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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Laitinen, M., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2019). Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach. In: Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen (Ed.), From Data to Evidence in English Language Research: (pp. 326-350). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charting New Sources of elf Data: A Multi-Genre Corpus Approach
2019 (English)In: From Data to Evidence in English Language Research / [ed] Carla Suhr, Terttu Nevalainen, Irma Taavitsainen, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019, p. 326-350Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The article discusses research that charts new lingua franca English data and broadensthe scope of written elf corpora. We illustrate that, apart from the academic domain,there exist various written genres in non-native contexts in which English is used as asecond language resource alongside native languages. These uncharted data can provideus with new ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. The newapproach incorporates a broader perspective on elf than previously, seeing it as onestage in the long diachronic continuum of Englishes rather than as an entity emergingin interaction. The first part details a corpus project that produces written multi-genrecorpora suitable for real-time studies of how ongoing variability is reflected in linguafranca use. It is followed by three case studies investigating quantitative patterns ofongoing change in elf. The conclusions suggest that a diachronically-informed angleto lingua franca use offers a new vantage point not only to elf but also to ongoinggrammatical variability. It shows that the traditional and canonized way of seeing nonnativespeakers/writers is not sufficient, nor is the simplified view of norm dependency of non-native individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2019
Series
Language and Computers - Studies in Digital Linguistics, ISSN 0921-5034 ; 83
Keywords
English as a lingua franca, second language use, ELF genres, ongoing change
National Category
General Language Studies and Linguistics Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-80522 (URN)10.1163/9789004390652_015 (DOI)978-90-04-39065-2 (ISBN)978-90-04-39064-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Lakaw, A. (2017). Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in American and British English in the 19th and early 20th century. In: ICAME 48m 24-28 May 2017, Charles University, Prague: Corpus et Orbis: Interpreting the World through Corpora. Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at ICAME 38: Corpus et Orbis: Interpreting the World through Corpora. Prague, 24–28 May 2017. (pp. 146-147).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in American and British English in the 19th and early 20th century
2017 (English)In: ICAME 48m 24-28 May 2017, Charles University, Prague: Corpus et Orbis: Interpreting the World through Corpora. Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 146-147Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
collective nouns, agreement, American English, British English, corpus linguistics
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English; Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69219 (URN)
Conference
ICAME 38: Corpus et Orbis: Interpreting the World through Corpora. Prague, 24–28 May 2017.
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lakaw, A. (2017). Prescriptive Influences on Agreement with Collective Nouns in Early 20th-century American English. In: LMEC 6: Book of Abstracts. Paper presented at The Sixth International Conference on Late Modern English (LMEC 6): Internal and External Factors in Linguistic Stability and Language Change (pp. 20-21). Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prescriptive Influences on Agreement with Collective Nouns in Early 20th-century American English
2017 (English)In: LMEC 6: Book of Abstracts, Uppsala University, 2017, p. 20-21Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Agreement with collective nouns has received a great deal of attention in English corpus linguistics. Previous research (e.g. Levin 2001, Hundt 2006) has shown that present-day AmE strongly prefers singular agreement with collective nouns, as illustrated in (1). However, much less is known about this phenomenon in the LME period, in which collective nouns were “notoriously troublesome as to number, and there has been much fluctuation over time” (Denison 1998: 99). Lakaw (forthcoming) shows that the present-day preference for the singular was not yet established in 19th-century AmE, and that plural agreement (exemplified in (2)) was still frequently used. He furthermore suggests that the shift towards the singular must have occurred in the early 20th century.

  1. (1)  The army was not in winter quarters now; it was in the field fighting, (COHA, 1913)

  2. (2)  the army have gone into winter quarters (COHA, 1823)

    This paper presents a study on the influence of prescriptivism on agreement

with collective nouns in early 20th-century AmE. The agreement patterns of 20 collective nouns (e.g. army, government, society) were investigated in COHA, and the resulting shares of singular and plural agreement were correlated to prescriptive comments from a collection of American grammars, school books and style guides (drawn from publicly available sources, e.g. Google Books) from the same time period to examine their influence on the emerging agreement patterns. This method is based on Anderwald’s (2016) quantitative grammaticography and is here applied to explain the aforementioned synchronic variability and thereby to contribute to the study of the emergence of the main varieties of English.

Preliminary findings in 19th-century AmE grammars indicate that collective noun agreement was frequently commented on. Indeed, it turns out that variation in agreement was in fact promoted. However, the preference for singular agreement, which we can witness today, seems to be the result of changes in the stance of 20th- century American grammars towards this topic, as exemplified by Mason (1928: 303), who in his college grammar argues that “[o]rdinarily [...] a Collective noun requires a Singular verb”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala University, 2017
Keywords
prescriptivism, corpus linguistics, American English, collective nouns
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English; Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69221 (URN)
Conference
The Sixth International Conference on Late Modern English (LMEC 6): Internal and External Factors in Linguistic Stability and Language Change
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Lundberg, J., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2017). Revisiting weak ties: Using present-day social media data in variationist studies. In: Tanja Säily, Minna Palander-Collin, Arja Nurmi, Anita Auer (Ed.), Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics: (pp. 303-325). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting weak ties: Using present-day social media data in variationist studies
2017 (English)In: Exploring Future Paths for Historical Sociolinguistics / [ed] Tanja Säily, Minna Palander-Collin, Arja Nurmi, Anita Auer, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 303-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This article makes use of big and rich present-day data to revisit the social network model in sociolinguistics. This model predicts that mobile individuals with ties outside a home community and subsequent loose-knit networks tend to promote the diffusion of linguistic innovations. The model has been applied to a range of small ethnographic networks. We use a database of nearly 200,000 informants who send micro-blog messages in Twitter. We operationalize networks using two ratio variables; one of them is a truly weak tie and the other one a slightly stronger one. The results show that there is a straightforward increase of innovative behavior in the truly weak tie network, but the data indicate that innovations also spread under conditions of stronger networks, given that the network size is large enough. On the methodological level, our approach opens up new horizons in using big and often freely available data in sociolinguistics, both past and present.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017
Series
Advances in historical sociolinguistics, ISSN 2214-1057 ; 7
Keywords
Big data, social networks, weak tie model
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-68501 (URN)10.1075/ahs.7.12lai (DOI)9789027200860 (ISBN)
Projects
DISA-DH
Available from: 2017-10-30 Created: 2017-10-30 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Lundberg, J., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2017). Utilizing Multilingual Language Data in (Nearly) Real Time: The Case of the Nordic Tweet Stream. Journal of universal computer science (Online), 23(11), 1038-1056
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Utilizing Multilingual Language Data in (Nearly) Real Time: The Case of the Nordic Tweet Stream
2017 (English)In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1038-1056Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the Nordic Tweet Stream, a cross-disciplinary digital humanities project that downloads Twitter messages from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The paper first introduces some of the technical aspects in creating a real-time monitor corpus that grows every day, and then two case studies illustrate how the corpus could be used as empirical evidence in studies focusing on the global spread of English. Our approach in the case studies is sociolinguistic, and we are interested in how widespread multilingualism which involves English is in the region, and what happens to ongoing grammatical change in digital environments. The results are based on 6.6 million tweets collected during the first four months of data streaming. They show that English was the most frequently used language, accounting for almost a third. This indicates that Nordic Twitter users choose English as a means of reaching wider audiences. The preference for English is the strongest in Denmark and the weakest in Finland. Tweeting mostly occurs late in the evening, and high-profile media events such as the Eurovision Song Contest produce considerable peaks in Twitter activity. The prevalent use of informal features such as univerbated verb forms (e.g., gotta for (HAVE) got to) supports previous findings of the speech-like nature of written Twitter data, but the results indicate that tweeters are pushing the limits even further.

Keywords
Twitter, corpus linguistics, language choice, oral discourse style
National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Research subject
Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-73133 (URN)000429070900004 ()2-s2.0-85045033557 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
Lakaw, A. (2016). Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century American and British English. Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, 18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century American and British English
2016 (English)In: Studies in Variation, Contacts and Change in English, ISSN 1797-4453, E-ISSN 1797-4453, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

English collective nouns and their agreement patterns have received a great deal of attention in corpus linguistics. Previous synchronic research has found evidence of variability within and across the varieties of English (e.g., Levin 2001, Depraetere 2003, Hundt 2006). This diachronic study compares the agreement patterns with collective nouns in American and British English (henceforth AmE and BrE respectively) and draws evidence from the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), the Old Bailey Corpus (OBC) and the Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (CLMET). The study covers the time span 1810–1909 and includes the agreement patterns of a range of collective nouns from six semantic domains: (1) EMPLOYEES (e.g., crew), (2) FAMILY (e.g., couple), (3) MILITARY (e.g., army), (4) POLITICS (e.g., government), (5) PUBLIC ORDER (e.g., police) and (6) SOCIETY (e.g., generation).

The results show an overall increase of singular agreement in both varieties. Moreover, the findings suggest that verbal and pronominal agreement patterns behave differently in that the latter is more likely to be of the plural kind, and that variation between singular and plural agreement exists even amongst the semantic categories. The incipient change in AmE towards the singular is visible in the 19th-century material. The expected leading role of AmE in this change (cf. Collins 2015: 29) could not be confirmed. Instead, AmE displays signs of a kick-down development (Hundt 2009a: 33) in which BrE shows a greater tendency for the singular in the 19th century, but is overtaken by AmE at a later point in time.

Keywords
collective nouns, agreement, corpus linguistics, American English, British English
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, Linguistics; Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69217 (URN)
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Lakaw, A. (2016). Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century British and American English. In: Book of Abstracts: 4th Conference of the International Society for the Linguistics of English. 18-21 September 2016 Poznań, Poland. Paper presented at 4th Conference of the International Society for the Linguistics of English. 18-21 September 2016 Poznań, Poland (pp. 256-258). Poznań: Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century British and American English
2016 (English)In: Book of Abstracts: 4th Conference of the International Society for the Linguistics of English. 18-21 September 2016 Poznań, Poland, Poznań: Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University , 2016, p. 256-258Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

English collective nouns and their agreement patterns, as illustrated in (1)–(3) below, have received a great deal of attention in corpus linguistics.

(1) The regular police was equivalent to at least 10,000 military... (Hansard, 1835)

(2) ...the family was no longer what it had been... (CLMET, 1906)

(3) ...and the Government have done all that is in their power to find out... (OBC, 1748)

Previous research has found evidence of variability within and across the different varieties of English (e.g. Levin 2001; Depraetere 2003; Hundt 2006, 2009) and identified further avenues for research. This presentation first revisits the diachronic observations of a set of previous studies by investigating large diachronic corpora and hence adds a new angle to the studies from the pre- digital corpus era (e.g. Liedtke 1910, Dekeyser 1975) and to studies on small datasets (e.g. Hundt 2006, 2009).

Furthermore, the conclusions drawn in several investigations relate the varying agreement within the different varieties of English to the lexical characteristics of the collective nouns themselves (e.g. Depraetere 2003: 124; Bock et al. 2006: 101; Levin 2006: 339). This finding motivates further research with a focus on intra-linguistic factors (e.g. semantics and linguistic constraints of collective nouns). Additionally, there is a need for further research on extra-linguistic factors that may influence agreement with collective nouns. Since this study deals with material from the prescriptive period of the 19th century, the effects of normative grammars on the agreement patterns in 19th-century AmE and BrE were investigated by applying Anderwald’s (2014) approach of quantitative historical grammaticography, in which the prescriptions of normative grammars were compared to the actual evidence of language use drawn from the investigated corpora.

This investigation focusses on the agreement patterns of collective nouns from five semantic domains: (1) PUBLIC ORDER (e.g. police), (2) MILITARY (e.g. army), (3) FAMILY (e.g. family), (4) EMPLOYEE (e.g. staff) and (5) POLITICS (e.g. government). The data are drawn from three different BrE corpora representing various text types (i.e. the Corpus of Late Modern English Texts, the Hansard Corpus, and the Old Bailey Corpus). Combining these corpora gives us a more precise picture of the role of genre in agreement and enables more advanced quantitative methods beyond simple pooling. The findings are compared with a previous study on the agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century AmE (Author, forthcoming).

Preliminary results suggest substantial differences between the diachronic agreement patterns of many collective nouns in BrE and AmE, with the plural being more frequent in the former variety. This variation may have been brought about by prescriptive grammars, since language-internal constraints promoted by 19th-century AmE prescriptivists affected agreement patterns in the AmE variety. Furthermore, the big corpus approach taken in this investigation gives new information on the role of genre and genre differences in agreement with collective nouns and permits a more precise timing of the divergence of the two varieties.

Finally, in the course of conducting this study, the need for a new large multi-genre diachronic corpus of BrE material becomes apparent, since the Hansard corpus proved to be a problematic tool concerning the study of grammatical change and variation. As already pointed out by Mollin (2007), the Hansard material does not contain verbatim records of what was being said in the British parliament sessions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Poznań: Faculty of English, Adam Mickiewicz University, 2016
Keywords
collective nouns, agreement, American English, British English, corpus linguistics
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English; Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69220 (URN)
Conference
4th Conference of the International Society for the Linguistics of English. 18-21 September 2016 Poznań, Poland
Available from: 2017-12-13 Created: 2017-12-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2015). Advanced non-native English on a continuum of Englishes: Charting new data sources. In: From data to evidence : big data, rich data, uncharted data: 19-22 October 2015, Helsinki. Paper presented at From data to evidence : big data, rich data, uncharted data, 19-22 October 2015, Helsinki. Varieng
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced non-native English on a continuum of Englishes: Charting new data sources
2015 (English)In: From data to evidence : big data, rich data, uncharted data: 19-22 October 2015, Helsinki, Varieng , 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This presentation discusses research in which the objective is to find new empirical and theoretical ways of approaching the ongoing globalization of English. A particular angle is to test the usability of corpus-based diachronic methods for studying advanced non-native Englishes and to investigate present-day non-native use as one stage in the long continuum of Englishes. Such an approach is motivated by calls from the English as a lingua franca (ELF) domain to provide diachronically-informed evidence of English in multilingual settings (Seildhofer 2011) and by recent attempts in the study of indigenized World Englishes to take into account diachronic processes in shaping the outer circle Englishes (Noël, van Rooy & van der Auwera 2014). In particular, we investigate how ongoing grammatical variability, which is widely documented in many native varieties, is adapted in advanced non-native use. A key question is to investigate to what extent multilingual settings contribute to ongoing variability. The presentation discusses requirements for sources of material and evidence, and its starting point is the fact that the ELF research has so far focused on meaning making in interaction, which is also reflected in the scope of corpus resources. We zoom into ongoing corpus compilation work in which the aim is to collect a representative multi-genre sample of English texts in multilingual settings. The objective is that the sampling frame should enable diachronic and diatopic analyses of advanced nonnative use and make possible quantitative comparisons between our evidence and some of the existing English corpora, both native and non-native. The presentation discusses the diverse nature of our data and presents how we turn the data into evidence. We will introduce the set of grammatical structures, stemming from the corpus material, which have so far been investigated, and discuss a set of broader research questions to which this type of multi-genre corpus material of English texts in multilingual settings could shed more light.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Varieng, 2015
National Category
Specific Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49128 (URN)
Conference
From data to evidence : big data, rich data, uncharted data, 19-22 October 2015, Helsinki
Available from: 2016-01-20 Created: 2016-01-20 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Lakaw, A. (2015). Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century American English. In: ICAME 36: Words, words, words – corpora and lexis.  Trier, 27-31 May 2015: . Paper presented at ICAME 36: Words, words, words – corpora and lexis. Trier, 27-31 May 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diachronic shifts in agreement patterns of collective nouns in 19th-century American English
2015 (English)In: ICAME 36: Words, words, words – corpora and lexis.  Trier, 27-31 May 2015, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

English collective nouns and their agreement patterns, as illustrated in (1)–(3) below, have received a great deal of attention in corpus linguistics. Previous research has found evidence of variability within and across the different varieties of English (e.g. Levin 2001, 2006; Depraetere 2003; Hundt 2006, 2009; Bock et al. 2006; Fernández-Pena 2014).  

(1)        …and the police has not yet been aroused from its lethargy. (COHA; 1822; Magazine)

(2)        The police claim to know where he is, but they will not tell. (COHA; 1894; Newspaper)

(3)        “Here comes the Police! here they come!” shouted the boys,… (COHA; 1859; Fiction)

This paper fills research gaps identified in previous studies. The first is the lack of diachronic research on agreement patterns. Up to now, only two large-scale studies with a diachronic focus exist (Liedtke 1910, Dekeyser 1975). They, however, were conducted before the era of systematically collected corpora. Secondly, conclusions drawn in several investigations relate the varying agreement within the different varieties of English to the lexical characteristics of the collective nouns themselves (e.g. Depraetere 2003: 124; Bock et al. 2006: 101; Levin 2006: 339). This motivates further research with a focus on intra-linguistic factors (e.g. a semantic perspective). Furthermore, there is a need for further research on extra-linguistic factors that could have influenced agreement with collective nouns. In this study, such an approach is realised by an interdisciplinary socio-historical investigation of collective nouns and the concepts they represent combined with a study on the effects of 19th-century normative grammars.

This paper investigates the agreement patterns and concepts of several collective nouns from four semantic domains, which are 1) PUBLIC ORDER (e.g. police, watch), 2) MILITARY (e.g. cavalry, army), 3) FAMILY (e.g. family, couple) and 4) EMPLOYEES (e.g. staff, crew), by combining historical corpus linguistics, sociolinguistics and socio-historical perspectives. The vast majority of the investigated material is taken from the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA). In order to obtain a reasonable sized amount of material that allows quantitative and qualitative analyses, the investigated time frame of this study was limited to the first 100 years available in COHA, i.e. from 1810 to 1910.

Preliminary results indicate that the variability of some collective nouns can indeed be explained by lexical, socio-linguistic and socio-historical factors. The results show that the agreement pattern of police changed from being variable towards a preference of plural agreement, due to changes made in the organisation of the police patrols prior to the 1870s, which resulted in a shift from singularity towards plurality with regards to the public perception of ‘the patrolling police officer’. Contrarily, the agreement pattern of family suggests highly variable agreement in the early 1800s but that the proportion of plural verbs decreases significantly in the latter decades of the 19th century. Finally, results indicate that even language-internal constraints advocated by 19th-century prescriptivism affected agreement patterns of collective nouns – a finding that highlights the importance of the role normative grammars play in language change processes of the time.

References

Bock, K., Butterfield, S., Cutler, A., Cutting, J. C., Eberhard, K. M., & Humphreys, K. R. (2006). Number agreement in British and American English: Disagreeing to agree collectively. Language, 82(1), 64-113.

Dekeyser, X.  (1975). Number and Case Relations in 19th-Century British English. A Comparative Study of Grammar and Usage. Antwerpen/Amsterdam: De Nederlandsche Boekhandel.

Depraetere, I. (2003). On verbal concord with collective nouns in British English. English Language and Linguistics, 7(1), 85-127.

Fernández-Pena, Y. (2014). Verbal agreement with collectives taking of-dependents: A corpus-based analysis. Paper presented at ISLE3, University of Zürich, August 2014.

Hundt, M. (2006). The committee has/have decided …On concord  patterns with collective nouns in inner and outer circle varieties of English. Journal of English Linguistics, 34(3), 206-232.

Hundt, M. (2009). Concord with collective nouns in Australian and New Zealand English. In P. Peters, P. Collins & A. Smith (Eds.), Comparative Studies in Australian and New Zealand English: Grammar and beyond (207-224). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Levin, M. (2001). Agreement with collective nouns in English. Lund: Lund University Press.

Levin, M. (2006). Collective nouns and language change. English Language and Linguistics, 10(2), 321–343.

Liedtke, E. (1910). Die numerale Auffassung der Kollektiva im Laufe der englischen Sprachgeschichte. Königsberg: Karg & Manneck.

National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Humanities, English; Humanities, Linguistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-49998 (URN)
Conference
ICAME 36: Words, words, words – corpora and lexis. Trier, 27-31 May 2015
Available from: 2016-03-01 Created: 2016-03-01 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Laitinen, M., Levin, M. & Lakaw, A. (2014). Ongoing grammatical change and the new Englishes: Towards a set of corpora of English uses in the expanding circle. In: : . Paper presented at ICAME 35 - Corpus Linguistics, Context and Culture, Nottingham, 30 April - 4 May 2014.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ongoing grammatical change and the new Englishes: Towards a set of corpora of English uses in the expanding circle
2014 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Keywords
corpus, ELF, lingua franca
National Category
Humanities and the Arts General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Humanities, English
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-35047 (URN)
Conference
ICAME 35 - Corpus Linguistics, Context and Culture, Nottingham, 30 April - 4 May 2014
Available from: 2014-06-12 Created: 2014-06-12 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5985-6183

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