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Williams, Richard A. J.
Publications (5 of 5) Show all publications
Williams, R. A. J., Owens, H. L., Clamp, J., Peterson, A. T., Warren, A. & Martin-Cereceda, M. (2018). Endemicity and climatic niche differentiation in three marine ciliated protists. Limnology and Oceanography, 63(6), 2727-2736
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endemicity and climatic niche differentiation in three marine ciliated protists
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2018 (English)In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2727-2736Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The biogeographic pattern of single-celled eukaryotes (protists), including ciliates, is poorly understood. Most marine species are believed to have a relatively high dispersal potential, such that both globally distributed and geographically isolated taxa exist. Primary occurrence data for three large, easily identified ciliate species, Parafavella gigantea, Schmidingerella serrata, and Zoothamnium pelagicum, and environmental data drawn from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's World Ocean Atlas were used to estimate each species' spatial and environmental distributions using Maxent v3.3.3k. The predictive power of the models was tested with a series of spatial stratification studies, which were evaluated using partial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) statistics. Differences between niches occupied by each taxon were evaluated using background similarity tests. All predictions showed significant ability to anticipate test points. The null hypotheses of niche similarity were rejected in all background similarity tests comparing the niches among the three species. This article provides the first quantitative assessment of environmental conditions associated with three species of ciliates and a first estimate of their spatial distributions in the North Atlantic, which can serve as a benchmark against which to document distributional shifts. These species follow consistent, predictable patterns related to climate and environmental biochemistry; the importance of climatic conditions as regards protist distributions is noteworthy considering the effects of global climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Aquatic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-79006 (URN)10.1002/lno.11003 (DOI)000450233300030 ()2-s2.0-85050815743 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Crafoord Foundation, 20160971;20170671
Note

Other funding agencies:Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad, Espanola (MINECO): CGL2013-40851-P/ BOS; U.S. National Science Foundation DEB 1136580

Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Williams, R. A. J., Tolf, C. & Waldenström, J. (2018). Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 9096.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular identification of papillomavirus in ducks
2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 9096Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Papillomaviruses infect many vertebrates, including birds. Persistent infections by some strains can cause malignant proliferation of cells (i.e. cancer), though more typically infections cause benign tumours, or may be completely subclinical. Sometimes extensive, persistent tumours are recorded-notably in chaffinches and humans. In 2016, a novel papillomavirus genotype was characterized from a duck faecal microbiome, in Bhopal, India; the sixth papillomavirus genotype from birds. Prompted by this finding, we screened 160 cloacal swabs and 968 faecal samples collected from 299 ducks sampled at Ottenby Bird Observatory, Sweden in 2015, using a newly designed real-time PCR. Twenty one samples (1.9%) from six individuals (2%) were positive. Eighteen sequences were identical to the published genotype, duck papillomavirus 1. One additional novel genotype was recovered from three samples. Both genotypes were recovered from a wild strain domestic mallard that was infected for more than 60 days with each genotype. All positive individuals were adult (P = 0.004). Significantly more positive samples were detected from swabs than faecal samples (P < 0.0001). Sample type data suggests transmission may be via direct contact, and only infrequently, via the oral-faecal route. Infection in only adult birds supports the hypothesis that this virus is sexually transmitted, though more work is required to verify this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76872 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-27373-6 (DOI)000435338100011 ()29904122 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85048835779 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-17 Created: 2018-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Truchado, D. A., Williams, R. A. J. & Benitez, L. (2018). Natural history of avian papillomaviruses. Virus Research, 252, 58-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Natural history of avian papillomaviruses
2018 (English)In: Virus Research, ISSN 0168-1702, E-ISSN 1872-7492, Vol. 252, p. 58-67Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Papillomaviruses (Family: Papillomaviridae) are small non-enveloped viruses that cause skin and mucosa infections in diverse vertebrates. The vast majority have been detected in mammals. However, the number of papillomaviruses described in birds is growing, especially because of metagenomic studies. Seven complete genomes and one partial sequence have been described, corresponding to five papillomavirus genera. These have been detected from various sample types, including skin, internal epithelium, and faecal material, from seven highly diverse wild and captive avian species. This review summarizes the molecular epidemiology of avian papillomaviruses, their genomic organization, evolutionary history and diagnostic techniques used for detection. The most commonly detected avian papillomavirus lesions are cauliflower-shaped papillomas, or warts, found on the tarsus and digits of common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) and occasionally brambling (Fringilla montifringilla). Similar warty growths have been detected in African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) and northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), on the head and the foot, respectively. Papillomavirus has also been detected in avian tissue with no apparent lesions, similar to findings in humans and other mammals. Papillomavirus involvement was initially suspected to cause other types of lesions, such as internal papillomatosis of parrots (IPP) and proliferative pododermatitis in waterfowl. However, determined efforts failed to demonstrate papillomavirus presence. We briefly describe avian papillomavirus genomic organization and viral gene diversity. Furthermore, we performed a detailed analysis of avian papillomavirus non-coding regions and a preliminary computational analysis of their E9 proteins.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Avian papillomavirus, Epidemiology, Genotypes, Papillomatosis, Bird hosts
National Category
Microbiology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-76950 (URN)10.1016/j.virusres.2018.05.014 (DOI)000437067200008 ()29778701 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047268250 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-19 Created: 2018-07-19 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Lawson, B., Robinson, R. A., Fernandez, J.-R. R., John, S. K., Benitez, L., Tolf, C., . . . Williams, R. A. J. (2018). Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 14670.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatio-temporal dynamics and aetiology of proliferative leg skin lesions in wild British finches
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 14670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Proliferative leg skin lesions have been described in wild finches in Europe although there have been no large-scale studies of their aetiology or epizootiology to date. Firstly, disease surveillance, utilising public reporting of observations of live wild finches was conducted in Great Britain (GB) and showed proliferative leg skin lesions in chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) to be widespread. Seasonal variation was observed, with a peak during the winter months. Secondly, pathological investigations were performed on a sample of 39 chaffinches, four bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), one greenfinch (Chloris chloris) and one goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) with proliferative leg skin lesions and detected Cnemidocoptes sp. mites in 91% (41/45) of affected finches and from all species examined. Fringilla coelebs papillomavirus (FcPV1) PCR was positive in 74% (23/31) of birds tested: a 394 base pair sequence was derived from 20 of these birds, from all examined species, with 100% identity to reference genomes. Both mites and FcPV1 DNA were detected in 71% (20/28) of birds tested for both pathogens. Histopathological examination of lesions did not discriminate the relative importance of mite or FcPV1 infection as their cause. Development of techniques to localise FcPV1 within lesions is required to elucidate the pathological significance of FcPV1 DNA detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Zoology
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-78461 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-32255-y (DOI)000446854300001 ()30305642 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054775152 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Ruiz-Martinez, J., Ferraguti, M., Figuerola, J., Martinez-de la Puente, J., Williams, R. A. J., Herrera-Duenas, A., . . . Benitez, L. (2016). Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain. PLoS ONE, 11(12), Article ID e0168690.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 12, article id e0168690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3.2% of 2,341 house sparrows visually examined in southern Spain had cutaneous lesions consistent with avian pox. A similar prevalence (3%) was found in 338 birds from central Spain. Prevalence was higher in hatch-year birds than in adults. We did not detect any clear spatial or temporal patterns of APV distribution. Molecular analyses of poxvirus-like lesions revealed that 63% of the samples were positive. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of 29 DNA sequences from the fpv167 gene, detected two strains belonging to the canarypox clade (subclades B1 and B2) previously found in Spain. One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV strain has been identified in a limited number of species in the Iberian Peninsula, Morocco and Hungary. The second one has a global distribution and has been found in numerous wild bird species around the world. To our knowledge, this represents the largest study of avian poxvirus disease in the broadly distributed house sparrow and strongly supports the findings that Avipox prevalence in this species in South and central Spain is moderate and the genetic diversity low.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Ecology, Zoonotic Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-61147 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0168690 (DOI)000392843200082 ()28005936 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85007296549 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-03-08 Created: 2017-03-08 Last updated: 2018-10-24Bibliographically approved
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