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Svensson, Henric
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Svensson, H., Hansson, H. & Hogland, W. (2015). Combined Ozone and Biological Treatment of Oak Wood Leachate. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, 43(4), 598-604
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined Ozone and Biological Treatment of Oak Wood Leachate
2015 (English)In: CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, ISSN 1863-0650, E-ISSN 1863-0669, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 598-604Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, we investigated the possibility of treating oak wood leachate with a combined ozone and biological treatment. Wood leachate is characterized by high amounts of organic carbon and is reported as being toxic to aquatic organisms. Ozone was used as a pre-treatment before using aerobic degradation. The biological treatment was applied for seven days and evaluated using head-space respirometry. Target pollutant in this investigation was polyphenols in combination with more general parameters, such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and colour. A custom made bubble column reactor was used, 1.5 L of wood leachate was exposed to 0-4 g/L of ozone, corresponding to a specific ozone dose between 0.7-7 g/L O-3/g of initial COD. Oak wood leachate was found to be easily degraded by ozone, with >90% of polyphenols degraded. COD was degraded by 73%, TOC by 61% and colour by 97% by ozone. Furthermore, a positive correlation between biodegradation and ozone pre-treatment was found.

Keywords
Biodegradability, Organic carbon, Storm-water, Wastewater treatment
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46002 (URN)10.1002/clen.201400141 (DOI)000353384600018 ()2-s2.0-84928209617 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Hansson, H. & Hogland, W. (2015). Determination of Nutrient Deficiency in Stormwater from the Wood Industry for Biological Treatment. CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, 43(1), 38-43
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of Nutrient Deficiency in Stormwater from the Wood Industry for Biological Treatment
2015 (English)In: CLEAN - Soil, Air, Water, ISSN 1863-0650, E-ISSN 1863-0669, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The efficiency of biological treatment systems in degrading organic matter is affected by both the available nutrients and the efficiency of the microbial organisms that carry out the degradation. This study assesses whether a wetland treatment system treating stormwater from a wood industrial site faced nutrient deficiency or lacked efficient microbes, and whether addressing these possible problems could enhance the degradation of organic matter in the system. The stormwater was a mix of industrial stormwater, irrigation water and leachate from woodchip piles. The industry mainly processes pedunculate oak, which is known to create a leachate high in polyphenols. This water is currently treated in a pilot-scale wetland system and an aerated lagoon. To study whether the treatability could be enhanced by addition of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen, micronutrients), headspace respirometry was used. The effect of adding microbes from a paper mill activated sludge system was also evaluated. Our results showed that all nutrient additions had a positive effect on the treatability of the stormwater. In particular, the addition of nitrogen showed a 12% rise in chemical oxygen demand reduction over 336h. However, addition of paper mill activated sludge did not enhance the degradation of organic matter; instead, a toxic effect of the stormwater was shown.

Keywords
Constructed wetland treatment system, Oak, Respirometry, Wood leachate
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40907 (URN)10.1002/clen.201300621 (DOI)000348142700005 ()2-s2.0-84921440875 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-03-17 Created: 2015-03-17 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Ekstam, B., Marques, M. & Hogland, W. (2015). Removal of organic pollutants from oak leachate in pilot scale wetland systems: How efficient are aeration and vegetation treatments?. Water Research, 84, 120-126
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Removal of organic pollutants from oak leachate in pilot scale wetland systems: How efficient are aeration and vegetation treatments?
2015 (English)In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 84, p. 120-126Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the effects of aeration and/or vegetation in experimental constructed wetlands (CWs) as mesocosms on the removal of pollutants in oak wood leachate. Twelve outdoor wetland mesocosms, with randomized replicated treatment combinations of vegetation (Phragmites australis) and aeration was monitored during the second and third year after construction. The investigation included control tanks with no aeration and no vegetation. The parameters monitored were polyphenols (PPs), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and water colour. The reduction of COD after 28 days was approx. 50% and more than 50% of PPs, whereas only 40% of the water colour was removed. Aeration increased the effect of both COD and PP removal. The vegetation treatment had a small but significant effect on removal of COD. The vegetation + aeration treatment, as well as aeration alone, increased the removal efficiency of COD from 9.5 g m(-3) d(-1) in the control to 11 g m(-3) d(-1). The results suggest that CWs can be used to treat stormwater contaminated by oak wood leachate. Further, it is suggested that the main processes for removal of pollutants in the leachate occur in the open-water habitat and that the hydraulic retention time is more important for removal than aeration and vegetation related processes.

Keywords
Constructed wetland, Wood leachate, COD, Aeration
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-46889 (URN)10.1016/j.watres.2015.07.017 (DOI)000362147400014 ()26218465 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84937874543 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-26 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Marques, M., Svensson, B.-M., Mårtensson, L., Bhatnagar, A. & Hogland, W. (2015). Treatment of wood leachate with high polyphenols content by peat and carbon-containing fly ash filters. Desalination and Water Treatment, 53(8), 2041-2048
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of wood leachate with high polyphenols content by peat and carbon-containing fly ash filters
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 2041-2048Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, two combinations of filter materials in filter/columns were examined for removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and polyphenols (PP) found in storm water runoff from wood storage areas in a wooden floor industry. One filter/column was packed with peat mixed with carbon-containing fly ash, while another filter/column contained only peat (without ash). The mixture of peat and ash has shown faster and higher removal capacity for TOC and faster removal with the same final removal capacity for PP (in grams of pollutant per kg of sorbent) at the saturation point. The superiority observed for the peat and ash filter is presumably due to the unique characteristics of peat and ash, which enhanced the treatment efficiency when used together in a mixture. Based on the observed results, filters formed by peat and carbon-containing ashes proved to be a potentially low-cost option for the treatment of storm water generated at storage areas of wood materials such as logs, sawdust and wood chips.

National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-31031 (URN)10.1080/19443994.2013.860883 (DOI)000349000700003 ()2-s2.0-84922771627 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correction published in: Svensson, H, Marques, M, Svensson, BM, Mårtensson, L, Bhatnagar, A,Hogland,W. 2015. Treatment of wood leachate with high polyphenols content by peat and carbon-containing fly ash filters (vol 53, pg 2041, 2015). Desalination and Water Treatment 54(1):V

Available from: 2013-12-07 Created: 2013-12-07 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H. (2014). Characterization, toxicity and treatment of wood leachate generated outdoors by the wood-based industry. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization, toxicity and treatment of wood leachate generated outdoors by the wood-based industry
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Karakterisering av toxicitet och behandling av lakvatten från trä som genererats utomhus vid träbaserade industrier
Abstract [en]

Wood is a natural raw material, and would hardly be considered a risk to the environment. However, the handling of wood materials on an industrial scale has been shown to have a negative impact on water bodies that run-off from industrial sites that process wood-based materials. Most investigations related to water pollution from wood-based industries have focused on large industrial sites such as pulp and paper mills. The goal of the present thesisis to understand better such environmental problems and treatment solutions that occur at most wood handling sites. Where there are large outdoor storage areas for logs and sawdust that are exposed to rainfall or irrigation, such as the wooden-floor and bio-energy sectors. Leachate generated by the contact of water with wood in storage areas contains a large amount of organic matter that is potentially hazardous to water bodies that receive run-off from the site.

It has been found that different wood species yield different leachate compositions, with leachate from oak having the highest pollutants content, followed by leachate from pine. This investigation shows that oak has the potential to leach about 10 times the amount of polyphenols compared with other investigated species (i.e., pine, beech and maple). Furthermore, oak leachates have the lowest ratio of biological oxygen demand at 7 days tochemical oxygen demand (0.12), which suggests a potential problem with the biological degradation of this leachate. It has also been shown that leachate from wood are potentially toxic to aquatic organisms.

Treatability studies with the aim of reducing the environmental impact of wood leachate were conducted on a pilot scale as part of the scope of this thesis. The results showed, among other options, the possibility of using constructed wetlands to treat leachate. It was found that plants and aeration can affect the performance of a wetland. However, the most important factor is the time water spends in the wetland. Filter material that could be used to absorb leachate was also studied. A filter consisting of a mixture of peat and ash (from incinerated organic matter), was used to absorb a specific chemical group (polyphenols) in the leachate. It was also shown that polyphenols are vulnerable to ozone, representing a third viable treatment process.

Abstract [sv]

Trä är ett naturligt råmaterial som knappast anses vara en risk för miljön. Däremot har hanteringen av trämaterial i industriell skala visat sig ha negativ inverkan på vattendrag. De flesta utredningar avseende vattenföroreningar inom träbaserade industrier har fokuserat på stora industrier med stor vattenförbrukning så som massa- och pappersbruk. Lakvatten som alstras vid kontakten mellan vatten och trä innehåller höga halter av organiska ämnen som är potentiellt farliga för vattendrag. Målet med denna avhandling är att få kunskap om ovanstående miljöproblem och möjlig behandlingar av dessa. Förorenat lakvatten skapas av industrier, där stora mängder timmer och sågspån är placerade utomhus och utsätts för regn och bevattning, såsom inom trägolv och bioenergisektorn. Man har funnit att lakning från olika träslag ger olika sammansättningar på lakvattnet, där lakvatten från ek har den högsta halten av föroreningar följt av furu. Denna undersökning visar att ek har potential att laka ut tio gånger så mycket polyfenoler jämfört med andra undersökta arter (tall, bok och lönn). Dessutom har lakvatten från ek den lägsta andelen av biologisk syreförbrukning efter 7dagar per kemisk syreförbrukning (0,12), vilket tyder på ett potentiellt problem med den biologiska nedbrytningen av detta lakvatten. Man har även påvisat att lakvattnet från trä är potentiellt giftigt för akvatiska organismer.

Studier för att försöka minska miljöpåverkan av lakvatten från denna trädsort gjordes i pilotskala inom ramen för denna avhandling. Dessa studier visade bland annat på möjligheterna att använda sig av våtmarker som reningsmetod, där växter och luftning påverkar hur bra en våtmark fungerar. Men den viktigaste faktorn var den ökade uppehållstiden som vattnet får i våtmarken. Utöver studier av våtmarker har också ett filtermaterial studerats, filtret bestod av en blandning av torv och aska, som användes för att absorbera en specifik kemisk grupp i lakvattnet (polyfenoler). I en tredje typ av behandlingsprocess visade det sig också att polyfenoler effektivt kan brytas ned av ozon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2014. p. 37
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 172/2014
Keywords
Wood leachate, Log yard runoff, Stormwater, Toxicity, Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri, Constructed wetlands
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Forestry and Wood Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-62538 (URN)9789187427862 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Marques, M., Kaczala, F. & Hogland, W. (2014). Leaching patterns from wood of different tree species and environmental implications related to wood storage areas. Water and Environment Journal, 28(2), 277-284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching patterns from wood of different tree species and environmental implications related to wood storage areas
2014 (English)In: Water and Environment Journal, ISSN 1747-6585, E-ISSN 1747-6593, ISSN 1747-6593, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 277-284Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Batch tests were carried out with sawdust obtained from oak (Quercus robur), maple (Acer platanoides), pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and wood chips from oak and pine. Leaching of organic compounds expressed as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in mg/kg of dry mass took place during the first 24 h. The following additional variables were analysed: pH, conductivity, colour, phenols, tannins and lignin, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7). When leachates obtained with oak wood chips and pine wood chips were compared, no significant difference was observed. However, in batch tests with sawdust, DOC released by oak (90 000 mg/kg) was significantly higher (P =  0.0001) than DOC released by pine (30 000 mg/kg). The results suggest that particle size is not the only variable affecting the leaching of organic compounds from wood. Regarding BOD, colour [platinum-cobalt (Pt-Co)], phenols, tannins and lignin, the leaching patterns differed among species, and oak was the species with the highest released values.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30612 (URN)10.1111/wej.12034 (DOI)000335175700014 ()2-s2.0-84899620607 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Jani, Y., Hogland, W. & Marques, M. (2014). Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions. Water Science and Technology, 70(3), 502-509
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle size characterization of oak wood leachate: chemical oxygen demand and toxicity distribution within different fractions
2014 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 502-509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oak wood leachate obtained from two storage facilities (storage pound and ditch) in a wood-based industry, and leachate generated by a laboratory leaching test, were characterized in seven categories regarding particle size distribution (PSD) (raw leachate, <= 20 mu m, <= 10 mu m, <= 1.2 mu m, <= 13 nm, <= 5 nm and <= 2 nm). The PSD followed a normal distribution model with a correlation coefficient (r) varying from 82 to 88. Each fraction was analysed regarding chemical oxygen demand, polyphenols and acute toxicity in toxicity assays with Artemia salina, Vibrio fischeri and Lactuca sativa. Fractions with particles > 1.2 mu m were more toxic to A. salina and V. fisheri than fractions with particles <= 1.2 mu m. No toxic effect was observed for L. sativa. The results suggest that polyphenols are the main toxic compounds in oak wood leachate. A conspicuous difference was found between field and laboratory samples.

Keywords
oak, particle size distribution, toxicity, ultra filtration, wood leachate
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-37947 (URN)10.2166/wst.2014.252 (DOI)000342572700016 ()2-s2.0-84907301557 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-10-30 Created: 2014-10-30 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Svensson, B.-M., Hogland, W. & Marques, M. (2012). Acute Toxic Effects Caused by Leachate from Five Different Tree Species on Artemia Salina and Vibro Fischeri. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, 6(2), 214-220
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute Toxic Effects Caused by Leachate from Five Different Tree Species on Artemia Salina and Vibro Fischeri
2012 (English)In: Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, ISSN 1556-6560, E-ISSN 1556-6579, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 214-220Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract: In this study, leachates resulting from leaching tests carried out with sawdust from five tree species were investigated. The studied species were: Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), European larch (Larix decidua), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica). The analyses included chemical parameters such as pH, TOC and phenolic compounds (reported as total poly-phenols) and acute toxicity on two different organisms, the crustacean Artemia sauna and the bacteria Vibro fischeri (Microtox (R)). There are very high amounts of different phenolic compounds in the leachate, and large differences between tree species. The leachates produced by sawdust and bark of different tree species presented great variation regarding acute toxicity. V fischeri was more sensitive than A. sauna and leachates from pine sawdust and pine bark produced the highest toxicity response from V fischeri. This study indicates that bark is one component of the tree anatomy that needs to be handled as a potential hazardous material to the aquatic environment. The large variation in toxicity presented by different tree species need to be taken into account when assessing the impacts to surrounding watercourses and constructing wastewater treatment facilities for the wood-based industry such as irrigation water, stormwater runoff from storage areas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Scientific Publishers, 2012
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Science, Environmental technology; Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-30611 (URN)10.1166/jbmb.2012.1202 (DOI)000308255300012 ()2-s2.0-84865044928 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-11-20 Created: 2013-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H. (2012). Stormwater Runoff at a Wood Manufacturing Industry: Diversity in leaching pattern from different tree species. (Licentiate dissertation). Linnaeus University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stormwater Runoff at a Wood Manufacturing Industry: Diversity in leaching pattern from different tree species
2012 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linnaeus University, 2012
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17146 (URN)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2017-02-13Bibliographically approved
Svensson, H., Hogland, W. & Marques, M. (2011). Pilot scale wetland treatment of stormwater runoff from a log yard: preliminary results. In: 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil, 10-16 September 2011. Paper presented at 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil, 10-16 September 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pilot scale wetland treatment of stormwater runoff from a log yard: preliminary results
2011 (English)In: 12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil, 10-16 September 2011, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Environmental Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17145 (URN)
Conference
12nd International Conference on Urban Drainage, Porto Alegre/Brazil, 10-16 September 2011
Available from: 2012-01-30 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2016-11-17Bibliographically approved
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