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Lemdahl, Geoffrey
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Bennike, O., Hedenas, L., Lemdahl, G. & Wiberg-Larsen, P. (2018). A multiproxy macrofossil record of Eemian palaeoenvironments from Klaksvik, the Faroe Islands. Boreas, 47(1), 106-113.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A multiproxy macrofossil record of Eemian palaeoenvironments from Klaksvik, the Faroe Islands
2018 (English)In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies of interglacial successions are critical to our understanding of the environmental history of an area. Analyses of macrofossil remains of plants and invertebrates from Eemian sediments exposed in a coastal cliff section at Borooyarvik near Klaksvik, Bordoy, northeastern Faroe Islands, indicate that the sediments accumulated in a coastal lagoon. The fossil flora comprises tree birch Betula sect. Albae and we suggest that birch forests were found locally at sheltered sites in the area. Tree birch also occurred on the islands during the mid-Holocene. The only other woody plant recovered from the Eemian deposit is the dwarf-shrub Empetrum nigrum, which is common on the islands today. Remains of herbaceous plants are rare but include Viola, Ajuga, Myosotis, Urtica dioica and Ranunculus. The bryophyte flora is species-rich and most of the fragments belong either to stream species or to species of humid or wet habitats. The fossil flora and fauna also comprise a number of freshwater species that probably lived in an oligotrophic lake and in streams in the catchment of the lagoon. The climate during deposition of the lagoonal sediments was similar to the Holocene oceanic climate of the Faroe Islands. The study adds to our understanding of Eemian environments in the North Atlantic region and helps to fill a knowledge gap about the history of the flora and fauna of the Faroe Islands, which is of biogeographical importance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69941 (URN)10.1111/bor.12254 (DOI)000419039500007 ()
Available from: 2018-01-18 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-01-18Bibliographically approved
Houmark-Nielsen, M., Bennike, O., Lemdahl, G. & Luethgens, C. (2016). Evidence of ameliorated Middle Weichselian climate and sub-arctic environment in the western Baltic region: coring lake sediments at Klintholm, MOn, Denmark. Boreas, 45(2), 347-359.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of ameliorated Middle Weichselian climate and sub-arctic environment in the western Baltic region: coring lake sediments at Klintholm, MOn, Denmark
2016 (English)In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 347-359Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coring through glaciotectonically stacked Quaternary sediments situated below sea level on the island of MOn, Denmark, recovered a succession of interstadial sediments of Middle Weichselian age. Plant and animal remains including insects found in laminated sand and mud indicate deposition in a lake surrounded by dwarf shrubs, herbs, mosses and rare trees. The insect fauna indicates a mean July temperature of 8-12 degrees C, suggesting an arctic to sub-arctic environment, while winter temperatures around -8 to -22 degrees C suggest periglacial conditions with permafrost. Luminescence dating of sediment samples gave ages from 48-29ka, and radiocarbon dating indicates deposition of plant fragments between 45 and 36ka BP. The fossil assemblage from MOn shows close resemblance to those from other sites with similar ages found in the vicinity of the western Baltic Basin.

National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-52219 (URN)10.1111/bor.12159 (DOI)000373012500011 ()2-s2.0-84961207074 (Scopus ID)
External cooperation:
Available from: 2016-04-25 Created: 2016-04-25 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Cui, Q.-Y., Gaillard, M.-J., Olsson, F., Greisman, A., Lemdahl, G. & Zernova, G. (2015). A case study of the role of climate, humans, and ecological setting in Holocene fire history of northwestern Europe. Science China. Earth Sciences, 58(2), 195-210.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of the role of climate, humans, and ecological setting in Holocene fire history of northwestern Europe
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2015 (English)In: Science China. Earth Sciences, ISSN 1674-7313, E-ISSN 1869-1897, Vol. 58, no 2, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the major results from studies of fire history over the last 11000 years (Holocene) in southern Sweden, on the basis of palaeoecological analyses of peat sequences from three small peat bogs. The main objective is to emphasize the value of multiple, continuous sedimentary records of macroscopic charcoal (macro-C) for the reconstruction of local to regional past changes in fire regimes, the importance of multi-proxy studies, and the advantage of model-based estimates of plant cover from pollen data to assess the role of tree composition and human impact in fire history. The chronologies at the three study sites are based on a large number of C-14 dates from terrestrial plant remains and age-depth models are achieved using Bayesian statistics. Fire history is inferred from continuous records of macro-C and microscopic charcoal counts on pollen slides. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) for pollen-based quantitative reconstruction of local vegetation cover is applied on the three pollen records for plant cover reconstruction over the entire Holocene. The results are as follows: (1) the long-term trends in fire regimes are similar between sites, i.e., frequent fires during the early Holocene until ca. 9 ka BP, low fire frequency during the mid-Holocene, and higher fire frequency from ca. 2.5 ka BP; (2) this broad trend agrees with the overall fire history of northwestern and western Europe north of the Mediterranean area, and is due to climate forcing in the early and mid-Holocene, and to anthropogenic land-use in the late Holocene; (3) the LRA estimates of plant cover at the three sites demonstrate that the relative abundance of pine played a primordial role in the early and mid-Holocene fire history; and (4) the between-site differences in the charcoal records and inferred fire history are due to local factors (i.e., relative abundance of pine, geomorphological setting, and anthropogenic land-use) and taphonomy of charcoal deposition in the small peat bogs. It is shown that continuous macro-C records are most useful to disentangle local from regional-subcontinental fire history, and climate-induced from human-induced fire regimes, and that pollen-based LRA estimates of local plant cover are more adequate than pollen percentages for the assessment of the role of plant composition on fire history.

Keyword
fire history, land-use history, charcoal analysis, Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA), Holocene, Smaland, Sweden
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40406 (URN)10.1007/s11430-014-4960-y (DOI)000348120900004 ()2-s2.0-84925496967 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-02-25 Created: 2015-02-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Gaillard, M.-J., Cui, Q.-Y., Lemdahl, G. & Trondman, A.-K. (2015). The potential of pollen-based quantitative vegetation reconstructions in studies of past human settlements and use of resources – examples from Europe. In: Geophysical Research Abstracts: . Paper presented at EGU General Assembly 2015. , 17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential of pollen-based quantitative vegetation reconstructions in studies of past human settlements and use of resources – examples from Europe
2015 (English)In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2015, Vol. 17Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

There is a long tradition of collaboration between palaeoecologists and archaeologists in many parts of the world with the purpose of reconstructing the environment of humans through time and the study of the interactions between humans and their environment. Vegetation (i.e. vegetated landscapes and plants) has long been one of the most important parts of the environment for humans’ resources. Thanks to the interpretation of palaeoecological data such as pollen and plant macrofossils, it is well known that humans have used plants for their subsistence and formed many landscapes of the Earth through their activities over many millennia. Pollen analysis in particular has been used to reconstruct the landscapes of humans in order i) to learn something on their use of the landscape for building material, grazing and food (e.g. woods, grazed land, cultivated fields), and ii) to understand their influence on the landscape through deforestation in particular. Pollen data as proxy records of vegetation have been very useful to provide qualitative descriptions of cultural landscapes through time in terms of the presence of major tree, shrub and herb species, and the character of the landscape, wooded, “half-wooded” (or partly wooded), and primarily open (poorly wooded) (1). Efforts to calibrate pollen onto land-use in the 1990ies has made possible to provide more precise and detailed interpretation of pollen records in terms of land-use type (2). However, when it came to questions related to the size of cultivated land or grazed land in relation to wooded land, interpretation of pollen records has been problematic until recently. The non-linear relationship between pollen and vegetation due to inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and pollen dispersion and deposition characteristics of plant taxa has long hampered estimation of the percentage cover of plant taxa or landscape units in the past. Thanks torecent developments in pollen-vegetation modelling, a new approach - the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) (3, 4) - makes it possible to estimate the cover of plant taxa or landscape units at both regional and local spatial scales using pollen records. The LRA has been tested and applied in various types of studies in Europe in particular. Examples from Europe and Scandinavia show that pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover, in combination with other palaeoecological records such as insect and plant macroremains, show the great potential of such studies to provide new insights on the use of landscapes and vegetation by humans in the past and its environmental consequences at both regional and local spatial scales (5, 6). These results provide a new environmental framework for the discussion and testing of hypotheses based on archaeological data.

National Category
Geology Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51758 (URN)
Conference
EGU General Assembly 2015
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
Gaillard, M.-J., Cui, Q.-Y., Fyfe, R., Lemdahl, G., Mazier, F., Nielsen, A. B., . . . Trondman, A.-K. (2014). From land cover-climate relationships at the subcontinental scale to land cover-environment relationships at the regional and local spatial scale – the contribution of pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm approach. In: Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past: Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions University of Leuven, Belgium 3-7 February 2014. Paper presented at PAGES Focus 4 Conference and workshop “Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past”. Leuven, Belgium, 3-7 February 2014 (pp. 25-26). .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From land cover-climate relationships at the subcontinental scale to land cover-environment relationships at the regional and local spatial scale – the contribution of pollen-based quantitative reconstructions of vegetation cover using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm approach
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2014 (English)In: Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past: Open PAGES Focus 4 Workshop Human-Climate-Ecosystem Interactions University of Leuven, Belgium 3-7 February 2014, 2014, p. 25-26Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (Sugita 2007a,b) includes two models, REVEALS (Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites) that estimates vegetation abundance (% cover) within an area of ca. 100 km x 100 km, and LOVE (LOcal Vegetation Estimates) that estimates vegetation abundance at the local spatial scale, i.e. within the Relevant Source Area of Pollen (RSAP sensu Sugita, 2004) that is the smallest area around the study site for which the reconstruction is valid. The RSAP is estimated by the LOVE model and varies between sites and vegetation settings; so far, it was estimated to vary between < 1 - < 10 km in most ecological settings of the Holocene in NW Europe. We used the REVEALS model and over 600 pollen records from pollen data bases and individual researchers to reconstruct land-cover in NW Europe N of the Alps for key time windows of the Holocene in order to assess model-based reconstructions of anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) (e.g. Kaplan et al., 2009) and model (LPJ-GUESS) simulations of past potential (climate-induced vegetation), and to study past land cover – climate interactions using a regional climate model (RCA3). We used the REVEALS model and the complete LRA approach (REVEALS + LOVE models) along with two pollen records from large lakes and three pollen records from small bogs to reconstruct the local-scale land-cover in central Småland, southern Sweden, to study the relationship between vegetation composition, fire, climate and human impact at the regional and local spatial scales with the objective to discuss biodiversity issues. Our results suggest that i) past subcontinental to regional ALCC did influence regional climate through biogeophysical processes at the landatmosphere interface (Strandberg et al., submitted), and ii) local land-cover change, both natural and anthropogenic, govern environmental changes such as fire and biodiversity (Cui et al., 2013; Cui et al., submitted).

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-51782 (URN)
Conference
PAGES Focus 4 Conference and workshop “Towards a more accurate quantification of human-environment interactions in the past”. Leuven, Belgium, 3-7 February 2014
Available from: 2016-03-31 Created: 2016-03-31 Last updated: 2016-10-25Bibliographically approved
Cui, Q.-Y., Gaillard, M.-J., Lemdahl, G., Stenberg, L., Sugita, S. & Zernova, G. (2014). Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity. Ecology and Evolution, 4(18), 3555-3570.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical land-use and landscape change in southern Sweden and implications for present and future biodiversity
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2014 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 4, no 18, p. 3555-3570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The two major aims of this study are (1) To test the performance of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to quantify past landscape changes using historical maps and related written sources, and (2) to use the LRA and map reconstructions for a better understanding of the origin of landscape diversity and the recent loss of species diversity. Southern Sweden, hemiboreal vegetation zone. The LRA was applied on pollen records from three small bogs for four time windows between AD 1700 and 2010. The LRA estimates of % cover for woodland/forest, grassland, wetland, and cultivated land were compared with those extracted from historical maps within 3-km radius around each bog. Map-extracted land-use categories and pollen-based LRA estimates (in % cover) of the same land-use categories show a reasonable agreement in several cases; when they do not agree, the assumptions used in the data (maps)-model (LRA) comparison are a better explanation of the discrepancies between the two than possible biases of the LRA modeling approach. Both the LRA reconstructions and the historical maps reveal between-site differences in landscape characteristics through time, but they demonstrate comparable, profound transformations of the regional and local landscapes over time and space due to the agrarian reforms in southern Sweden during the 18th and 19th centuries. The LRA was found to be the most reasonable approach so far to reconstruct quantitatively past landscape changes from fossil pollen data. The existing landscape diversity in the region at the beginning of the 18th century had its origin in the long-term regional and local vegetation and land-use history over millennia. Agrarian reforms since the 18th century resulted in a dramatic loss of landscape diversity and evenness in both time and space over the last two centuries leading to a similarly dramatic loss of species (e.g., beetles).

Keyword
Biodiversity, fossil pollen records, historical maps, Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm, land-use and landscape changes, late Holocene, southern Sweden
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-38019 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1198 (DOI)000342846600006 ()2-s2.0-84907957446 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-11-06 Created: 2014-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Lemdahl, G., Buckland, P. I. & Mortensen, M. F. (2014). Lateglacial insect assemblages from the Palaeolithic site Slotseng: New evidence concerning climate and environment in SW Denmark. Quaternary International, 341, 172-183.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lateglacial insect assemblages from the Palaeolithic site Slotseng: New evidence concerning climate and environment in SW Denmark
2014 (English)In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 341, p. 172-183Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Slotseng site represents Paleolithic settlements of the Havelte phase of the Hamburgian culture (c. 15 to 14 cal ka BP). The Lateglacial sediment stratigraphy of an adjacent kettle hole was studied in a multidisciplinary project, including the analysis of pollen, macroscopic plant remains, vertebrate bones, and insect remains. In this article the results from the insect analysis are presented. Twelve samples were analysed from a monolith, which chronologically spans from ca. 15,500 to 13,600 cal BP. 108 taxa of Coleoptera and 15 taxa of Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera were recorded. The beetle assemblages indicate an open heath environment with shrub and herb vegetation during this period, with only minor changes during the stadials and interstadials. This is in good agreement with the interpretations based on pollen and plant macrofossil analyses. The presence of dung beetles indicates that reindeer herds grazed in the vicinity of the site. A number of finds of the carrion beetle Thanatophilus dispar suggest that fish may have been a complementary food resource for the hunters at Slotseng. MCR reconstructions indicate arctic/subarctic climate conditions during the periods GS-2a (Pre-Bolling) and GI-1d (Older Dryas) with mean summer temperatures similar to 9-13 degrees C and mean winter temperatures similar to-3 to -20 degrees C. During the interstadials GI-1e (Bolling) and GI-1c (Allerod 1) mean summer temperatures were similar to 14-16 degrees C, but mean winter temperatures remained similar to those during the colder periods. The reconstructed environments and living conditions for the Paleolithic hunters show striking similarities with contemporaneous conditions reconstructed for Magdalenian/Azilian sites at Lake Neuchatel, Switzerland. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA. All rights reserved.

Keyword
Lateglacial, Denmark, Palaeolithic settlement, Insect analysis, Palaeoclimate, Palaeoenvironment
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-37358 (URN)10.1016/j.quaint.2014.01.050 (DOI)000340905800014 ()2-s2.0-84905743350 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-09-29 Created: 2014-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Lemdahl, G. & Lidén, K. (2014). Paths towards a new world: Neolithic Sweden (1ed.). Oxford: Oxbow Books.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paths towards a new world: Neolithic Sweden
2014 (English)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This book is about new results frpm Archaeological research and excavations during the last 10 years. In the book new data is dicussed and how thhis changes our viiew of the period 5000-1700 BC. The whole of Sweden is discussed; from Scania to Lapland and the evidence is interpreted and compared with the older evidence. Two chapters discusses the evidence from sceintific Archaeology as well as the enviromental changes during the period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2014. p. 158 Edition: 1
Keyword
Sweden, Neolithic, Hunters, Farmers
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Humanities, Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-35065 (URN)9781782972570 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-06-12 Created: 2014-06-12 Last updated: 2014-08-27Bibliographically approved
Lemdahl, G., Broström, A., Hedenäs, L., Arvidsson, K., Holmgren, S., Gaillard, M.-J. & Möller, P. (2013). Eemian and Early Weichselian environments in southern Sweden: a multi-proxy study of till-covered organic deposits from the Småland peneplain.. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(7), 705-719.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eemian and Early Weichselian environments in southern Sweden: a multi-proxy study of till-covered organic deposits from the Småland peneplain.
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 705-719Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Based on their luminescence and infinite radiocarbon ages, organic deposits beneath till at two sites on the Småland peneplain, southern Sweden (Nybygget and Stora Gäddevik), are concluded to have formed before the Middle Weichselian. Applied palaeoecological methods include analyses of pollen, diatoms, charcoal fragments, macroscopic remains of vascular plants and mosses, and insect remains. Pollen-stratigraphical correlations with previously studied interglacial/interstadial sites in southern Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany suggest that the peat at Nybygget dates from the Brørup interstadial or the final stage of the Eemian interglacial, whereas the lake sediments at Stora Gäddevik probably were emplaced during the middle Eemian. We conclude that the peat was formed in a wetland characterized by both wood swamp and open mire vegetation, and surrounded by semi-open woodlands dominated by pine, birch and hazel. The middle Eemian sequence at the Stora Gäddevik site provides evidence of a moderately nutrient-rich to nutrient-rich lake environment with relatively diverse aquatic vegetation. Regional vegetation, as reconstructed using the REVEALS model, was spruce woodland mixed with pine, alder and birch, but also included more open environments with hazel, oak, grasslands and sedge-dominated wetlands. Water shield (Brasenia schreberi), now extinct in Europe, was identified in the Eemian lake deposits, from both pollen and macroscopic remains.

National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30915 (URN)10.1002/jqs.2664 (DOI)000328486500004 ()2-s2.0-84885694626 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-12-04 Created: 2013-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Cui, Q.-Y., Gaillard, M.-J., Lemdahl, G., Sugita, S., Greisman, A., Jacobson, G. & Olsson, F. (2013). The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues. The Holocene, 23(12), 1747-1763.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of tree composition in Holocene fire history of the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of southern Sweden, as revealed by the application of the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm: Implications for biodiversity and climate-change issues
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2013 (English)In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1747-1763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a quantitative reconstruction of local forest history at two sites, Stavsåkra (hemiboreal zone) and Storasjö (southern boreal zone), in southern Sweden (province of Småland) to evaluate possible causes of contrasting Holocene fire histories in mid- and late Holocene. The Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) is applied to evaluate between-site differences in the relative abundance of deciduous trees and Pinus (pine) and landscape/woodland openness during the Holocene. The LRA estimates of local vegetation abundance are compared with other proxies of local vegetation, that is, plant and beetle remains. The LRA results suggest that Pinus was a major tree taxon in the woodlands of Storasjö during mid- and late Holocene, while Tilia(linden) and Betula (birch) were dominant at Stavsåkra. The contrasting fire histories are shown to be strongly related to between-site differences in tree composition during mid-Holocene, 4000–2000 BC in particular. The archaeological/historical and beetle data indicate contrasting land uses from c. 1000BC (late Bronze Age/early Iron Age), grazing in open Calluna heaths at Stavsåkra and woodland grazing at Storasjö. Between-site differences in fire historyduring late Holocene were likely due to different land-use practices. Between-site differences in tree composition in mid-Holocene are best explainedby local climatic and geological/geomorphological differences between the hemiboreal and southern boreal zones of Småland, which might also be the primary cause of between-site differences in land-use histories during late Holocene. Maintenance of biodiversity at the landscape scale in the studyarea requires that existing old pine woodlands and Calluna heath are managed with fire and cattle grazing. Further climate warming might lead to higherprobabilities of climate-induces fire, in particular in pine-dominated woodlands.

Keyword
biodiversity, climate change, fire, forest history, Holocene, Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Science, Paleoecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30144 (URN)10.1177/0959683613505339 (DOI)000327472500009 ()2-s2.0-84888609120 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-11-06 Created: 2013-11-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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