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Kåhre, Peter
Publications (7 of 7) Show all publications
Kåhre, P. (2015). Bibliotekariernas roll i skolan. Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, 1(1), 48-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bibliotekariernas roll i skolan
2015 (Swedish)In: Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, ISSN 1890-5900, E-ISSN 1890-5900, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study is to critically discuss the role of librarians and libraries in educational processes. The study is done as a theoretical discussion that is built up from two different angles. And none of them have earlier been discussed in connection with the concept of information literacy. 

The first is about how the library as a tool has been functioning. This angle is worked out by using semiotic theories, sociological theories and learning theories. It is proposed that cultural and social processes involved in creating meaning and mediated by libraries, are dependent on structural qualities built up by the bibliographic system. Learning processes are dependent on situations and this means that library users have easier to get to the knowledge they need if they are able to use these structural capacities in libraries on their own. 

The second angle comes from a cognitive science discussion about how modern computer technology extends the human minds capacity to learn. It is pointed out that this technology means that it gets even easier to use the information searching tools. It is also pointed out that the critical stance towards this Extended Mind theory is about to what extend cognitive processes need to be done in the human mind. If these processes need to be done in the mind, it is also an argument that can be directed against intermediation activities from librarians. If this it is not true and the thesis main claim is true, this means that these computer tools functions better than help from mediators because they can at least be used without the need of interfering with another person. The knowledge seeker then does not need to translate their information question to another person. When possibilities to observe knowledge is mediated through situations this also means that trial and error are better pedagogical methods than instructions. 

The conclusion is that the most important strategy is to develop a good library structure and effective library tools as part of an electronic library. Librarians are needed to build and develop these libraries but it is the library and the tools in themselves that are of importance in the mediating process. These electronic libraries can be managed on a centralized level, which means small educational units can do without hiring librarians as personal mediators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Bergen Library, 2015
Keywords
Librarian's role, library, education, School libraries, Information literary, Semiotics, Information technology, Situated learning, Systems theory, Extended cognition
National Category
Information Studies
Research subject
Humanities, Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-48568 (URN)10.15845/noril.v7i1.226 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-12-30 Created: 2015-12-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (2013). Library and information science's ontological position in the networked society: using new technology to get back to an old practice. Paper presented at Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-22 August, 2013. Information research, 18(3), paper C13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Library and information science's ontological position in the networked society: using new technology to get back to an old practice
2013 (English)In: Information research, ISSN 1368-1613, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 18, no 3, p. paper C13-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction. This paper concerns the ontological position of library and informations science in the networked society. The aim of the study is to understand library use and library functions in the age of Internet and artificial intelligent programmed search engines.Theoretical approach. The approach discusses so called sociocognitive tools in knowledge sharing and creation by the way social processes are described in Luhmann's systems theory. The capacity in these tools is mainly discussed by using the extended mind theory from cognitive science and theories of distributed and situated learning, which show how tools extend human capacity. The importance of tools as part of human development is also discussed by using theories of cultural evolution.Discussion and conclusions. Artificial intelligence tools in a distributed design have a capacity to independently be a part in social knowledge processes, because these programs are good at finding patterns. In this way they extend the human mind to such an extent that library and information science needs to rework its positions on topics such as relevance and meaning seeking. Practical implications are that libraries need to go back to its roots in the way libraries worked in the era before the information explosion. It was a period when more emphasis was on making the library itself capable to expose a lot of possibilities in the literature through knowledge organisation, and not so much on the librarian as a guide to information searching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sheffield, England: , 2013
Keywords
Knowledge organization, information architecture, Artificial intelligence, Extended Mind theory, Luhmann´s systems theory
National Category
Information Studies
Research subject
Humanities, Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-28971 (URN)000329310400022 ()
Conference
Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-22 August, 2013
Available from: 2013-09-19 Created: 2013-09-19 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (2011). Distributed artificial intelligence, diversity and information literacy. Paper presented at Creating Knowledge VI conference, Bergen, Norway, September 8-10, 2010. Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, 3(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distributed artificial intelligence, diversity and information literacy
2011 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Information Literacy in Higher Education, ISSN 1890-5900, E-ISSN 1890-5900, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

My proposal is based on my doctoral dissertation On the Shoulders of AI-technology : Sociology of Knowledge and Strong Artificial Intelligence which I succesfully defended on May 29th 2009. E-published http://www.lu.se/o.o.i.s?id=12588&postid=1389611

The dissertation is concerned with Sociology’s stance in the debate on Strong Artificial Intelligence,.i.e. AI-systems that is able to shape knowledge on their own. There is a need for sociologists to realize the difference between two approaches to constructing AI systems: Symbolic AI (or Classic AI) and Connectionistic AI in a distributed model – DAI. Sociological literature shows a largely critical attitude towards Symbolic AI, an attitude that is justified. The main theme of the dissertation is that DAI is not only compatible with Sociology’s approach to what is social, but also constitutes an apt model of how a social system functions. This is consolidated with help from german sociologist Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory.

A lot of sociologists criticize AI because they think that diversity is important and can only be comprehended in informal circumstances that only humans interacting together can handle. They mean that social intelligence is needed to make something out of diversity and informalism. Luhmann´s systems theory gives the opposite perspective. It tells us that it is social systems that communicate and produce new knowledge structures out of contincency. Psychological systems, i.e. humans, can only think within the circumstances the social system offer. In that way human thoughts are bound by formalism. Diversity is constructed when the social systems interact with complexity in their environments. They reduce the complexity and try to present it as meaningful diversity.

Today when most of academic literature is electronically stored and is accessible through the Internet from al over the world, DAI can help social systems to observe and reduce complexity in this global dimension. It is pointed out that human consciousness is limited in handling this global dimension. Therefore is it reasonable to argue that DAI in at least this dimension has a stronger intelligence than humans have.

I will argue that Luhmann´s social theory and DAI give a god model to analyze the conditions for diversity in the Internet society. Further, the discussion about strong AI gives a lot of opportunities to discuss what sort of information literacy is needed and it also gives some perspective to discuss the concept of IL I have observed that the concept has evolved from something that coined some formal capacities, to something that has to do with a capacity to observe informal relations. That discussion can easily be compared to a parallel discussion within the debate about strong AI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bergen: University of Bergen Library, 2011
National Category
Information Studies
Research subject
Humanities, Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-41703 (URN)
Conference
Creating Knowledge VI conference, Bergen, Norway, September 8-10, 2010
Available from: 2015-04-04 Created: 2015-04-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (2010). Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet  som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system (Open Access). MedieKultur : Journal of media and communication research, 26(49), 81-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Luhmanns massmedieteori och Internet  som ett artificiellt intelligent semiotiskt system (Open Access)
2010 (Swedish)In: MedieKultur : Journal of media and communication research, ISSN 1901-9726, Vol. 26, no 49, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Artikeln diskuterar hur en modern form av AI-programmering, som kallas Konnektionism i en design som kallas Distribuerad AI (DAI), påverkar den uppfattning Luhmann har om massmediernas roll för den andra ordningens observationer. 

DAI använder noder för att skapa aktivitet i systemen och inte de koder som styr processerna i den klassiska eller symboliska formen av AI. Luhmanns teori kan utvecklas genom att ersätta systemens koder med noder som förändras beroende på i vilken relation de står till andra noder. På så sätt kan kommunikationsbegreppet utvecklas så att det också omfattar systemens interaktioner med omvärlden. Det skapar en bättre förutsättning för att observationsmöjligheter direkt uppstår genom systemens relationer till omvärlden. Internet och AI-programmerade söksystem och robotar kan då fungera som ett artificiellt semiotiskt system som skapar möjligheter att göra observationer. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Århus: Society of Media researchers In Denmark, 2010
Keywords
konnektionism, Niklas Luhmann, C.S. Peirce, distribuerad artificiell intelligens, sociologisk systemteori, semiotik
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology; Computer and Information Sciences Computer Science; Social Sciences, Practical Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17588 (URN)
Note

The online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk

Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-03-30Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (2009). På AI-teknikens axlar [Elektronisk resurs]: om kunskapssociologin och stark artificiell intelligens. (Doctoral dissertation). Lund: Department of Sociology at Lund University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>På AI-teknikens axlar [Elektronisk resurs]: om kunskapssociologin och stark artificiell intelligens
2009 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
On the Shoulders of AI-technology : Sociology of Knowledge and Strong Artificial Intelligence
Abstract [en]

This dissertation is concerned with Sociology’s stance in the debate on Strong Artificial Intelligence, i.e. such AI that is able to shape new knowledge without human interference. There is a need for sociologists to realize the difference between two approaches to constructing AI systems: Symbolic AI (or Classic AI) and Distributed AI – DAI.Sociological literature shows a largely critical attitude towards Symbolic AI, an attitude that is justified. The main theme of this dissertation is that DAI is not only compatible with Sociology’s approach to what is social, but also constitutes an apt model of how a social system functions. This is consolidated with help from Niklas Luhmann’s social systems theory and from Vygotsky-oriented education scientists who claim that processes leading to new knowledge are about expansion and not about problem solving. Problem solving only leads to elaborating existing knowledge. It is shown that human being has always used several types of artefacts and tools to produce culture and knowledge. This shows that humans are dependent on their environment and that knowledge is not only something that has to do with their brain, but also the rest of their bodies and their environments.Further, Strong AI is not about robots thinking in the same way as humans, but about holistic social processes where the actor does not need to have a complex functionality. This provides a good opportunity to explain what sociologists call emergency, i.e. how social processes shape new knowledge independent of human actors.The possibility of AI has to be evaluated in terms of human beings’ capacities to cope with reflexive processes. Luhmann teaches us that we have to see the difference between three different forms of reflexivity: self-reference, reflexivity and reflection. We contend that, in order to be able to shape new knowledge in expanding processes, there must be circumstances that allow reflection. Luhmann writes that knowledge-producing processes are dependent on capacities for reflection between the social systems and their environments. Strong AI has more capacity to handle these processes than humans have, while the strongest argument for strong DAI is that it can reach a far wider area than human beings’ brains can. This capacity for reflection is a better way of judging the capacity of strong AI, than questions about causal capacity and capacity for action.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Department of Sociology at Lund University, 2009. p. 225
Series
Lund Dissertations in Sociology, ISSN 1403-6061 ; 87
Keywords
Gregory Bateson, James Wertsch., Yrjö Engeström, Katherine N. Hayles, Lucy Suchman, Hubert Dreyfus, John Searle, David Bloor, Lev Vygotsky, Niklas Luhmann, Chinese room, Turing test, socionics, darwinism, emergence, relativism, posthumanism, environmentalism, situationism, social communication, second order cybernetics, systems theory, sociology of knowledge, connectionism, Strong artificial intelligence, distributed artificial intelligence
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Social Sciences, Sociology; Humanities, Library and Information Science; Social Sciences, Practical Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17548 (URN)91-7267-289-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-05-29, Kulturen, Lund, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-02-16Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (1990). Bibliotek som arena för kommunikativ handling: en undersökning av rationaliteten i bibliotekens modernistiska verklighet. Svensk biblioteksforskning (1), 26-34
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bibliotek som arena för kommunikativ handling: en undersökning av rationaliteten i bibliotekens modernistiska verklighet
1990 (Swedish)In: Svensk biblioteksforskning, ISSN 0284-4354, E-ISSN 1653-5235, no 1, p. 26-34Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Borås: Institutionen Biblioteks- och informationsvetenskap/Bibliotekshögskolan, Högskolan i Borås, 1990
Keywords
Kommunikativ handling, Jürgen Habermas, Bibliotek som socialt rum
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Humanities, Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17551 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Kåhre, P. (1989). Bibliotek som arena för kommunikativ handling: en undersökning av rationaliteten i bibliotekens modernistiska verklighet. Stockholm: Stockholms universitetsbibliotek
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bibliotek som arena för kommunikativ handling: en undersökning av rationaliteten i bibliotekens modernistiska verklighet
1989 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholms universitetsbibliotek, 1989. p. 50
Series
Rapport / Stockholms universitetsbibliotek, ISSN 0282-4035 ; 14
Keywords
kommunikativ handling, Jürgen Habermas, bibliotek som socialt rum
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Humanities, Library and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17555 (URN)9908907891 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-02-14 Created: 2012-02-14 Last updated: 2012-12-20Bibliographically approved
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