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Miao, Chizheng
Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Bastani, S., Giebe, T. & Miao, C. (2020). Ethnicity and tax filing behavior. Journal of Urban Economics, 116, 1-16, Article ID 103215.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnicity and tax filing behavior
2020 (English)In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 116, p. 1-16, article id 103215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyze differences in tax filing between natives and immigrants, focusing on two empirical examples. First, we study deductions for costs associated with traveling between home and work allowed in the Swedish tax code. Using the total population of  commuters within Sweden's largest commuting zone, we find that newly arrived immigrants file substantially less than natives, immigrants with a longer stay behave more like natives, and immigrants with the longest stay file the most, even more than natives. Second, we analyze bunching behavior among the self-employed at a large salient kink point of the Swedish income tax schedule. We find much less bunching among immigrants, even after a long time in the host country, and the largest differences relative to natives in residential areas with a high immigrant concentration. Our findings have implications for the equity and efficiency of the tax system and the spatial patterns of residential and occupational choices for different ethnic groups.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
deductions, tax filing, bunching, immigrants, natives, integration
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-89974 (URN)10.1016/j.jue.2019.103215 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-08 Created: 2019-11-08 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Bastani, S., Giebe, T. & Miao, C. (2019). Ethnicity and Tax Filing Behavior. Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnicity and Tax Filing Behavior
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyze differences in tax filing behavior between natives and immigrants using population-wide Swedish administrative data, focusing on two empirical examples. First, controlling for a rich set of variables, we compare deduction behavior of  immigrants and natives with the same commuting patterns within Sweden's largest commuting zone. We find  that newly arrived immigrants file fewer deductions than natives, that immigrants with a longer duration of stay in the host country behave more like natives, and that immigrants with the longest stay file the most, even more than natives. Second, we analyze bunching behavior among the self-employed at the first central government kink point of the Swedish income tax schedule and find that self-employed immigrants exhibit significantly less bunching behavior than natives, even after a long time in the host country. We highlight residential segregation as a main driver of the observed behavioral differences. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kalmar, Växjö: Linnaeus University, 2019. p. 60
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2019:1
Keywords
deductions, tax filing, bunching, immigrants, natives, integration
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81347 (URN)
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2019). Företagande bland utrikes födda - ett bidrag till integrationen?. Ekonomisk Debatt, 47(1), 37-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Företagande bland utrikes födda - ett bidrag till integrationen?
2019 (Swedish)In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 37-43Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Utrikes födda företagare spelar en viktig roll för integration av andra utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden. Vi visar att företag som ägs av utrikes födda personer i hög grad anställer andra utrikes födda personer. Framför allt anställer företagare födda i länder utanför Europa i högre grad än andra företagare nyanlända personer från länder utanför Europa. Resultaten innebär inte nödvändigtvis att satsningar på ett ökat företagande bland utrikes födda är effektiva för att öka sysselsättningen. Politiken bör utformas så att villkoren för företagande i allmänhet förbättras. Då förbättras möjligheterna för utrikesfödda företagare som har förutsättningar att driva företag att expandera sina verksamheter.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80783 (URN)
Projects
Self-employment among female Middle Eastern immigrants: Determinants, obstacles and outcomes
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2016-0192:1
Available from: 2019-02-22 Created: 2019-02-22 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Anxo, D., Ericson, T. & Miao, C. (2019). Impact of late and prolonged working life on subjective health: the Swedish experience. European Journal of Health Economics, 20(3), 389-405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of late and prolonged working life on subjective health: the Swedish experience
2019 (English)In: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 389-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the relationship between the prolongation of working life and subjective health. Drawing on a unique combination of longitudinal data and the results of a postal survey in Sweden, we investigate the health consequences of extending working life beyond the normal retirement age of 65. To do this, we compare the health status of two groups of retired people: one group who left the labour market completely at the age of 65, and a second group who remained in employment after the age of 65. Using a standard linear probability model and controlling for a range of socio-economic variables as well as previous labour market experiences, perceived life expectancy, pre-retirement income and health, our estimations show that those continuing to work after 65 on average display a 6.8% higher probability of reporting better health during retirement than those leaving at the age of 65. However, we find that this positive correlation between the extension of working life and health is only transitory. After 6 years of retirement, the health advantage of working after the normal retirement age disappears. Furthermore, we did not find any evidence that working after the age of 65 is positively correlated with physical fitness, self-reported depressive symptoms or well-being.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Extending working life, Self-assessed health, Retirement, Sweden
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77636 (URN)10.1007/s10198-018-1005-z (DOI)000463662800006 ()30191342 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053458503 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 2013-0093
Available from: 2018-09-10 Created: 2018-09-10 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2019). ”Kvinnliga invandrar­företagare viktiga för integrationen”. Svenska Dagbladet (2019-01-04)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>”Kvinnliga invandrar­företagare viktiga för integrationen”
2019 (Swedish)In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 2019-01-04Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

Kvinnor med utomeuropeisk bakgrund som har framgång i sitt företagande anställer i hög grad andra kvinnor med utomeuropeisk bakgrund, skriver nationalekonomerna Mats Hammarstedt och Chizheng Miao med anledning av en ny studie.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79363 (URN)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2016-0192:1
Available from: 2019-01-06 Created: 2019-01-06 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2019). Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data. Review of Economics of the Household
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data
2019 (English)In: Review of Economics of the Household, ISSN 1569-5239, E-ISSN 1573-7152Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We present a study of the employees of self-employed immigrants with unincorporated firms in Sweden using matched employer-employee data from 2014. Non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to have employees in their firms. Furthermore, immigrants, especially non-European immigrants, are more likely than natives to employ immigrants in their firms, and non-European immigrants are most likely to employ recently arrived non-European immigrants with low education in their firms. Males are more likely than females to have employees in their firms, but self-employed females are more likely than self-employed males to have female employees. This is the case for all immigrant groups as well as for natives. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration process since they create employment opportunities for immigrant groups that have difficulty entering the labour market.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
National Category
Economics and Business Work Sciences International Migration and Ethnic Relations
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-81181 (URN)10.1007/s11150-019-09446-1 (DOI)
Projects
Self-employment among female Middle Eastern immigrants: Determinants, obstacles and outcomes
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-11-26
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2018). Bättre villkor för företagen kan underlätta integration. Dagens Nyheter (2018-10-09)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bättre villkor för företagen kan underlätta integration
2018 (Swedish)In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2018-10-09Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [sv]

DN DEBATT 9/10. Framgångsrika företagare födda utomlands spelar en viktig roll i integrationen av utrikes födda på arbetsmarknaden. Vår undersökning visar att företag som drivs av personer födda utanför Europa, och som anställer personal, i väsentligt högre grad anställer nyanlända personer från länder utanför ­Europa, skriver forskarna Mats Hammarstedt och Chizheng Miao.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78233 (URN)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2016-0192:1
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2018). Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data. Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We present a study of immigrant self-employment in Sweden using the recent matched employer-employee data from 2014. We find large variations in self-employment rates among immigrant groups as well as between immigrants with different points for their time immigration to Sweden. High self-employment rates are found for male immigrants from the Middle East. Immigrants are less likely than natives to have employees in their firms but after controlling for firm characteristics we find that self-employed immigrants are more likely than self-employed natives to have employees. Especially non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to employ other immigrants, and even non-European and recently arrived immigrants, in their firms. Immigrants are more likely than natives to hire their spouses as employees. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration of other immigrants. We also conclude that that the family plays a central role for self-employment activities among immigrants and that more knowledge regarding the explanations behind the results is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies, 2018. p. 37
Series
Working paper series: Linnaeus University Centre for Discrimination and Integration Studies ; 2018:4
Keywords
Self-employment, Immigrants, Employment, Employees, Sweden
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77843 (URN)
Projects
Self-employment among female Middle Eastern immigrants: Determinants, obstacles and outcomes
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation
Note

This paper is part of the project titled Self-employment among female Middle Eastern immigrants: Determinants, obstacles and outcomes, financed by Jan Wallanders and Tom Hedelius Stiftelse. The research grant is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are also grateful for the comments provided during the workshop “Immigration, ethnic enclaves and labour market outcomes” in Jönköping 2018, the LNUC workshop in Båstad 2018 and the ESPE conference in Antwerp 2018.

Available from: 2018-09-18 Created: 2018-09-18 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
Hammarstedt, M. & Miao, C. (2018). Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data. Stockholm: Research Institute of Industrial Economics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-employed immigrants and their employees: evidence from Swedish employer-employee data
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We present a study of immigrant self-employment in Sweden using the recent matched employer-employee data from 2014. We find large variations in self-employment rates among immigrant groups as well as between immigrants with different points for their time immigration to Sweden. High self-employment rates are found for male immigrants from the Middle East. Immigrants are less likely than natives to have employees in their firms but after controlling for firm characteristics we find that self-employed immigrants are more likely than self-employed natives to have employees. Especially non-European immigrants are more likely than natives to employ other immigrants, and even non-European and recently arrived immigrants, in their firms. Immigrants are more likely than natives to hire their spouses as employees. We conclude that self-employed immigrants play a role in the labour market integration of other immigrants. We also conclude that that the family plays a central role for self-employment activities among immigrants and that more knowledge regarding the explanations behind the results is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Research Institute of Industrial Economics, 2018. p. 37
Series
Research Institute of Industrial Economics Working Paper Series ; 1235
Keywords
Self-employment, Immigrants, Employment, Employees, Sweden
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78014 (URN)
Funder
The Jan Wallander and Tom Hedelius Foundation, P2016-0192:1
Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Miao, C. (2017). Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade. (Doctoral dissertation). Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Essays on Self-employment, Happiness and International Trade
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis consists of three empirical essays on the topics of self-employment, happiness and international trade.

Essay 1 studies how immigrant self-employment entry is affected by the local business cycle in Sweden. Using the unemployment rate at the local labour market level as a proxy for the local business cycle, our study shows that the self-employment entry behaviour for native men and immigrant men is negatively affected by the unemployment rate, except for immigrants from Middle East. However, such a negative effect is quantitatively weaker among the non-European immigrants. Further, the result shows that immigrants from the Middle East are positively affected by the unemployment rate, meaning they are more likely to be pushed into self-employment in recessions. For women, we also find the unemployment rate has a negative impact on the self-employment decision of native women and immigrant women, except for the Middle East group. However, compared with men, the quantitative size of the unemployment rate effect on self-employment is smaller among women, implying the less important role of business cycle in determining females’ entry into self-employment.

Essay 2 investigates the non-pecuniary return of self-employment in China. The results show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men; the life satisfaction of self-employed women is not statistically significant different from that of wage-employed women. Moreover, we show that the life satisfaction of self-employed men in the informal sector is significantly higher than that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. The life satisfaction of wage-employed men in the informal sector is not significantly different from that of wage-employed men in the formal sector. For women, we find that there is no significant life satisfaction disparity between workers in the formal and informal sector. Finally, our job satisfaction data also concludes that self-employment in China is not inferior to wage employment.

Essay 3 evaluates how Swedish manufacturing employment is affected by the increasing import competition from China. The results show that the growth of manufacturing employment is not statistically significant affected by the increasing import competition from China. Moreover, in general, the increasing import exposure from China does not significantly affect the employment growth of non-manufacturing sector either. Regarding the earnings, the analysis shows that the low wage earners in the manufacturing sector is not significantly affected by the increasing import penetration from China while median and high wage earners are positively affected.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University Press, 2017. p. 135
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 282/2017
Keywords
business cycle, employment, immigrant, import competition, informality, life satisfaction, local labour market, self-employment, unemployment rate
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economy, Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-65543 (URN)978-91-88357-67-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-10, Weber, 13:51
Opponent
Available from: 2017-06-19 Created: 2017-06-19 Last updated: 2017-06-19Bibliographically approved
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