lnu.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Theagarayan, Baskar
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Baskaran, K., Olsson, R. & Theagarayan, B. (2016). Effect of accommodation on peripheral refraction in myopes and emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer.. In: : . Paper presented at AAO Annual Meeting 2016, Anaheim, California, USA. Optometry and Vision Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of accommodation on peripheral refraction in myopes and emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer.
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose To investigate the effect of accommodation on both central and peripheral refractive errors in myopes compared to emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer. Methods 15 myopic subjects (-1.50 D to -8.25 D) and 14 emmetropic subjects (+0.75 D to -0.25 D) participated in this study. The mean age of the myopic group was 24.3 ± 5.7 years and for the emmetropic group was 23.9 ± 5.7 years. Central and peripheral refraction were measured with a COAS-HD VR open field instrument at seven different eccentricities from 0° to ± 30° in 10° steps for three different accommodative demands 0.33 D, 2.50 D and 4.0 D during monocular viewing. The myopic subjects were corrected with soft contact lenses and the measurements were performed on the right eye for a 3 mm pupil diameter for both groups. Relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) was calculated for all three accommodative demands for both groups. Results Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference in RPRE across eccentricities or between accommodation demands in the myopes (pÂż0.05). The myopic group had minimal hyperopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean hyperopic shift was 0.37 D at 30° nasal retina for an accommodative demand of 4.0 D. On the other hand, the emmetropic group became relatively myopic at peripheral eccentricities, from 20° onwards for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean myopic shift was 1.01 D at 30° temporal retina for an accommodative demand of 2.50 D. Conclusion In the myopic group, we did not find any significant reduction in hyperopic shift in the periphery with accommodation. The emmetropic group showed myopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands with temporal retina being more myopic than nasal retina.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optometry and Vision Science, 2016
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-74466 (URN)
Conference
AAO Annual Meeting 2016, Anaheim, California, USA
Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Henrysson, I. & Theagarayan, B. (2015). Binocular Vision, Reading Ability and Associated Symptoms in School Children. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), MAY 03-07, 2015, Denver, CO. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56(7), 530
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Binocular Vision, Reading Ability and Associated Symptoms in School Children
2015 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 530-Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between binocular vision, reading ability and any associated symptoms in School Children.

Methods: The study was conducted in a School in western Sweden. A sample of 54 Children aged between 10 and 12 years were invited to participate in this study. A consent form and a letter with information was sent to their parents. Children with at least 20/25 and N6 visual acuity and good Stereopsis were included. After receiving consent forms, 27 Children participated in all the measurements. Amplitude of accommodation was measured using push-up method both monocularly and binocularly. Accommodative facility was measured using ± 2.00 D flippers at 40 cm both monocularly and binocularly. Near point of convergence was measured using a Royal Air Force (RAF) ruler and both break and recovery points were documented. All the Children performed a group of reading ability tests to detect whether they have any reading difficulties. A questionnaire called "The College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life (COVD-QOL)" was filled by their parents together with their Children. A score of 20 or more is considered as symptomatic.

Results: Mean amplitude of accommodation was OD 10.8 ± 4.0 D, OS 11.8 ± 4.1 D and OU 14.2 ± 3.7 D. Amplitude of accommodation was low in terms of Hofstetter's formula. Based on age, 59% of the Children were below expected value. The accommodative facility was lower than expected, with mean values of OD 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm, OS 5.5 ± 4.0 cpm and OU 5.0 ± 3.5 cpm. Mean near point of convergence was 6.0 ± 5.4 cm for break and 6.6 ± 5.9 cm for recovery. In the reading ability tests all the Children had normal values. Three Children received ≥ 20 points on the symptom questionnaire COVD-QOL, which is considered to be high. All of these three Children had values below normal limits for the amplitude of accommodation and/or the accommodative facility. Regression analysis showed no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and symptom score (r < 0.6; p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Amplitude of accommodation and accommodative facility was lower than expected values for their age. Near point of convergence values reached the expected normal level. There was no significant correlation between binocular vision tests, reading ability and associated symptoms in this sample of Swedish Children.

National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47235 (URN)000362882201288 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), MAY 03-07, 2015, Denver, CO
Available from: 2015-11-13 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Theagarayan, B. & Sörman, Y. (2015). Effect of Age on Amplitude of Accommodation in a Swedish Population. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), MAY 03-07, 2015, Denver, CO. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 56(7)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Age on Amplitude of Accommodation in a Swedish Population
2015 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, no 7Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-47385 (URN)000362891107081 ()
Conference
Annual Meeting of the Association-for-Research-in-Vision-and-Ophthalmology (ARVO), MAY 03-07, 2015, Denver, CO
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Price, H., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., Calver, R. I., . . . O'Leary, D. J. (2013). A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of a dual treatment on myopia progression: the Cambridge anti-myopia study. Ophthalmic & physiological optics, 33(3), 267-276
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomised clinical trial to assess the effect of a dual treatment on myopia progression: the Cambridge anti-myopia study
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics, ISSN 0275-5408, E-ISSN 1475-1313, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 267-276Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a dual treatment modality for myopia, by improving accommodative functions, on myopia progression.

METHODS: A double blind randomised control trial was conducted on 96 subjects. The treatment modality for the trial employed custom designed contact lenses which control spherical aberration in an attempt to optimise static accommodation responses during near-work, and a vision-training programme to improve accommodation dynamics. Myopia progression was assessed over a 2 year period using cycloplegic autorefraction and biometry.

RESULTS: The mean progression was found to be -0.33 Dioptres (D) over the 2 years of the study. There was no interaction between contact lens treatment and vision training treatment at 24 months (p = 0.72). There was no significant treatment effect of either Vision Training or Contact Lens Spherical Aberration control on myopia progression.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is unable to demonstrate that the progression of myopia can be reduced over a 2 year period by either of the two treatments aimed at improving accommodative function. Neither treatment group (contact lens or vision training) progressed at a slower rate over the 2 years of the study than did the appropriate control group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2013
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-44816 (URN)10.1111/opo.12035 (DOI)23662960 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-18 Created: 2015-06-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Radhakrishnan, H., Allen, P. M., Calver, R. I., Theagarayan, B., Price, H., Rae, S., . . . O'Leary, D. J. (2013). Peripheral refractive changes associated with myopia progression. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(2), 1573-1581
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peripheral refractive changes associated with myopia progression
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 1573-1581Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in peripheral refraction profiles associated with myopia progression and treatment modalities used in the Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study.

METHODS: one hundred and seventy-seven myopes in the age range of 14 to 22 years were enrolled in the study. The mean spherical equivalent refractive error was 3.12 1.87 diopters (D) and the refractive error of each participant was corrected with contact lenses. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, which included: altered spherical aberration and vision training, altered spherical aberration only, vision training only, and control. Peripheral refractive error was measured using an open field autorefractor in the central 60° of the retina in 10° steps. The refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction. Two-year refractive progression data and initial peripheral refraction measurements were available in 113 participants. Measurements of peripheral refraction and cycloplegic refraction were obtained at three visits over 2 years in 12-month intervals for 92 participants.

RESULTS: All subjects showed a relative peripheral hyperopia, especially in the nasal retina. A limited magnitude of myopia progression of -0.34 ± 0.36 D over 2 years was found in each of the four groups on average. There were no significant differences in the rate of progression between any of the treatment groups (P > 0.05). Initial peripheral J45 astigmatic refractive error at 20° and 30° in the nasal retina was weakly correlated with progression of myopia over 2 years (r = -0.27, P = 0.004 and r = -0.20, P = 0.040, respectively; n = 113). The change in spherical equivalent peripheral refractive error at 30° nasal retina over time was also significantly correlated with progression of myopia especially at 24 months (r = -0.24, P = 0.017, n = 92).

CONCLUSIONS: Relative peripheral hyperopia is associated with myopia. Myopia progression may be weakly linked to changes in the peripheral refraction profiles in the nasal retina. However, a causative link between peripheral refractive error and myopia progression could not be established.

National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-44817 (URN)10.1167/iovs.12-10278 (DOI)23385793 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-18 Created: 2015-06-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Price, H., Allen, P. M., Radhakrishnan, H., Calver, R., Rae, S., Theagarayan, B., . . . O'Leary, D. J. (2013). The Cambridge anti-myopia study: variables associated with myopia progression. Optometry and Vision Science, 90(11), 1274-1283
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Cambridge anti-myopia study: variables associated with myopia progression
Show others...
2013 (English)In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 90, no 11, p. 1274-1283Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To identify variables associated with myopia progression and to identify any interaction between accommodative function, myopia progression, age, and treatment effect in the Cambridge Anti-Myopia Study.

METHODS: Contact lenses were used to improve static accommodation by altering ocular spherical aberration, and vision training was performed to improve dynamic accommodation. One hundred forty-two subjects, aged 14-21 years, were recruited who had a minimum of -0.75D of myopia. Subjects were assigned to contact lens treatment only, vision training only, contact lens treatment and vision training, or control group. Spherical aberration, lag of accommodation, accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio, accommodative facility, ocular biometry, and refractive error were measured at regular intervals throughout the 2-year trial.

RESULTS: Ninety-five subjects completed the 24-month trial period. There was no significant difference in myopia progression between the four treatment groups at 24 months. Age, lag of accommodation, and AC/A ratio were significantly associated with myopia progression. There was a significant treatment effect at 12 months in the contact lens treatment group in younger subjects, based on a median split, aged under 16.9 years (p = 0.005). This treatment effect was not maintained over the second year of the trial. Younger subjects experienced a greater reduction in lag of accommodation with the treatment contact lens at 3 months (p = 0.03), compared to older contact lens treatment and control groups. There was no interaction between AC/A ratio and contact lens treatment effect.

CONCLUSIONS: Age, lag of accommodation, and AC/A ratio were significantly associated with myopia progression. Although there was no significant treatment effect at 24 months, an interaction between age and contact lens treatment suggests younger subjects may be more amenable, at least in the short term, to alteration of the visual system using optical treatments.

National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-44814 (URN)10.1097/OPX.0000000000000067 (DOI)24100478 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-18 Created: 2015-06-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Baskaran, K., Theagarayan, B., Carius, S. & Gustafsson, J. (2010). Influence of age on peripheral aberration. Paper presented at 5th EMVPO 2010, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of age on peripheral aberration
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to compare peripheral higher order aberrations in young

and old emmetropic eyes across the horizontal (±40°) and inferior (–20°) visual field.

Introduction

 

 

People with central visual field loss use eccentric fixation for various visual tasks.

Recently studies have shown that the correction of lower order aberrations (defocus &

astigmatism) can improve eccentric vision in subjects with central visual field loss

(CFL)[1]. The CFL subjects mostly correspond to older age groups who use eccentric

fixation angles up to 20°–30°. While there have been studies comparing the off-axis

lower order aberrations in normal young and old subjects[2], there is only one recent

study, which has compared off-axis higher order aberrations in normal young and old

emmetropic eyes up to 20° (horizontal and vertical) eccentricity[3]. In this study we

have measured off-axis aberrations in a group of 10 young (23 ± 3 years) and 10 old

(57 ± 4 years) emmetropes. The aberrations of the right eye were measured using

COAS-HD VR Hartmann-Shack aberrometer in steps 10° out to ± 40° horizontally and

–20° inferiorly in the visual field. Subjects rotated the eyes to view the fixation targets,

which were red light emitting diodes, placed at 3 meter from the eye. The aberrations

were quantified for a pupil area 5 mm in diameter.

Discussion

 

 

Mixed between-within subject’s analysis of variance of the horizontal coma C13

showed that there was a statistically significant difference between age groups

(p<0.05). The coma increased linearly in both groups from nasal to temporal visual

field. The rate of change was greater in the old (slope = –0.027 μm/deg) compared

to the young (slope = –0.012 μm/deg) emmetropes. In the inferior visual field,

vertical coma C-13 changed linearly in both groups with higher values in old (slope =

0.015 μm/deg) compared to young (slope = 0.006 μm/deg). The mean spherical

aberration was positive in older emmetropes (0.053 μm) compared to young

emmetropes (-0.030 μm). The HO RMS showed a quadratic increase in the

periphery for both age groups. The HO RMS was greater in older emmetropes but it

was not statistically significant (p>0.05) when compared to young emmetropes.

 

Conclusions

 

 

Our results show that there is an increase in coma, spherical aberration, and HO

RMS with age in the periphery.

Keywords
Peripheral aberrations, Age, COAS-HD VR
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-8670 (URN)
Conference
5th EMVPO 2010, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-27 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved
Theagarayan, B. (2010). MANIPULATION OF OCULAR ABERRATIONS IN MYOPES. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MANIPULATION OF OCULAR ABERRATIONS IN MYOPES
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Myopia is a major cause of vision loss throughout the world. High myopia is associated with severe eye diseases like maculopathy, retinal detachment and glaucoma. The prevalence of myopia is increasing, and varies by country and by ethnic group. In some Asian populations the prevalence is 70%-80%. 

This thesis includes five experiments. In experiment I we investigated the effects of added positive and negative spherical aberration on accommodative response accuracy. We found that the accommodative response can be altered by modulating the spherical aberration of the eye with soft contact lenses. There was an improvement in the accommodative response slopes and a decrease in the lag of accommodation with the negative spherical aberration lenses compared to positive spherical aberration lenses. 

In experiment II we investigated whether the negative spherical aberration in contact lenses could be tolerated visually in terms of wearability and comfort. We found that all the subjects were satisfied with the contact lens comfort, distance and near vision and the stability of the vision with the lenses. The accommodative response was stable through out the treatment period.

In experiment III we investigated the efficacy of a novel dual treatment for the improvement of accommodative accuracy and dynamics in myopes. The spherical aberration of the eye was effectively altered to negative in the treatment group as predicted. In the control group as expected there was no significant change in the spherical aberration of the eye with and without contact lenses. The treatment lenses decreased the lag of accommodation and increased the accommodative response slope at 3 months.

In the experiment IV we investigated the effect of the treatment lenses used in the previous experiment on high and low contrast visual acuities after a one year treatment period. The results showed a significant improvement in both high and low contrast visual acuities after the one year period in the treatment group compared to the control group, even though it was not clinically significant.

In experiment V we investigated the intrasession repeatability of peripheral aberrations using COAS-HD VR aberrometer and also reported the distribution of higher order aberrations in a group of young emmetropes. There was no significant difference in the variance of total higher-order RMS between on- and off-axis measurements. There was a significant change in the horizontal coma, spherical aberration and higher-order RMS with off-axis angle along the horizontal visual field. We demonstrated that fast, repeatable and valid peripheral aberration measurements can be obtained with this instrument.

This thesis contributes new results in this field of myopia, aberration and accommodation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2010. p. 66
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 24/2010
Keywords
Myopia, Spherical aberration, Accommodation, Contact lens, Visual acuity, Peripheral aberrations
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-8314 (URN)978-91-86491-37-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-10-13, N2007K, Smålandsgatan 26E, Kalmar, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-09-10 Created: 2010-09-09 Last updated: 2014-02-25Bibliographically approved
Baskaran, K., Theagarayan, B., Carius, S. & Gustafsson, J. (2010). Measurement of Off-axis Refraction with a Commercial Open Field Aberrometer. Paper presented at EAOO 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurement of Off-axis Refraction with a Commercial Open Field Aberrometer
2010 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose:

People with central visual field loss (CFL) use their remaining peripheral vision in order to see better when performing various visual related tasks. At large off-axis angles, the eccentric vision can be limited both by the low resolution capacity of the peripheral retina and by the optical aberrations caused due to oblique angles. Previous work has shown that eccentric correction of induced off-axis astigmatism can improve vision in a preferred retinal location (PRL) for people with CFL. However, the eccentric refraction is often difficult to determine with traditional refractive methods. This work therefore shows the use of a commercially available wavefront sensor to measure fast and reliable off-axis refraction. Data on off-axis refraction is also of interest in the field of myopia research.

Methods:

We used the new open-field high-definition complete ophthalmic analysis system, COAS HD -VR, to evaluate off-axis refraction. Using the special Vision Research tool in this system stimulus (fixation objects) can be presented in a large part of the visual field. The instrument can measure out to 40 degrees in the horizontal visual field and 20 degrees in the vertical visual field with a range from sphere +7 D to − 17 D. It measures astigmatism up to 10 D. This instrument also allows natural binocular viewing without obstacles. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 ± 4 years) were studied. Off-axis refraction and higher order (HO) aberrations were measured in steps of 10° out to ± 30° in the horizontal visual field

Results:

The first data on young emmetropic eyes with this new instrument showed promising results for low (LO) and higher order (HO) aberrations in the peripheral visual field. Of the LO aberrations, astigmatism increased significantly with the off–axis angle, from 0.25 D at 10° Nasal to 1.65 D at 30° Nasal. In the HO aberrations, coma (C13) showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05)

Conclusions:

The COAS HD-VR shows promising results and good usability for future research in evaluation of off-axis refraction. In future we believe the aberrometer can be used clinically to measure off-axis refractions in low vision patients.

Keywords
Off-axis refraction, COAS-HD VR Aberrometer, Peripheral aberrations
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-8669 (URN)
Conference
EAOO 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2010-09-27 Created: 2010-09-27 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved
Baskaran, K., Theagarayan, B., Carius, S. & Gustafsson, J. (2010). Ocular Aberrations in the Peripheral Visual Field With a Commercial Open-View Aberrometer. Paper presented at ARVO 2010 Annual Meeting. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51(5), Article ID 3951.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ocular Aberrations in the Peripheral Visual Field With a Commercial Open-View Aberrometer
2010 (English)In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, no 5, article id 3951Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PurposeThe interest in off-axis aberrations has increased with the discovery of a possible link between myopia development and peripheral optics. The most common technology to measure the off-axis aberrations is a Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer. This is the first study to report peripheral aberrations in a large sample of emmetropic population with a commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. MethodsThe commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer COAS-HD VR was used to measure the aberrations in the peripheral vision. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 {+/-} 4 years) were studied. Off-axis aberrations were measured in steps of 10{degrees} out to {+/-} 30{degrees} in the horizontal visual field. The subjects turned their eye to view the off-axis fixation target (light emitting diode placed at 3 meters) during the measurement. The resulting wavefront aberrations were parameterized with Zernike coefficients for a 5 mm diameter pupil. All analyzes are reported according to optical society of America (OSA) recommended standards. ResultsAberrations from the 2nd to 6th order and the total higher-order root-mean-square (HO RMS) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The defocus C02 was significantly myopic in the nasal visual field (+20{degrees}, +30{degrees}) whereas there was no significant difference in the temporal visual field. Astigmatism C22 increased quadratically from {+/-}10{degrees} in the periphery and coma C13 showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05). The spherical aberration C04 and the total HO RMS showed a significant change at {+/-}30o. ConclusionsOur results showed that in young emmetropes there was a significant increase of HO RMS at {+/-}30{degrees}, which is expected. Astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration vary systematically across the horizontal visual field in agreement with Seidel theory. The findings of our study with a large sample of emmetropic population agree with the previous studies done with laboratory built aberrometers.

Keywords
aberrations, visual fields
National Category
Ophthalmology
Research subject
Natural Science, Optometry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-6284 (URN)
Conference
ARVO 2010 Annual Meeting
Available from: 2010-06-17 Created: 2010-06-17 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications