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Einvall, Jessica
Publications (10 of 19) Show all publications
Albertazzi, S., Basile, F., Barbera, D., Benito, P., Brandin, J., Einvall, J., . . . Vaccari, A. (2011). Deactivation of a Ni-Based Reforming Catalyst During the Upgrading of the Producer Gas, from Simulated to Real Conditions. Topics in catalysis, 54(10), 746-754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deactivation of a Ni-Based Reforming Catalyst During the Upgrading of the Producer Gas, from Simulated to Real Conditions
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2011 (English)In: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 746-754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deactivation of a nickel reforming catalyst during the upgrading of the producer gas obtained by gasification of lignocellulosic biomass was studied. The research involved several steps: the selective deactivation of the catalyst in a laboratory scale; the streaming of the catalyst with the producer gas of a downdraft and an oxygen/steam circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier; and tests in a reformer placed in a slipstream of the CFB gasifier. The information obtained allowed to elucidate the catalyst deactivation mechanisms taking place during the reforming of the producer gas: physical deactivation by deposition of fine ashes, aerosol particulate or carbon; poisoning by H2S and HCl present in the gas phase and thermal sintering because of the high operation temperatures required to avoid the chemical deactivation. These physical and chemical effects depended on the composition of the biomass fuel.

Keywords
Producer gas upgrading, Reforming, Ni catalyst, Deactivation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-13445 (URN)10.1007/s11244-011-9689-7 (DOI)
Projects
CHRISGAS
Available from: 2011-07-05 Created: 2011-07-05 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Einvall, J., Parsland, C., Benito, P., Basile, F. & Brandin, J. (2011). High temperature water-gas shift step in the production of clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(Supplement 1), S123-S131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High temperature water-gas shift step in the production of clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass
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2011 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. S123-S131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The possibility of using the water-gas shift (WGS) step for tuning the H2/CO-ratio in synthesis gas produced from gasified biomass has been investigated in the CHRISGAS (Clean Hydrogen Rich Synthesis Gas) project. The synthesis gas produced will contain contaminants such as H2S, NH3 and chloride components. As the most promising candidate FeCr catalyst, prepared in the laboratory, was tested. One part of the work was conducted in a laboratory set up with simulated gases and another part in real gases in the 100 kW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) gasifier at Delft University of Technology. Used catalysts from both tests have been characterized by XRD and N2 adsoption/desorption at −196 °C.

In the first part of the laboratory investigation a laboratory set up was built. The main gas mixture consisted of CO, CO2, H2, H2O and N2 with the possibility to add gas or water-soluble contaminants, like H2S, NH3 and HCl, in low concentration (0–3 dm3 m−3). The set up can be operated up to 2 MPa pressure at 200–600 °C and run un-attendant for 100 h or more. For the second part of the work a catalytic probe was developed that allowed exposure of the catalyst by inserting the probe into the flowing gas from gasified biomass.

The catalyst deactivates by two different causes. The initial deactivation is caused by the growth of the crystals in the active phase (magnetite) and the higher crystallinity the lower specific surface area. The second deactivation is caused by the presence of catalytic poisons in the gas, such as H2S, NH3 and chloride that block the active surface.

The catalyst subjected to sulphur poisoning shows decreased but stable activity. The activity shows strong decrease for the ammonia and HCl poisoned catalysts. It seems important to investigate the levels of these compounds before putting a FeCr based shift step in industrial operation. The activity also decreased after the catalysts had been exposed to gas from gasified biomass. The exposed catalysts are not re-activated by time on stream in the laboratory set up, which indicates that the decrease in CO2-ratio must be attributed to irreversible poisoning from compounds present in the gas from the gasifier.

It is most likely that the FeCr catalyst is suitable to be used in a high temperature shift step, for industrial production of synthesis gas from gasified biomass if sulphur is the only poison needed to be taken into account. The ammonia should be decomposed in the previous catalytic reformer step but the levels of volatile chloride in the gas at the shift step position are not known.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
Biomass gasification; Synthesis gas, Water-gas shift, FeCr catalyst, Catalyst poisons, Slipstreams
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-14060 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.04.052 (DOI)
Projects
CHRISGAS
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Basile, F., Albertazzi, S., Barbera, D., Benito, P., Einvall, J., Brandin, J., . . . Vaccari, A. (2011). Steam reforming of hot gas from gasified wood types and miscanthus biomass. Biomass and Bioenergy, 35(Supplement 1), S116-S122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steam reforming of hot gas from gasified wood types and miscanthus biomass
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2011 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no Supplement 1, p. S116-S122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The reforming of hot gas generated from biomass gasification and high temperature gas filtration was studied in order to reach the goal of the CHRISGAS project: a 60% of synthesis gas (as x(H2)+ x(CO) on a N2 and dry basis) in the exit gas, which can be converted either into H2 or fuels. A Ni-MgAl2O4 commercial-like catalyst was tested downstream the gasification of clean wood made of saw dust, waste wood and miscanthus as herbaceous biomass. The effect of the temperature and contact time on the hydrocarbon conversion as well as the characterization of the used catalysts was studied. Low (<600 °C), medium (750°C–900 °C) and high temperature (900°C–1050 °C) tests were carried out in order to study, respectively, the tar cracking, the lowest operating reformer temperature for clean biomass, the methane conversion achievable as function of the temperature and the catalyst deactivation. The results demonstrate the possibility to produce an enriched syngas by the upgrading of the gasification stream of woody biomass with low sulphur content. However, for miscanthusthe development of catalysts with an enhanced resistance to sulphur poison will be the key point in the process development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
Reforming downstream gasification; Biomass CFB gasification; Ni catalyst; Synthesis gas from wood and miscanthus; H2S and ash poisoning
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-14062 (URN)10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.06.047 (DOI)
Projects
CHRISGAS
Available from: 2011-09-09 Created: 2011-09-09 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Parsland, C., Einvall, J., Brandin, J., Benito, P., Albertazzi, S., Basile, F., . . . de Jong, W. (2010). Effect on Catalytic Activity and Stability of the Gas Coming from a Gasifier.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect on Catalytic Activity and Stability of the Gas Coming from a Gasifier
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2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This deliverable contains both laboratory experiments and experiments where the watergas-shift catalyst has been exposed to gas and particles generated by biomass gasification.The gasification experiments took place in the 100 kWth CFB gasifier at Delft University of Technology in Delft in July 2008 and in February and August 2009.

Publisher
p. 30
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-9220 (URN)
Projects
CHRISGAS
Available from: 2010-11-02 Created: 2010-11-02 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Parsland, C., Einvall, J. & Brandin, J. (2010). Scale-up and Assessment of Water Gas Shifts.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scale-up and Assessment of Water Gas Shifts
2010 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Synthesis gas consists of a mixture between hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water. This gas is normally generated by gasification of a carbon containing fuel, to be used as a feedstock for various synthesis processes. The actual composition of the gas depends on many different factors such as type of fuel, type of gasifier, mode of operation of the gasifier etc. The producer gas, i.e. the gas after the gasification step, usually need upgrading since it contains lower hydrocarbons and tars that needs to be converted. This upgrading, from producer gas into synthesis gas is done in the reformer step. The resulting synthesis gas is not necessarily suited for the subsequent synthesis step; it might need to be processed further. For instance the carbon dioxide level might need to be decreased and/or the hydrogen-carbon dioxide ratio to be adjusted. The water gas shift (WGS) process is the process where the ratio between hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the synthesis gas can be tuned.

Publisher
p. 11
National Category
Chemical Process Engineering
Research subject
Natural Science, Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-9221 (URN)
Available from: 2010-11-02 Created: 2010-11-02 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Albertazz, S., Basile, F., Brandin, J., Einvall, J., Fornasar, G., Hulteberg, C., . . . Vaccari, A. (2009). Pt/Rh/MgAl(O) Catalyst for the Upgrading of Biomass-Generated synthesis gases.. Energy & Fuels, 23(1), 573-579
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pt/Rh/MgAl(O) Catalyst for the Upgrading of Biomass-Generated synthesis gases.
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2009 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Natural Science, Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-7257 (URN)10.1021/ef800765e (DOI)
Available from: 2010-02-23 Created: 2010-02-23 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Brandin, J. & Einvall, J. (2008). Biomass to liquid fuels via gasification process: The CHRISGAS project. In: The 14th International Congress on Catalysis: Catalysis as the Pivotal Technology for the Future Society (pp. 122).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomass to liquid fuels via gasification process: The CHRISGAS project
2008 (English)In: The 14th International Congress on Catalysis: Catalysis as the Pivotal Technology for the Future Society, 2008, p. 122-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Research subject
Natural Science, Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-3752 (URN)ISBN 89-955266-5-1 93510 (ISBN)
Available from: 2009-01-07 Created: 2009-01-07 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Brandin, J., Einvall, J. & Sanati, M. (2008). Effect of fly ash and H2S on a Ni-based catalyst for the upgrading of a biomass-generated gas. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32(4), 345-353
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of fly ash and H2S on a Ni-based catalyst for the upgrading of a biomass-generated gas
2008 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 345-353Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2008
Research subject
Natural Science, Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-3677 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-08 Created: 2008-12-08 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
Larsson, A.-C., Einvall, J. & Sanati, M. (2007). Deactivation of SCR Catalysts by Exposure to Aerosol Particles of Potassium and Zinc Salts. Aerosol Science and Technology, 41(4), 369-379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deactivation of SCR Catalysts by Exposure to Aerosol Particles of Potassium and Zinc Salts
2007 (English)In: Aerosol Science and Technology, ISSN 0278-6826, E-ISSN 1521-7388, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Generated aerosol particle deposition has been applied in laboratory scale to induce deactivation of commercial Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts Of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 monolithic type. The monolithic catalyst has been exposed to the generated submicrometer particle of inorganic salts, KCl, K2SO4, and ZnCl2 at 200 degrees C in a tubular reactor. The generated particles have been deposited on the catalytic surfaces by utilization of an electrostatic field. Physical characterization of the generated aerosol particles were conducted by Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with and without catalyst in order to investigate the magnitude of the particle deposition. Particle charge distribution was also evaluated with a Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (TDMA) set up.

SCR is the most common method to commercially reduce NOx emissions from combustion processes. Catalyst lifetime is important for process economics and extending catalyst life can allow future strengthened emission legislation and diminished NOx emissions.

Verification of particle deposition has been conducted through comparison with catalyst samples exposed to commercial biomass combustion condition.

The reactivity of both fresh and exposed catalyst samples as well as commercially used samples was examined in SCR reaction and the methods of deposition as well as the influence of the different salts on catalytic performance have been explored.

Catalyst samples have been evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with respect to surface morphology of the catalyst material. The laboratory deactivated catalyst samples showed resemblance with the commercially exposed catalyst sample with respect to salts concentration and deposition of the salts particles. The obtained influence on catalyst activity was comparable with commercially obtained catalyst activity reductions at comparable potassium concentration levels.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Technology (byts ev till Engineering), Bioenergy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-4261 (URN)10.1080/02786820701203207 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Brandin, J., Einvall, J. & Sanati, M. (2007). Effects of fly ashes on Pt-Rh/MgAl(O) catalyst for the upgrading of the product gas from biomass gasification. In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (pp. 1197-1200).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of fly ashes on Pt-Rh/MgAl(O) catalyst for the upgrading of the product gas from biomass gasification
2007 (English)In: 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 2007, p. 1197-1200Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Research subject
Natural Science, Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-3130 (URN)3-936338-21-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2008-01-07 Created: 2008-01-07 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
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