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Pettersson, K., Ahl, H., Berglund, K. & Tillmar, M. (2017). In the name of women?: Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 33(1), 50-63
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In the name of women?: Feminist readings of policies for women's entrepreneurship in Scandinavia
2017 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 50-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Policy actors seeking to stimulate entrepreneurship sometimes give special attention to women. It is not given, however, that policy initiatives for women entrepreneurs necessarily contribute to gender equality, to social change for women - such as enhancing entrepreneurship as a means to women's wellbeing and financial or other independence - or to gendered change of society. We claim that the outcomes depend on the premises behind the policies. The purpose of this paper is to conduct an analysis of the feminist approaches that are taken in policies for women's entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian countries. We analyse how these policies argue for women's entrepreneurship, how they position women, and what assumptions they hold with respect to women and their businesses. We analyse and compare state-level polices that have been implemented by the national governments in three Scandinavian countries; Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, during the period 2005-2015. A comprehensive analytical tool, building on six different feminist theoretical approaches, is developed. We find that, even if a liberal feminist perspective is present, along with elements of other feminist approaches, polices give precedence to economic growth in a non-feminist fashion. Over time, economic growth becomes the key focus, while feminist approaches are silenced. We observe that, in the name of supporting women, the actual aim of policies for women entrepreneurs often seems to be economic growth, and women are seen merely as an untapped, and yet not fully adequate, resource. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Feminist approach, Women, Entrepreneurship policy, Scandinavia
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64201 (URN)10.1016/j.scaman.2017.01.002 (DOI)000397698700005 ()
Available from: 2017-05-23 Created: 2017-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Ahl, H., Berglund, K., Pettersson, K. & Tillmar, M. (2016). From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(2), 369-392
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From feminism to FemiInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state.
2016 (English)In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, ISSN 1554-7191, E-ISSN 1555-1938, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 369-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Feminism in the Nordic countries was primarily formulated in terms of ‘state feminism’. The women’s movement cooperated with feminist government officials and politicians, resulting in societies that can be considered to be the most gender-equal societies in the world. Historically, the state provided for a large publicly-financed welfare sector which made it possible for many women to combine work and family through the state’s implementation of family-friendly policies, while simultaneously providing employment opportunities for many women. However, since the financial crisis of the 1990s, there has been a political change influenced by neo-liberal thought, in which politicians have handed over the welfare state’s responsibilities to the market, and, instead, the politicians have encouraged entrepreneurship, not least among women. Further to this development, there has been a change in emphasis from entrepreneurship (understood as starting and running a business) to entrepreneurialism which, in addition to a belief in the efficacy of market forces, also contains a social dimension where individuals are supposed to be flexible and exercise choice. In this article, we ask whether this entails a change in the feminist project in the Nordic countries, and if so, what the likely consequences are for this project, both in practice and in research. In order to answer this question, we reviewed existing Nordic research on women’s entrepreneurship and examined how this body of work conceptualizes entrepreneurship, gender, the state, and equality. We also considered whether any trends could be identified. We relate our findings to recent changes in government policy and conclude that the current discourse on entrepreneurship challenges, and possibly weakens, state feminism, but we also conclude that this discourse may also provide space for new forms of feminist action, in market terms. We coin the term FemInc.ism to denote feminist action through enterprise and we discuss a number of important challenges that research on this phenomenon is faced with.

Keyword
Women’s entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship policy, Entrepreneurialism, Gender, State feminism, FemInc.ism
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64136 (URN)10.1007/s11365-014-0341-4 (DOI)000376095900003 ()
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Tillmar, M. (2016). Gendering of commercial justice: experience of self-employed women in urban Tanzania. Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, 10(1), 101-122
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gendering of commercial justice: experience of self-employed women in urban Tanzania
2016 (English)In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 101-122Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose– Women’s entrepreneurship is often seen as the solution of both economic growth and gender equality. This is despite academic knowledge of the gendered preconditions for entrepreneurship in many contexts. This paper aims to focus on the gendering of commercial justice, a precondition for entrepreneurship. Informed by gender perspectives on women’s entrepreneurship and previous studies on commercial justice in East Africa, this paper sets out to explore the experiences of urban women entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach– The paper is based on an interview study with women entrepreneurs and representatives of support organizations in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The interviews were conducted in Kiswahili, and access was enabled through dialogues with local partner organizations such as the Tanzanian Chamber of Commerce.

Findings– Findings are that with formal legal rights, the informal institutions imply that the marital status of the women, and the attitude of their husbands, is the overarching determinants for the commercial justice perceived as available to them. This has implication for many policy areas, such as entrepreneurship support, women’s empowerment and labour market policy. Theoretically, the findings highlight the importance of studying the informal institutions affecting women’s entrepreneurship around the globe. Concerning commercial justice in particular, three dimensions of gendering are identified.

Research limitations/implications– The paper is based on a qualitative interview study. Further studies with varying methods are needed to further explore the gendering of commercial justice in Tanzania, East Africa and beyond.

Practical implications– A major practical implication of the study is the insight that business for development, will not automatically lead to business for equality, on a general level. The gender bias is also reproduced in everyday business life, for example, thorough access to commercial justice. Special measures to target the gender equality issue are, therefore, necessary. Another implication of the findings regard the importance of Alternative Dispute Resolution initiatives, affordable to women small and medium enterprise-owners.

Originality/value– While other obstacles to women’s entrepreneurship in the developing contexts have been well explored, the gendering of perceived commercial justice has not received sufficient attention in previous studies. Studies applying a gender theoretical perspective on entrepreneurship in the explored context are still needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016
Keyword
Gender, Entrepreneurship, Justice, East Africa, Development, Cooperation
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64090 (URN)10.1108/JEC-01-2016-0004 (DOI)
Projects
Gendering Commercial Justice
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilVINNOVA
Available from: 2017-05-21 Created: 2017-05-21 Last updated: 2017-06-01Bibliographically approved
Tillmar, M. (2016). Self-employed women's everyday innovations in East Africa (1ed.). In: Gry Agnete Alsos, Ulla Hytti & Elisabet Ljunggren (Ed.), Research handbook on gender and innovation: (pp. 91-106). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-employed women's everyday innovations in East Africa
2016 (English)In: Research handbook on gender and innovation / [ed] Gry Agnete Alsos, Ulla Hytti & Elisabet Ljunggren, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 1, p. 91-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Ledarskap, entreprenörskap och organisation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64092 (URN)178347811X (ISBN)9781783478118 (ISBN)
Projects
Gendering commercial justice
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-05-21 Created: 2017-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Tillmar, M. (2016). The gendered contextualization of SME cooperation in urban East Africa (1ed.). In: Christina Diaz-Garcia, Candida G. Brush, Elisabeth J. Gatewood & Friederike Welter (Ed.), Women's entrepreneurship in global and local context: (pp. 105-123). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The gendered contextualization of SME cooperation in urban East Africa
2016 (English)In: Women's entrepreneurship in global and local context / [ed] Christina Diaz-Garcia, Candida G. Brush, Elisabeth J. Gatewood & Friederike Welter, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, 1, p. 105-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016 Edition: 1
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64093 (URN)9781784717414 (ISBN)178471741X (ISBN)
Projects
Gendering Commerical Justice
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilVINNOVASida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2017-05-21 Created: 2017-05-21 Last updated: 2017-11-22Bibliographically approved
Tillmar, M. (2016). The lack of business dispute resolution in Africa: an unresolved impediment to SME development? (1ed.). In: Leona Achtenhagen & Ethel Brundin (Ed.), Entrepreneurship and SME management across Africa: context, challenges, cases (pp. 51-64). Singapore: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The lack of business dispute resolution in Africa: an unresolved impediment to SME development?
2016 (English)In: Entrepreneurship and SME management across Africa: context, challenges, cases / [ed] Leona Achtenhagen & Ethel Brundin, Singapore: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 51-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurship and SME development are often seen as a route to increased employment and economic growth in developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Impediments such as lack of access to finance, the need for entrepreneurial attitudes, and training have been well explored as have been institutional constraints like corruption in the countries. This chapter explores the consequences of an institutional situation on SME development, focusing on the issue of business disputes and possibilities for their resolution. The chapter builds on 60 interviews with micro- and small-business owners in the urban centers of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The findings have implications for concrete business support activities as well as policymaking for entrepreneurship and development in different African countries.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Series
Frontiers in African Business Research, ISSN 2367-1033
Keyword
SME, Dispute, Trust, Institutions, Gender, Inter-organizational relationships, East Africa
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Ledarskap, entreprenörskap och organisation; Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64091 (URN)10.1007/978-981-10-1727-8_4 (DOI)9789811017278 (ISBN)9789811017254 (ISBN)
Projects
Gendering small business disputes
Funder
VINNOVASwedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-05-21 Created: 2017-05-21 Last updated: 2017-06-01Bibliographically approved
Högberg, L., Sundin, E. & Tillmar, M. (2015). New forms of organization: new ways to organize. In: Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar (Ed.), Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices (pp. 169-184). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New forms of organization: new ways to organize
2015 (English)In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 169-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Organizations are central to our way of organizing society and understanding the phenomenon of organizing within and between organizations is hence important. In this chapter we focus on dimensions of mobility in efforts at organizing within and between organizations as well as between sectors. It is argued that the public sector is a good place to start if one wants to capture facets of contemporary society, as an understanding of the changes taking place in the public sector is also a means of grasping the increasing hybridisation of organizations taking place also in private and third sectors. In our analysis we highlight examples of intraorganizational, interorganizational and intersectoral organizing and how mobility can be a tool and a goal, as well as a problem and a solution. When it comes to gender, however, the striking image is one of immobility rather than mobility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
Keyword
Business and management, management and sustainability, organisational innovation, organisation studies
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64183 (URN)10.4337/9781784716899.00016 (DOI)000374407200011 ()9781784716882 (ISBN)9781784716899 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2018-01-24Bibliographically approved
Johannisson, B., Johansson, A. W., Sundin, E., Berglund, K., Rosell, E., Schwartz, B., . . . Tillmar, M. (2015). Organizing Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Sector Challenge (1ed.). In: Paula Kyrö (Ed.), Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research: (pp. 130-154). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizing Societal Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Sector Challenge
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2015 (English)In: Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research / [ed] Paula Kyrö, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 130-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Allying and expanding the diverse fields of entrepreneurship and sustainable development research is a modern day imperative. The Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development Research cuts through the different approaches and perspectives of the two fields to point the way ahead for research on sustainable entrepreneurship, outlining the motivation, intentions and impact of ecopreneurs in a local, national and global context.

This Handbook paints an illuminating picture of the historic and current understanding of the bond between entrepreneurship and sustainable development. The authors explore the basic contradictions between the two fields and outline the transformative role entrepreneurship can play in achieving sustainable development. 45 expert researchers and their research communities from 16 countries across Europe, Africa, Australia and North America provide original and informative contributions on a variety of issues, from women’s empowerment to climate change and organic farmers to ecotourism.

With current and authorative contributions spanning the globe, this Handbook will inspire researchers, teachers and policy-makers to compose their own understanding and contribution on the fast expanding field of entrepreneurship and sustainable development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015 Edition: 1
Series
Research Handbooks in Business and Management
Keyword
Socialt entreprenörskap, sektorslogik
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-40233 (URN)10.4337/9781849808248.00014 (DOI)2-s2.0-84958832661 (Scopus ID)9781849808231 (ISBN)9781849808248 (ISBN)
Projects
OSIS
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2015-02-18 Created: 2015-02-18 Last updated: 2018-05-18Bibliographically approved
Sköld, B. & Tillmar, M. (2015). Resilient gender order in entrepreneurship: the case of Swedish welfare industries. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 7(1), 2-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilient gender order in entrepreneurship: the case of Swedish welfare industries
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, E-ISSN 1756-6274, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 2-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to use quantitative empirical data to analyse the degree of resilience, as well as change or reproduction of the gender order, in the era of New Public Management. The propositions are constructed based on liberal- and socialist-feminist perspectives, and discussed in light of the empirical results.

Design/methodology/approach

We report from a longitudinal quantitative study of female-dominated welfare industries. Data, available from Statistics Sweden, include the total population of entrepreneurs available on the individual level. However, the level of analysis that was used in the study was in accordance with the industry level. Data were processed from an aggregated level to the most detailed level of classification.

Findings

The findings reveal resilience in the prevailing gender order. The order is being reproduced in the entrepreneurship context, in most of the industries that were studied.

Practical implications

The results may potentially have profound impact on entrepreneurship policy, equality policy and public sector restructuring.

Originality/value

This quantitative longitudinal study shows a complex pattern on the detailed industry level, which can be understood in terms of male gender labelling of entrepreneurship. The results thus support previous qualitative studies that have observed this phenomenon. Methodologically, this paper contributes to the field by showing that without breaking down the analysis into the different female-dominated industries on a five-digit level, the various results of the public sector reforms and the attendant gendered effects would not have been revealed.

Keyword
Gender theory, SME, Sweden, Womens entrepreneurship, Public sector, Feminist theory
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Economy, Business administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64147 (URN)10.1108/IJGE-09-2013-0057 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-05-13 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2017-11-07Bibliographically approved
Elg, M., Ellström, P.-E., Klofsten, M. & Tillmar, M. (2015). Sustainable development in organizations (1ed.). In: Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten & Malin Tillmar (Ed.), Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices (pp. 1-15). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable development in organizations
2015 (English)In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten & Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, 1, p. 1-15Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015 Edition: 1
Keyword
Organizational change, Learning, Sustainable development, Cooperation, Active ownership, Ongoing evaluation
National Category
Work Sciences Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-64182 (URN)10.4337/9781784716899.00006 (DOI)000374407200001 ()9781784716882 (ISBN)9781784716899 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-12-01 Created: 2017-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0130-4407

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