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Karlsson, Stefan
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B., Reibstein, S. & Wondraczek, L. (2013). Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange. European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, 54(3), 100-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface ruby colouring of float glass by sodium-copper ion exchange
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 100-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, colouration of the tin side of commercial soda lime silicate float glass by copper ion exchange is described and characterised. Data on the resulting concentration vs. depth profiles, absorbance vs. depth profiles, UV-Vis spectra  and CIE-Lab colour coordinates are reported. Fundamental aspects of the process of colouration are described and discussed. Optimum saturation of colouration is achieved after ion exchange at 520 °C for 10 h, or at 500 °C for 20 h, respectively. The depth of the coloured layer increases with increasing treatment time. At the same time, a linear dependency is found between the value of a and b in the CIE-Lab colour space for variations of treatment time and temperature. The latter indicates broad tunability of colouration between different shades of ruby and varying colour saturation. It is shown that colour arises from a redox reaction between copper species and residual tin ions, and that the depth of the coloured layer is governed by the position of the tin hump. The critical concentration of tin and copper to achieve colour formation was found to be ~0.25 mol% and >1 mol%, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Glass Technology, 2013
Keywords
Float glass, copper ruby, ion exchange, staining, colouring
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18448 (URN)000321155700002 ()2-s2.0-84881145236 (Scopus ID)
Note

Manuscript included in the PhD-thesis.

Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B., Johansson, M. & Enquist, B. (2013). The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain and holed float glass containing a drilled hole. European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, 54(2), 66-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of single-side ion exchange on the flexural strength of plain and holed float glass containing a drilled hole
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 66-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of single-side ion exchange (using a KNO3:KCl mixture) on the ring-on-ring flexural strength of float glass has been studied. Two ion exchanged series, treated at 450 and 515°C, were investigated. The ion exchanged samples showed approximately 160 respectively 100% increases in their arithmetic mean strength compared to as-received float glass. Furthermore, a series of samples containing drilled holes were studied in order to investigate the effect of single-side ion exchange on such common construction elements. The samples that contained drilled holes were ion exchanged at 450°C and showed around 140% increase of the fracture load compared to the untreated samples containing drilled holes. As a general observation, the ion exchange treatment induced ~110 MPa compressive stresses (515°C) and ~180 MPa compressive stresses (450°C). The ion exchanged samples showed no significant increase in stiffness. 

Keywords
Float glass, Ion exchange, Flexural strength, Coaxial double ring-test
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18449 (URN)000318753100002 ()2-s2.0-84881146304 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-04-26 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B. & Wondraczek, L. (2012). Copper colouration of the surface of float glass by ion exchange. Paper presented at 11th European Society of Glass Science and Technology conference together with 86th Glastechnische Tagung der Deutsche Glastechnischen Gesellschaft and the Annual Meeting of the International Commission on Glass, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 3rd-6th June, 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copper colouration of the surface of float glass by ion exchange
2012 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21802 (URN)
Conference
11th European Society of Glass Science and Technology conference together with 86th Glastechnische Tagung der Deutsche Glastechnischen Gesellschaft and the Annual Meeting of the International Commission on Glass, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 3rd-6th June, 2012
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-10-18Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B. & Wondraczek, L. (2012). Copper, silver, rubidium and caesium ion exchange in soda-lime-silicate float glass by direct deposition and in line melting of salt pastes. European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, 53(1), 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Copper, silver, rubidium and caesium ion exchange in soda-lime-silicate float glass by direct deposition and in line melting of salt pastes
2012 (English)In: European Journal of Glass Science and Technology. Part A: Glass Technology, ISSN 1753-3546, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report the change of surface composition on commercial soda-lime-silica (SLS) float glass which results from single-side exchange of Na+ by Cu+, Ag+, Rb+ and Cs+, respectively. Ion exchange is achieved by in line melting of a directly deposited salt paste in a prolonged annealing procedure. Concentration profiles obtained and computed effective diffusion coefficients, as well as apparent activation energies for diffusion, are reported. Depending on exchange species, treatment time and treatment temperature, the penetration depths are in the range of 10-20 μm for K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. A penetration depth of >100 μm can readily be obtained for Ag+.

Keywords
Ion exchange, surface analysis, diffusion, concentration profile, float glass, monovalent cations
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17922 (URN)
Available from: 2012-03-07 Created: 2012-03-07 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2012). Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modification of Float Glass Surfaces by Ion Exchange
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass is a common material in each person’s life, e.g. drinking vessels, windows, displays, insulation and optical fibres. By modifying the glass surface it is possible to change the performance of the entire glass object, generally known as Surface Engineering. Ion exchange is a convenient technique to modify the glass surface composition and its properties, e.g. optical, mechanical, electrical and chemical properties, without ruining the surface finish of the glass.

 

This thesis reports the findings of two different research tasks; characterisation of the single-side ion exchange process and the novel properties induced. The characterisation of the ion exchange process was mainly performed by utilising a novel analytical equipment: the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), allowing continuous removal of the flat glass surface by controlled isotropic dissolution. SAC-AAS has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of float glass ion exchanged with K+, Cu+, Rb+ and Cs+. In addition, SEM-EDX has provided concentration vs. depth profiles of Ag+ ion exchanged samples and validation of a copper concentration vs. depth profile. From the concentration vs. depth profiles, the effective diffusion coefficients and activation energies of the ion exchange processes have been calculated. Depending on the treatment time and treatment temperature, penetration depths in the range of 5-10 μm (Rb+, Cs+), 20-30 μm (K+, Cu+) and 80-100 μm (Ag+) can be readily obtained. The effective diffusion coefficients followed the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+. This is in accordance with the ionic radii for the alkali ions (K+<Rb+<Cs+) but reverse for the noble metal ions (Cu+<Ag+).

 

The glass properties modified by single-side ion exchange have mainly been characterised by UV-VIS spectroscopy and flexural strength measurements. Cu+ and Ag+ ion exchange give rise to surface colouration, Cu+ copper-ruby and Ag+ yellow/amber. The surface-ruby colouration was found to depend on the residual tin ions in the tin-side of the float glass. The flexural strength was studied using the coaxial double ring-test method which also was suitable for holed specimens. The flexural strength of K+ ion exchanged float glass samples was found to substantially increase compared to untreated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö, Kalmar: Linnaeus University Press, 2012. p. 176
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 89/2012
Keywords
Ion exchange, float glass, surface modification, surface colour, flexural strength
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-18447 (URN)978-91-86983-62-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-06-14, Sal Myrdal, Hus K, Växjö, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-05-09 Created: 2012-04-23 Last updated: 2012-05-09Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B., Johansson, M. & Enquist, B. (2012). Single-Side Ion Exchange Strengthening of Holed Float Glass. In: Nordic Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology. Paper presented at Nordic Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology, Roskilde, Denmark, 6-7th of December 2012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Single-Side Ion Exchange Strengthening of Holed Float Glass
2012 (English)In: Nordic Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology, 2012Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fracture strength of oxide glasses is to a large degree influenced by other factors than the inherent strength of the bonds in the vitreous network such as surface defects. Due to the brittle nature of glass, mechanical processing decreases the strength substantially. The aim of this study was to investigate ion exchange strengthening also known as chemical strengthening of commercially available mechanically processed soda-lime-silicate float glass and to compare it with as-received float glass by means of flexural fracture load. The dimensions of the samples were 66±2 x 66±2 mm and two series had 7 mm diamond drilled holes in the centre of each sample while one series was as-received. Ion exchange of sodium ions by larger potassium ions were performed by treating the air-side of a series of samples with a KNO3:KCl mixture at 450 °C. The flexural fracture load of both untreated and ion exchanged holed samples was measured by means of the coaxial double ring test. The ion exchanged samples showed an arithmetic mean fracture load increase of approximately 140% compared to untreated holed float glass. The drilled hole decreases the arithmetic mean fracture load to approximately 25% of as-received float glass whilst the strengthening effect of the ion exchange improves it to around 65% of as-received float glass.

National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-22864 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology, Roskilde, Denmark, 6-7th of December 2012
Available from: 2012-12-13 Created: 2012-12-13 Last updated: 2016-04-27Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S., Jonson, B. & Wondraczek, L. (2011). Colouration of float glass by copper ion exchange. Paper presented at 85th Glastechnische Tagung der Deutsche Glastechnischen Gesellschaft, Saarbrücken, Germany, 30th May - 1st June, 2011.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Colouration of float glass by copper ion exchange
2011 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21801 (URN)
Conference
85th Glastechnische Tagung der Deutsche Glastechnischen Gesellschaft, Saarbrücken, Germany, 30th May - 1st June, 2011
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-10-18Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2010). Glass strengthening and ion exchange phenomena. Paper presented at 60th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Glass Technology (NGF), Kosta, Sweden, 26-28th September, 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glass strengthening and ion exchange phenomena
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21800 (URN)
Conference
60th Annual Meeting of the Scandinavian Society of Glass Technology (NGF), Kosta, Sweden, 26-28th September, 2010
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-10-16Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2010). Ion exchange of monovalent ions in float glass. Paper presented at Annual meeting of the Society of Glass Technology, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 8-10th September, 2010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion exchange of monovalent ions in float glass
2010 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-21799 (URN)
Conference
Annual meeting of the Society of Glass Technology, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 8-10th September, 2010
Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-25 Last updated: 2012-09-28Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, S. (2010). Ion exchange processes on float glass surfaces. (Licentiate dissertation). Växjö: School of Engineering, Linnaeus University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ion exchange processes on float glass surfaces
2010 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Glass can be strengthened by ion exchange and this process is presently used inspecial applications e.g. aircraft windshields, displays and spectacle lenses allowinga higher production cost. Chemically strengthened float glass is moreexpensive than thermally strengthenened, but will likely find applications in futurebuilding and interior constructions where strength demands, design andshape prevent the use of thermal strengthening. The aim of this work is tostudy ion exchange on float glass surfaces. In longer terms, the chemicalstrengthening is planned to be applied to specific critical area e.g. around adrilled hole which without treatment deteriorates the overall strength of theglass.Strengthening the glass through ion exchange can be done in several ways butis most often referred to as the replacement of smaller ions in the glass structureby larger ions from the salt used for treatment. By determining concentrationvs. depth profiles of ion exchanged float glasses, it is possible to calculate thediffusion coefficients and activation energy for different ions. In this study, theless frequently studied approach single-side ion exchange of different ions ofcommercial float glass is described. The concentration vs. depth profiles weredetermined either by the use of the Surface Ablation Cell (SAC), which allowsthe continuous removal of the material from a flat glass surface by slow controlledisotropic dissolution or SEM-EDX.The results of the work are that similar diffusivities and concentration vs. depthprofiles are achieved with single-side ion exchange as from the traditional wayof immersing glass in molten salt bath. Ion exchange of Ag+ stains the floatglass on both sides giving it a yellow or amber-brownish colour. Unlike Ag+ ionexchange of Cu+ stains the float glass on the tin-side only, giving it a yellow,red or red-brown colour. Determining the concentration vs. depth profiles ofion exchanged float glasses with the SAC was convenient except for Ag+ whichwas determined with SEM-EDX. The work confirms that the procedure andequipment of the SAC are very cheap, easy to use and gives data similar tothose gained by much more expensive equipment. Calculated diffusion coefficientsof K+, Ag+ and Rb+ are in accordance with literature data while Cu+ and Cs+ diffusion coefficients were slightly lower. The diffusion coefficients of the different ions follow the order Ag+>K+>Cu+>Rb+>Cs+ and ranges between9.4E-10 and 4.8E-13 cm2s-1. The calculated activation energies for diffusion of K+, Ag+ and Cu+ corresponds with reported literature data and were calculated to: Ag+(air-side) 152 kJ/mol, Ag+(tin-side) 185 kJ/mol, K+ 108 kJ/mol and Cu+115 kJ/mol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: School of Engineering, Linnaeus University, 2010. p. 70
Series
Rapporter: Institutionen för teknik, Linnéuniversitetet ; 1
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Glass Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-17336 (URN)978-91-86491-02-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2010-01-12, Södrasalen, Växjö, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-02-13 Created: 2012-02-07 Last updated: 2017-09-05Bibliographically approved
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