000364343900014 ()26077257 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84940936073 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-12-04 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Gillman, A., Muradrasoli, S., Söderström, H., Holmberg, F., Latorre-Margalef, N., Tolf, C., . . . Jarhult, J. D. (2015). Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 81(7), 2378-2383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Strain with an H274Y Mutation in Neuraminidase Persists without Drug Pressure in Infected Mallards
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2015 (English)In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 81, no 7, p. 2378-2383Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influenza A virus (IAV) has its natural reservoir in wild waterfowl, and emerging human IAVs often contain gene segments from avian viruses. The active drug metabolite of oseltamivir (oseltamivir carboxylate [OC]), stockpiled as Tamiflu for influenza pandemic preparedness, is not removed by conventional sewage treatment and has been detected in river water. There, it may exert evolutionary pressure on avian IAV in waterfowl, resulting in the development of resistant viral variants. A resistant avian IAV can circulate among wild birds only if resistance does not restrict viral fitness and if the resistant virus can persist without continuous drug pressure. In this in vivo mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study, we tested whether an OC-resistant avian IAV (H1N1) strain with an H274Y mutation in the neuraminidase (NA-H274Y) could retain resistance while drug pressure was gradually removed. Successively infected mallards were exposed to decreasing levels of OC, and fecal samples were analyzed for the neuraminidase sequence and phenotypic resistance. No reversion to wild-type virus was observed during the experiment, which included 17 days of viral transmission among 10 ducks exposed to OC concentrations below resistance induction levels. We conclude that resistance in avian IAV that is induced by exposure of the natural host to OC can persist in the absence of the drug. Thus, there is a risk that human-pathogenic IAVs that evolve from IAVs circulating among wild birds may contain resistance mutations. An oseltamivir-resistant pandemic IAV would pose a substantial public health threat. Therefore, our observations underscore the need for prudent oseltamivir use, upgraded sewage treatment, and surveillance for resistant IAVs in wild birds.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-42828 (URN)10.1128/AEM.04034-14 (DOI)000351842000013 ()25616792 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84925379512 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-04-23 Created: 2015-04-23 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved
Wille, M., Avril, A., Tolf, C., Schager, A., Larsson, S., Borg, O., . . . Waldenström, J. (2015). Temporal dynamics, diversity, and interplay in three components of the virodiversity of a Mallard population: Influenza A virus, avian paramyxovirus and avian coronavirus. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 29, 129-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal dynamics, diversity, and interplay in three components of the virodiversity of a Mallard population: Influenza A virus, avian paramyxovirus and avian coronavirus
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2015 (English)In: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, ISSN 1567-1348, E-ISSN 1567-7257, Vol. 29, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Multiple infections, or simultaneous infection of a host with multiple parasites, are the rule rather than the exception. Interactions between co-occurring pathogens in a population may be mutualistic, competitive or facilitative. For some pathogen combinations, these interrelated effects will have epidemiological consequences; however this is as yet poorly incorporated into practical disease ecology. For example, screening of Mallards for influenza A viruses (IAV) have repeatedly revealed high prevalence and large subtype diversity in the Northern Hemisphere. Other studies have identified avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) and coronaviruses (CoVs) in Mallards, but without making inferences on the larger viral assemblage. In this study we followed 144 wild Mallards across an autumn season in a natural stopover site and constructed infection histories of IAV, APMV-1 and CoV. There was a high prevalence of IAV, comprising of 27 subtype combinations, while APMV-1 had a comparatively low prevalence (with a peak of 2%) and limited strain variation, similar to previous findings. Avian CoVs were common, with prevalence up to 12%, and sequence analysis identified different putative genetic lineages. An investigation of the dynamics of co-infections revealed a synergistic effect between CoV and IAV, whereby Coy prevalence was higher given that the birds were co-infected with IAV. There were no interactive effects between IAV and APMV-1. Disease dynamics are the result of an interplay between parasites, host immune responses, and resources; and is imperative that we begin to include all factors to better understand infectious disease risk. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Avian paramyxovirus, Co-infection, Coronavirus, Disease dynamics, Influenza A virus, Newcastle disease virus
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40410 (URN)10.1016/j.meegid.2014.11.014 (DOI)000348087400018 ()25461850 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84912122876 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2018-11-15Bibliographically approved
Stedt, J., Bonnedahl, J., Hernandez, J., McMahon, B. J., Hasan, B., Olsen, B., . . . Waldenström, J. (2014). Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries. Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, 4, Article ID 21565.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotic resistance patterns in Escherichia coli from gulls in nine European countries
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2014 (English)In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 4, article id 21565Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of antibiotic resistant faecal indicator bacteria from humans and food production animals has increased over the last decades. In Europe, resistance levels in Escherichia coli from these sources show a south-to-north gradient, with more widespread resistance in the Mediterranean region compared to northern Europe. Recent studies show that resistance levels can be high also in wildlife, but it is unknown to what extent resistance levels in nature conform to the patterns observed in human-associated bacteria.

METHODS: To test this, we collected 3,158 faecal samples from breeding gulls (Larus sp.) from nine European countries and tested 2,210 randomly isolated E. coli for resistance against 10 antibiotics commonly used in human and veterinary medicine.

RESULTS: Overall, 31.5% of the gull E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥1 antibiotic, but with considerable variation between countries: highest levels of isolates resistant to ≥1 antibiotic were observed in Spain (61.2%) and lowest levels in Denmark (8.3%). For each tested antibiotic, the Iberian countries were either the countries with the highest levels or in the upper range in between-country comparisons, while northern countries generally had a lower proportion of resistant E. coli isolates, thereby resembling the gradient of resistance seen in human and food animal sources.

CONCLUSION: We propose that gulls may serve as a sentinel of environmental levels of antibiotic resistant E. coli to complement studies of human-associated microbiota.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-33715 (URN)10.3402/iee.v4.21565 (DOI)24427451 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-09 Created: 2014-04-09 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved
Singer, A. C., Jarhult, J. D., Grabic, R., Khan, G. A., Lindberg, R. H., Fedorova, G., . . . Söderström, H. (2014). Intra- and Inter-Pandemic Variations of Antiviral, Antibiotics and Decongestants in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Receiving Rivers. PLoS ONE, 9(9), Article ID e108621.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra- and Inter-Pandemic Variations of Antiviral, Antibiotics and Decongestants in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Receiving Rivers
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e108621Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late-and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally-and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-39263 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0108621 (DOI)000344862300098 ()2-s2.0-84907584501 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-01-20 Created: 2015-01-20 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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