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Säll, Harald
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Hu, M., Briggert, A., Olsson, A., Johansson, M., Oscarsson, J. & Säll, H. (2018). Growth layer and fibre orientation around knots in Norway spruce: a laboratory investigation. Wood Science and Technology, 52(1), 7-27
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Growth layer and fibre orientation around knots in Norway spruce: a laboratory investigation
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2018 (English)In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 7-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The strength of structural timber largely depends on the occurrence of knots and on the local material directions in the surroundings of such knots. There is, however, a lack of methods for establishing a full dataset of the local material directions. The present research aims at the development and application of a laboratory method to assess the geometry of growth layers and the orientation of fibres in a high-resolution 3D grid within wood specimens containing knots. The laboratory method was based on optical flatbed scanning and laser scanning, the former resulting in surface images and the latter, utilizing the tracheid effect, resulting in in-plane fibre angles determined in high-resolution grids on scanned surfaces. A rectangular solid wood specimen containing a single knot was cut from a tree in such a way that it could be assumed that a plane of symmetry existed in the specimen. By splitting the specimen through this plane through the centre line of the knot, two new specimens with assumed identical but mirrored properties were achieved. On one of the new specimens, the longitudinal-radial plane was subsequently scanned, and the longitudinal–tangential plane was scanned on the other. Then, by repeatedly planing off material on both specimens followed by scanning of the new surfaces that gradually appeared, 3D coordinate positions along different growth layers and 3D orientation of fibres in a 3D grid were obtained. Comparisons between detected fibre orientation and growth layer geometry were used for the assessment of the accuracy obtained regarding 3D fibre orientation. It was shown that the suggested method is well suited to capture growth layer surfaces and that it provides reliable information on 3D fibre orientation close to knots. Such knowledge is of great importance for understanding the properties of timber including knots. The quantitative data obtained are also useful for calibration of model parameters of general models on fibre orientation close to knots.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-69631 (URN)10.1007/s00226-017-0952-3 (DOI)000419587400001 ()2-s2.0-85028777374 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-01-09 Created: 2018-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Hallingbäck, H. R., Högberg, K.-A., Säll, H., Lindeberg, J., Johansson, M. & Jansson, G. (2018). Optimal timing of early genetic selection for sawn timber traits in Picea abies. European Journal of Forest Research, 137(4), 553-564
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal timing of early genetic selection for sawn timber traits in Picea abies
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2018 (English)In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 137, no 4, p. 553-564Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In breeding Norway spruce, selection for improved growth and survival is performed at age 10-15 years in order to optimize genetic gain per year. We investigated whether a selection based on wood traits such as density and grain angle, measured under bark in the field at the same age would be informative enough with respect to structural quality traits of sawn boards. To achieve this objective, a sawing study was conducted on the butt logs of 401 trees from a 34-year-old Norway spruce progeny trial situated in southern Sweden. Stem discs were excised from the top of the logs and radial profile data of grain angle, and wood density was recorded for specific annual rings. The sawn and dried boards were assessed for structural traits such as twist, board density, bending stiffness (static modulus of elasticity, sMoE) and bending strength (modulus of rupture, MoR). Additive genetic correlations (r (a)) between single annual ring density measurements and board density, sMoE and MoR were consistently strong (r (a)> 0.7) for annual rings 5-13. Genetic correlations of similar magnitude between grain angle and board twist were estimated for all investigated annual rings (from 2 to around 26 under bark). Consequently, it was found that indirect selection for wood density and grain angle at the tree age 10-16 years would result in more genetic gain per year than selection at later ages. This makes it feasible to perform simultaneous selection of progeny in the field for both growth and wood traits at similar ages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
Keywords
Early selection, Grain angle, Wood density, Sawmill study, Structural quality traits, Quantitative genetics
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-77386 (URN)10.1007/s10342-018-1123-2 (DOI)000439337000012 ()2-s2.0-85048553040 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Malmqvist, C., Wallin, E., Lindström, A. & Säll, H. (2017). Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir. Trees, 31(6), 1987-1998
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Differences in bud burst timing and bud freezing tolerance among interior and coastal seed sources of Douglas fir
2017 (English)In: Trees, ISSN 0931-1890, E-ISSN 1432-2285, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1987-1998Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The need for species that will grow well through ongoing climate change has increased the interest in Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] in Sweden. One of the most common problems seen in plantations of Douglas fir seedlings is damage caused by late spring frost, known to be highly correlated with the timing of bud burst. The objective of this study was to investigate spring-related bud development under Nordic conditions of seven Douglas fir provenances and to compare data with a local provenance of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst). Results from a field trial and a greenhouse-based study were compared. The interior Douglas fir provenances exhibited an earlier bud burst than coastal provenances, both in the greenhouse and in the field trial. When comparing differences within the groups of interior and coastal Douglas fir provenances, no differences could be found. The local Norway spruce, only grown in the greenhouse, showed an intermediate bud development profile similar to the interior Douglas fir provenance Three Valley. We therefore suggest that Three Valley could be planted at the same locations as the investigated local provenance of Norway spruce in mid-Sweden. To avoid spring frost damage the Douglas fir seedlings need to be frozen stored and planted late in spring. Planting under shelterwood can also help protect the seedlings from spring frost damages. As similar results for bud development patterns of Douglas fir and Norway spruce provenances were obtained from the greenhouse and field trials, greenhouse tests could facilitate selection of provenances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
Keywords
Temperature sum, Greenhouse, Field study, Norway spruce, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Picea abies, Sweden
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-67929 (URN)10.1007/s00468-017-1603-x (DOI)000414503900019 ()2-s2.0-85028295943 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-09-13 Created: 2017-09-13 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Adamopoulos, S., Säll, H. & Sjöberg, S. (2016). Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and spiral grain in standing hybrid aspen trees. In: Proceedings of the Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Focus on Hardwoods, 8-9 September, 2016, Sopron: . Paper presented at The Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Fcocus on Hardwood, 8-9 September, 2016, (pp. 22-23). Sopron: University of West Hungary Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relationship between ultrasonic velocity and spiral grain in standing hybrid aspen trees
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Focus on Hardwoods, 8-9 September, 2016, Sopron, Sopron: University of West Hungary Press , 2016, p. 22-23Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sopron: University of West Hungary Press, 2016
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-56450 (URN)978-963-334-291-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The Hardwood Conference, Eco-efficient Resource Wood with Special Fcocus on Hardwood, 8-9 September, 2016,
Note

Ej belagd 170314

Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Hu, M., Briggert, A., Olsson, A., Johansson, M., Oscarsson, J. & Säll, H. (2016). Three dimensional growth layer geometry and fibre orientation around knots: a laboratory investigation. In: Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll (Ed.), Proceedings of WCTE 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering: . Paper presented at World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016), August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria. Vienna: Vienna University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three dimensional growth layer geometry and fibre orientation around knots: a laboratory investigation
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2016 (English)In: Proceedings of WCTE 2016 World Conference on Timber Engineering / [ed] Eberhardsteiner, W. Winter, A. Fadai, M. Pöll, Vienna: Vienna University of Technology , 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Vienna: Vienna University of Technology, 2016
National Category
Building Technologies Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74977 (URN)2-s2.0-85010934380 (Scopus ID)
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016), August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria
Available from: 2018-06-04 Created: 2018-06-04 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Wessels, C., Crafford, P., DuToit, B., Grahn, T., Johansson, M., Lundqvist, S.-O., . . . Seifert, T. (2016). Variation in physical and mechanical properties from three drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on the dry west coast of Southern Africa. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 74(4), 563-575
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in physical and mechanical properties from three drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on the dry west coast of Southern Africa
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2016 (English)In: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 563-575Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Southern Africa, and specifically its western parts is dominated by low rainfall areas, and it is expected that the rainfall in most of these parts will in future decrease further due to climate change. Woodlots of fast-growing, non-invasive tree species can provide the opportunity to produce wood and release the pressure on natural woodlands, while creating much needed income to inhabitants. Over the last two decades several trials of Eucalyptus species that could potentially withstand arid conditions were established on the South African west coast. The three most promising genotypes according to their volume growth were selected among 46 pure and hybrid species from two 20-year-old trials for further evaluation. These included 10 Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis hybrid trees, 9 Eucalyptus gomphocephala trees, and 9Eucalyptus cladocalyx trees for a total of 28 trees. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the within-tree and between species variability of selected physical and processing properties determining the suitability of these three species for lumber production. The density, microfibril angle, spiral grain angle, MOE, MOR, radial and tangential shrinkage, twist, bow, splitting, and collapse were measured in a radial and longitudinal gradient. Valuable insights were gained which could provide decision support for planting, processing and further research on these species when grown in arid conditions. The E. grandis × camaldulensis hybrid was inferior in terms of most relevant properties to the other two species evaluated. The main shortcoming of both E. gomphocephala and E. cladocalyx was the high levels of twist in lumber.

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-50648 (URN)10.1007/s00107-016-1016-3 (DOI)000377363500008 ()2-s2.0-84958742917 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, AKT-2010-023
Available from: 2016-03-12 Created: 2016-03-12 Last updated: 2017-04-19Bibliographically approved
Phiri, D., Ackerman, P., Wessels, B., du Toit, B., Johansson, M., Säll, H., . . . Seifert, T. (2015). Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South Africa. Southern Forests, a journal of forest science, 77(4), 255-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass equations for selected drought-tolerant eucalypts in South Africa
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2015 (English)In: Southern Forests, a journal of forest science, ISSN 2070-2620, E-ISSN 2070-2639, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 255-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the water-scarce environment of South Africa, drought-tolerant eucalypt species have the potential to contribute to the timber and biomass resource. Biomass functions are a necessary prerequisite to predict yield and carbon sequestration. In this study preliminary biomass models for Eucalyptus cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. grandis x E. camaldulensis from the dry West Coast of South Africa were developed. The study was based on 33 trees, which were destructively sampled for biomass components (branchwood, stems, bark and foliage). Simultaneous regression equations based on seemingly unrelated regression were fitted to estimate biomass while ensuring additivity. Models were of the classical allometric form, ln(Y) = a+x(1)ln(dbh)+x(2)ln(h), of which the best models explained between 70% and 98% of the variation of the predicted biomass quantities. A general model for the pooled data of all species showed a good fit as well as robust model behaviour. The average biomass proportions of the stemwood, bark, branches and foliage were 60%, 6%, 29% and 5%, respectively.

Keywords
additivity, allometry, biomass, Eucalyptus, modelling, seemingly unrelated regression
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-48820 (URN)10.2989/20702620.2015.1055542 (DOI)000366509700003 ()2-s2.0-84951570105 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-15 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Wessels, C., Crafford, P., du Toit, B., Grahn, T., Johansson, M., Lundqvist, S.-O., . . . Seifert, T. (2015). Lumber properties of three drought tolerant eucalyptus species grown in arid regions of south africa. In: IUFRO Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests,: . Paper presented at IUFRO Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lumber properties of three drought tolerant eucalyptus species grown in arid regions of south africa
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2015 (English)In: IUFRO Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests,, 2015Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Keywords
Eucalypt, wood quality, wood properties
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-43790 (URN)
Conference
IUFRO Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, AKT-2010-023
Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved
Säll, H. (2015). Spiral grain in trees from drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on dry land on the west coast of South Africa. In: Collection of Extended abstractsfor the International Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests, Stellenbosch, South Africa,16-19 March 2015: . Paper presented at The International Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 16-19 March 2015 (pp. 87-89). Stellenbosch University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spiral grain in trees from drought tolerant Eucalyptus species grown on dry land on the west coast of South Africa
2015 (English)In: Collection of Extended abstractsfor the International Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests, Stellenbosch, South Africa,16-19 March 2015, Stellenbosch University , 2015, p. 87-89Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this project titled “Evaluation of drought resistant tree species to alleviate poverty in arid regions of South Africa” trees from a 20-year old field trial from two sites on the dry west coast area of South Africa were recently evaluated for growth characteristics. The three most promising Eucalyptus species, namely E. gomphocephala, E. cladocalyx and E. grandis × camaldulensis hybrid, for growth characteristics were selected for further evaluation. The objective of the study reported was to investigate between species variability of selected physical and processing properties determining the suitability of these three species for lumber production. It will also be useful for informing tree breeders and silviculturists to identify which properties need improvement through breeding selection or forest management strategies. And in the future results can hopefully be used for selection of species for small farm plantations which may be processed and sold to generate income.

One of most common reasons for a customer to avoid using wood is the lack of shape stability. There is a clear connection between spiral growth and how twisted the sawn timber will be when it is dried. Depending on the log diameter a grain angle over 3 to 5 degrees will produce sawn wood that will be pronounced to twist. In older softwood trees, the cracks lean mostly to the right. This means that the grain angle is right handed, and the visible cracks create a spiral in an anti-clockwise direction, looking from the base to the top of the tree (Figure 1). In spruce trees, however, the grain angle close to the pith is left-handed, which means that the fibres follow a clockwise spiral up the trunk (Harris 1989).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stellenbosch University, 2015
Keywords
Spiral grain angle, drying deformation, warp, wood quality, Eucalyptus species
National Category
Agricultural Sciences Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-42398 (URN)
Conference
The International Symposium: Silviculture and Management of Dryland Forests, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 16-19 March 2015
Projects
Evaluation of drought resistant tree species to alleviate poverty in arid regions ofSouth Africa. Sida Project: Marie Johansson et al.
Note

Founder: SIDA

Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2015-09-17Bibliographically approved
Högberg, K.-A., Hallingbäck, H., Säll, H., Johansson, M. & Jansson, G. (2014). The potential for the genetic improvement of sawn timber traits in Picea abies. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 44(4), 273-280
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The potential for the genetic improvement of sawn timber traits in Picea abies
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2014 (English)In: Canadian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0045-5067, E-ISSN 1208-6037, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 273-280Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study evaluated the potential for the selective genetic improvement of the structural quality traits important in sawn Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) timber based on early and nondestructively assessed field traits. From a 34-year-old Norway spruce trial situated in southern Sweden, 401 butt logs were sampled and sawn to produce two 50 × 100 mm boards that were dried to an 18% moisture content. Structural quality traits were assessed, and genetic parameters were estimated, including additive genetic variance, heritability, and their genetic correlations with field traits. Board twisting, density, and modulus of elasticity (MOE, stiffness) were found to have appreciable heritabilities (0.23–0.44). Board twist was found to have a strong genetic correlation with grain angle measured under bark in the field (0.93), and both board MOE and density exhibited strong genetic correlations with field-assessed pilodyn penetration (–0.75 and –0.91, respectively). Although these observations were made on a thinning material comprising mainly juvenile wood, they nonetheless suggest grain angle and pilodyn penetration to be promising candidates as selection criteria for Norway spruce breeding. Heritabilities of other sawn timber traits were lower and the genetic correlations between these traits and field traits were also lower, variable, and had large estimation errors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NRC Research Press, 2014
Keywords
correlated response, field measurements, Norway spruce, sawmill study, structural quality traits, quantitative genetics
National Category
Forest Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-32419 (URN)10.1139/cjfr-2013-0382 (DOI)000333453100001 ()2-s2.0-84897836787 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-02-20 Created: 2014-02-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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